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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月23日 20:12:15
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Why Do Golf Balls Have Dimples?为何高尔夫球上有小窝?Youre out on the golf course one pleasant afternoon. Your ball is set on the tee. You lean over the ball. You grip the club just right.在一个舒适的下午,你站在高尔夫球场上。把球在球托上放好,身体倾斜到球的上方,握好球杆。Your arms are straight. Your stance perfect. Whoosh! You swing, and the ball takes off toward the green, sailing in a beautiful arc–almost as if its weightless.你的胳膊绷直,姿势完美。呼地一声!你挥杆了,高尔夫球飞了起来,奔向绿地,划出一道优美的弧线,轻盈得似乎没有重量。Your impeccable technique certainly has a lot to do with the success of that drive, but you got a major assist from the little dimples on the golf ball–and theyre the subject of this Moment of Science.这一杆的成功当然和你完美的技术密不可分,但高尔夫球上的那些小窝也帮了你的大忙-它们就是本期《科学一刻》的主题。Combined with the proper spin, the dimples help keep the ball in the air longer, and heres how.如果加上适当的旋转,这些小窝可以帮助高尔夫球在空中停留更长时间,原因如下。Your picture-perfect swing puts backspin on the ball. The dimples trap a layer of air next to the ball, and this layer spins with the ball.你完美的挥杆动作使球向后旋转。球上的小窝吸附了周围薄薄的一层空气,这层空气会与球一块旋转。The air being dragged across the top of the spinning ball moves in the same direction as the air thats rushing past. As the air spinning with the ball comes around the bottom it is moving in the opposite direction from the air on top, and therefore against the onrushing air. Consequently its slower than the air on top.球所吸附的这层空气转到球的上方时,它的运动方向与周围空气流动方向一致。而这层空气到球下方的时候,它的运动方向与上方空气相反,因此与周围气流相抵。这样就使得下方的空气的速度比上方的要慢。A slow moving air stream has higher pressure than a fast moving air stream. So, the higher pressure on the bottom of the ball is going to hold the ball up longer.速度慢的气流压强较大,速度快的气流压强较小。因此,球底部较高的气压可以把球向上托使它在空中驻留更长时间。The effect of the dimples is so significant that a drive of two-hundred yards hit with a dimpled golf ball, would be shortened with a non-dimpled ball to about one hundred yards.这些小窝的作用是十分重要的,同样的一杆,如果可以把有小窝的高尔夫球击出200码,那它只能把没有小窝的球击出大约100码。 /201207/189508

SleepOn, Sneeze Not睡觉的时候不会打喷嚏The signs are unmistakable: the eyes water, the chest heaves, the nose twitches,the body tenses, suspense builds until finally a sneeze blasts forth, concludingthe drama. Its a momentarily paralyzing experience that can seize one atalmost any time.眼睛湿润,胸部隆起,鼻子一阵抽搐,身体紧绷,(身体)就这样待定着,到最后一个喷嚏响起,像是演了一出戏剧!这使得人的身体短暂麻痹,它几乎可以在任何时间让一个人给紧缩。Buttry and recall if youve ever been jarred out of a peaceful sleep by an explosive sneeze. Chances are you cant, because, thankfully, we dont sneeze while we sleep. To understand why, first we need to know why we sneeze whilewe’re awake.但是,试想你曾经有过在安详的睡眠中被一个突然的喷嚏给震醒的情况吗?你是不会有的,因为很庆幸,我们在睡觉的时候不会打喷嚏。要理解其原因,我们首先需要了解为什么我们会在醒的时候打喷嚏。Sneezing is a reflex, which means that its an uncontrollable physical response to anoutside stimulus. When something, say a piece of dust or a strong odor,stimulates nerve endings in the lining of the nose, the stimulus travels to the central nervous system and is then routed back to the muscles of the face,throat, and chest.打喷嚏是一种反射,也就是说它是一种生理对外界环境的反应,不可控制。有时候,像一颗尘埃或一股强烈的味道刺激了鼻子里的神经末梢,这个刺激就会到达中枢神经系统,继而再返回到脸部、喉咙和胸部的肌肉。Once stimulated, these muscles go to work and cause us to forcefully expel air fromthe mouth and nose. Or, in other words, we sneeze.这些肌肉一旦被刺激,它们就会运动,导致我们强有力的排出口腔和鼻子里面的空气。或者,换句话说就是打喷嚏。Becausethe nose lining tends to swell when we lie down, making it even more sensitive to sneeze-causing particles, it would seem that sneezing would be likely duringsleep.因为在我们躺下的时候,鼻子里面部分趋于隆起,这使得它对引起打喷嚏的微小颗粒更加敏感。这样看来,似乎在睡觉的时候更容易打喷嚏。However,since there is little airflow in most bedrooms at night, and little movement tostir up dust and other particles, the nose is not bombarded by as many foreign particles as it is during the day.然而,由于我们的卧房里在晚上几乎没有空气流动,也没有什么运动会扬起灰尘及其它微粒,所以就不会有像白天那么多外界微粒来刺激我们的鼻子。Furthermore,the area of the brain responsible for the sneeze reflex relaxes while we sleep.So, even when a particle does touch the nose lining, the brain doesnt notice,and we dont sneeze.而且,当我们睡觉的时候,脑袋中负责打喷嚏反射的区域也休息了。所以,即使有微尘碰触了鼻子内部,大脑也没意识到,我们就不会打喷嚏。 /201212/213329

We live amongst 200 billion stars, in the Milky Way galaxy, a vast cosmic city. The earth is located in a quiet neighborhood, in a safe neck of the woods. But what if we could take our planets on a journey through the galaxy? What wonders would be see? What displays of power? What unimaginable forces? What exquisite beauty? What if we could travel through time and space to understand how our galaxy came to be and how it would end? What if we could travel on the ultimate cosmic trip and journey through the Milky Way?我们生活在系2000亿颗恒星其中一个广阔的宇宙的城市。地球坐落在这一地区安静的街区。但是如果我们的行星来一次穿越系的旅行如何?将会看到什么奇迹吗?会有什么不可思议的事情发生?有不可思议的力量吗?如果我们能穿越时间和空间来了解我们的星系的诞生和结束会怎样呢?如果我们可以穿越系来次最终宇宙旅行如何?Many of us live in large cities, cities which dazzle with millions of lights. But at night, those bright lights conceal something truly amazing. Turn them all off and we are greeted with the spectacular sight---a city in the sky.我们许多人都住在大城市,城市有数以百万计的眩光的灯。但是在晚上,那些明亮的灯光掩饰着令人叹为观止的景象。把灯全部关掉后,我们看到了;;一个壮观的天空之城。;What is this? Well, its the Milky Way. This is our galaxy. Well, if you like, you could think of the galaxy is a, a city of stars.;;这是什么?嗯,其实是。这是我们的星系。好吧,如果你愿意的话,你可以认为星系是一个,一个星星城市。;Our galaxy, the Milky Way, contains 200 billion stars, of which our sun is just one. Its a vast cosmic city waiting for us to explore.我们的星系,系,包含2000亿颗恒星,我们的太阳仅是其中一个。这是等着我们去探索的一个广阔的宇宙城市。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/172944

  

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  Its a familiar sight: youre driving along one of those long, dry stretches of highway in any of the southwestern states, and you keep coming across snakes that have been run over by cars. Why should snakes have worse luck with cars than any other desert animal does?很熟悉的一幕:当你驾车在西南各州沿着其中一条又长又干燥的高速公路行驶时,你会不断遇到被汽车碾压过的蛇。为什么蛇比其它野生动物更加不幸得成为了车轮的牺牲品呢?One reason is that snakes are cold-blooded—that is, their body temperature isnt maintained internally the way ours is, but fluctuates with the temperature of their environment.原因之一是蛇是冷血动物,这就意味着它的体温不会像人类一样保持恒温,而是随着环境的温度变化而变化。If you are cold-blooded and you live in the desert, you will find yourself getting very chilly at night, because sandy terrain does not hold heat very long after sunset. To get around this, snakes will often ;bask; on warm rocks; and they also seek hot places to help aid in their digestion. This, in fact, is true of any snake, no matter what part of the country you find them in.如果你是冷血动物,并且也住在荒漠,你会发现夜晚你的身体变得异常冰冷。因为日落后沙地不会长时间保持热度。为了解决这个问题,蛇类经常在温暖的岩石上“晒太阳”;它们也会寻找炎热的地方帮助消化。实际上任何蛇都是这样,不论是在国内哪个地方,都能找见它们。The deserts just make a particularly clear case exactly because they do get cold so fast at night, and snakes cant hide out in wooded or grassy areas. Now you can probably see the problem that comes when human beings enter into the picture. When we move into deserts, we build those long roads out of asphalt and other materials that retain heat long after the sun has gone down. Desert snakes come out to bask away the cold hours on these convenient stretches of warmth. And, well...that turns out to be a mistake.沙漠让情形变得更加特殊,因为在夜里蛇的体温降低过快,而且不能藏在树林或者草地里。现在你能想象到当人类进入荒漠会引起什么麻烦。人类进入荒漠,用沥青和其它可以在日落后长久保温的材料铺路。荒漠里的蛇跑出来在这块温暖的乐土上消磨寒冷的时光。然而,事实明这是错误的选择。原文译文属!201208/196990

  

  

  

  

  It might look like just another compact car.它看起来像另一款乘用车。What workers at Greatwall Automobile vehicle plant of Bulgaria are putting together, is Chinas foothold in the European market.中国长城汽车在保加利亚的汽车生产线已投入生产,厂里工人们正组装的车就是中国进军欧洲市场的立足点。Greatwall is the first Chinese auto-company to manufacture vehicles in the European Union.长城是中国第一家进入欧洲的自主车企。The stated yield plan is bringing new employment opportunity to the town of Lavage. Ivan Kusalarff is a team leader.这个木已沉舟的项目将会为洛维奇市带来新的就业机会。Ivan Kusalarff负责这个项目。He studied engineering in Sweden, but immediately jump that opportunity to help build auto-industry in his home country.他早年在瑞典修工程学,听说这个机会后,便立即回国投身兴建这项汽车产业。I wouldve probably stayed there if I havent heard about this career opportunity because its not just a job opportunity,如果没有碰到这个机会,我可能还呆在瑞典。在我看来,这不仅仅只是一个工作机会。most of us here for to a long-run, were not just here to buy some time, earn some money and then go home.大多数人来这里是从长远考虑,而不是为了消磨时光,赚点钱就回家。The plant is a joint-venture between Greatwall Motors, one of the Chinas largest auto-makers and Turks, Bulgarian industry company.这个汽车生产线由中国最大的汽车公司--长城汽车公司与保加利亚利特克斯公司合作建设。Greatwall recently started its production for now, its cars are available here in Bulgaria and Macedonia.该汽车组装厂已经正式投入生产,在保加利亚和马其顿的市场均有售。Very soon, they want to expand first southeast of Europe, and then to the entire continent.不久,长城汽车计划开拓东南欧市场,接着便是整个欧洲大陆市场。They hope to become a player in what is very competitive automobile markets.他们希望在这个竞争力强的汽车市场占有一席之地。Management acknowledges Greatwalls main selling point is the low price, but says that does not come the expense of quality.管理层了解长城汽车的主要卖点是价格低,也强调低价并不影响车的质量。We make fine products of great qualities, the marketing director says that I can ensure you that products we make are not inferior to those of other producers, European, Japanese, and others.市场总监说道,我们打造的是高品质的轿车。我向你们保,我们的汽车不会比产于欧洲,日本或其他任何地方的汽车档次低。The car plant is the most visible Chinese investment in Bulgaria, but not be only one, companies from China are investing in algricuture and red ruber energy here.这个汽车组装厂是中国在保加利亚造势最大的投资,但并不是唯一的,还有其它中国企业在这里投资农业和新型能源。But Bulgarian government says Chinese investment in the country increased by 40 million euros last year. Leading experts believe China sees Bulgaria as a gateway to the EU.保加利亚政府表示去年来自中国的投资金额增长了4000万欧元,在专家看来保加利亚是中国进军欧洲的大门。Not have political prejudice against emerging market ecomony because were emerging market economy.我们不会对新兴的市场经济怀有政治偏见,因为我们也注重发展新兴市场。So thats one big reason. And of course, in terms of labor cost, in terms of land price, energy prices in Bulgaria is the cheaper.这是很重要的一条原因。当然就运营成本而言,保加利亚的劳动成本,地价和能源成本较低。The workers at the Greatwall car plant want to prove they can produce quality at low cost.长城汽车生产线的工人想要明他们能够生产出性价比高的汽车。The future of this Chinese investment could depend on whether or not they succeed .他们的成败会决定中国企业在欧洲的未来。201205/181489

  

  Business TCS in America From Mumbai to the Midwest商业 塔塔在美国 从孟买到美国中西部Far from home, Tata Consultancy Services strives to move upmarket塔塔咨询务公司力争向高端市场转型DRIVE up the leafy Leadership Trail in Milford, Ohio and you reach what appears from the outside to be a luxury ski lodge.行驶在俄亥俄州米尔福德的领导路上,林木繁茂,而后到了一处外观奢华,看似是滑雪场的地方。Inside, large windows with forest views are a constant reminder of the surrounding American heartland.透着森林景象的窗景无时不刻的提醒来客您正置身于美国核心腹地。This is Tata Consultancy Services new American facility, a stark contrast to TCSs colonial-era headquarters overlooking sweltering cricket pitches in Mumbai.这是塔塔咨询务中心(以下简称塔塔)的新式美版设施,与以往看似闷热的板球场的不同,塔塔自殖民时期以来在孟买设立的总部有了明显变化。Bought in 2008, the Ohio facility is a symbol of TCSs efforts to polish its brand and move to higher-margin services.此处为塔塔在俄亥俄州的分部,购置于2008年,正是该公司擦亮招牌向高利润务业进军的标志。One reason for choosing Milford, a satellite of Cincinnati, was the proximity of Midwestern clients: ten Fortune 500 companies are based in Cincinnati alone.塔塔选址在辛辛那提的卫星城米尔福德的原因之一,是其距离中西部客户的地理优势:《财富》500强企业中就有10家驻扎在辛辛那提。Another is cost: it is one of the cheapest among Americas main cities and has plenty of land on its fringes.其二是成本问题:这是美国消费最低的大城市之一,且地区有很多闲置土地。A third reason for choosing Ohio is the presence of decent universities nearby.选址的原因之三是因为附近的高等学府。TCS set up shop in Milford not only to be closer to clients but to begin in earnest to hire American graduates.塔塔设分部在此不仅是为了接近消费者,也是渴求招募到美国的毕业生。Most of TCSs new coders in Ohio are fresh from the nearby universities of Kentucky, Cincinnati, Purdue, Ohio State and others.在俄亥俄州,塔塔新进的编程人员大多都来自于附近的肯塔基大学、辛辛那提大学、印第安纳州立大学和俄亥俄州立大学等等。They are cheaper than Ivy League graduates and TCS offers them interesting work with a booming company.他们的薪水要求相较于常春藤略低,而塔塔也以日益壮大的企业背景下为他们提供感兴趣的工作。The facility has 450 employees now, nearly all American, thanks to the difficulty of getting visas for Indians, and the plan is to increase their number to 1,000.由于印度来此的签困难,该分部现有 450名员工几乎都是美国人,而公司也计划将人员扩招到1000.They are a fraction of TCSs 215,000-strong workforce but represent the bridgehead of its ambitions to go beyond being merely an outsourced back-office and coding shop and take on such consultancy giants as IBM, Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Accenture on their home turf.这只占塔塔21万5千名员工的一部分,但显示出公司争取的不只做外包后勤或解码务,而是在客场迎战一些本土的咨询业务巨头,如IBM,惠普或是埃森哲。Having pleased clients with its work for them so far, TCS should have a decent chance at getting them to buy fancier and pricier services.塔塔一直以来都能满足客户需要,但仍需要恰当的实际让客户购买更吸引人也更昂贵的业务。David Johns, chief information officer at Owens Corning, a building-materials maker, is full of praise for TCS; his company has doubled its overall spending with the firm in recent years.建筑材料生产商欧文斯科宁的信息主管,大卫?约翰对塔塔评价很高,他的公司对近年已投入双倍的钱(购买塔塔的务)。Citigroup sold its India-based business-process unit to TCS, guaranteed it 5m annually in business for several years, and then proceeded to spend more than that.花旗集团将其在印度的业务板块出售给塔塔,并保近几年间每年付款27亿5千万美元,之后会投入的更多。However, Jagdish Rao, a technology chief at Citigroup, says most of the consulting work TCS has done so far has been on systems TCS had built or implemented itself.然而,花旗集团的技术主管加迪什?饶指出,塔塔的大部分咨询业务构架于自身建立或推行的制度之上。Tom Rodenhauser of Kennedy Information, which studies the consulting industry, agrees that it has yet to make a breakthrough in high-end work.肯尼迪信息公司研究咨询业的汤姆?罗德霍萨认同这一观点,指出塔塔有待于在高端市场中寻求突破。Although TCS is ;printing money; with its outsourcing business, he ;cant say with a straight face theyre doing great at consulting—theyre giving away what other companies charge for;, as a way of selling their legacy outsourcing services.尽管塔塔在外包产业中堪称;印钞机;,他;不能确定的说咨询业务也是他们的强项-这句完全不知道怎么翻囧;Amar Naga, the boss of the Milford facility, admits that consulting proper is so far just 2.6% of TCSs revenue.米勒福德分部的老板艾玛?纳迦承认咨询业务的业绩仅占公司总收入的2.6%。But it is growing more than twice as fast as the companys overall revenues, themselves still increasing at around 25% a year.但其增长速度是总收入(每年约增长25%)的两倍。Such eye-catching growth, combined with its reputation for high-quality work, suggests clients can be convinced that TCSs consultancy work is worth paying for.如此引人注目的增长速度,连同其高质量业务的名声,意味着客户可以相信塔塔的咨询业务是值得花钱购买的。For the American rivals it is planning to take on, TCS may so far be no more than a blip on the edge of their radar screens.就其即将面临的美国竞争对手而言,塔塔不过是他们雷达侦测屏边缘的一个小点。But as it pushes up into high-value consulting, several of them—such as IBM and HP—are trying to capture more work by moving downstream into TCSs traditional outsourcing territory.然而,塔塔正向高价值咨询界推进,诸如IBM和HP这几个对手已经顺势通过介入塔塔传统外包领域来争取更多的业务。When they meet in the middle it could be quite a fight.一旦狭路相逢,大战在所难免。 /201212/213873

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