楼主:久久中文 时间:2019年07月20日 16:32:36 点击:0 回复:0
Social Entrepreneurs:Pioneering Social Change社会企业家:改善社会的人I wanted to find a solution to a problem, and I wanted to do whatever it takes to end that problem.我想要找出问题的解答,我想要不计一切代价终结那个问题。In the mid-1970s, Bangladesh was wracked with poverty and famine. Greedy money lenders victimized local villagers who wanted to start small businesses. In one village, Muhammad Yunus counted forty-two people who needed just twenty-seven dollars to break out of poverty.在1970年代中期,孟加拉因贫困及饥荒受到重创。贪婪的放款人欺骗了想要开始做小生意的当地村民们。在一个村庄中,Muhammad Yunus计算出四十二个人需要仅仅二十七元就能脱离贫困。So then an idea came to my mind: if I give these twenty-seven dollars to all these forty-two people, they can return the money to the money lender, so they#39;ll be free. And that#39;s what exactly ended. And the happiness that they brought to them caught me in. And I ask myself the question: if you can make so many people so happy with such a small amount of money, why shouldn#39;t you do it more?接着有个想法从我脑中冒出:如果我拿这些二十七元给这些四十二个人,他们就可以把钱还给放款人,这样他们就能自由。而那正是这样结束的。它们带给他们的幸福吸引了我。我问自己这问题:如果你可以用这么一小笔的钱让这么多人如此快乐,为什么你不该多多益善?Since that first bet, the bank Muhammad Yunus started has made nearly five billion dollars in loans. It#39;s a model that has been copied all over the world, spawning a movement known as ;microfinance.;自从第一次的下注后,Muhammad Yunus所开办的已经借出将近五十亿元的贷款。这是个在世界各地都被复制的模式,育出一个运动,就是所知的“微型金融”。People are demonstrably better off in the world today by virtue of that simple insight. The small, unsecured loans can really make a difference.借由这个简单的见解,今日世人确实过得更好。这个小型、无担保的贷款真的可以有所影响。Microfinance during the past twenty-five years has demonstrated that millions and millions of people can participate in society in a normal way.在过去二十五年期间,微型金融明了数百万计的人们可以以正常方式参与社会。In 2006, Muhammad Yunus won the Nobel Peace Prize: testimony to the role of a new kind of change agent, the social entrepreneur.在2006年,Muhammad Yunus获得了诺贝尔和平奖:是对一种新型态的改革推手--社会企业家这角色的明。Social entrepreneurs like Muhammad Yunus see opportunities where other people see hopeless failures. They see potential where other people see tragic consequences. They see a future that others can#39;t even begin to imagine.像是Muhammad Yunus的社会企业家在其他人看到绝望失败之处看到机会。他们在别人看到的悲惨结果中看到潜力。他们看到其他人甚至无法开始想像的未来。In this moment in history, where government has, at least in some places, has failed to provide basic goods and services, the things that societies need to really allow individuals to thrive. Social entrepreneurs are tackling those really big problems: Problems that reach beyond microfinance, such as educational opportunity, children#39;s health, housing, clean water, climate change.在历史中的此刻,政府已经,至少在一些地方,政府已无法提供基本的商品及务、无法提供那些社会要真正让人们成功所需的东西。社会企业家正在解决那些非常重大的问题:超出微型金融以外的问题,像是教育机会、儿童健康、住家、干净水源、气候变迁。And the problem is if you look at what the current business, organizations and governments are doing in this sort of space, it really doesn#39;t add up to a coherent solution of the scale that we need. Therefore, I think entrepreneurs are going to be profoundly necessary, because here#39;s the people who used to break up the concrete.这问题是如果你看看现在的企业、组织及政府在这种空间里所做的事,它真的无法累积起来达到我们所需的那种规模的一致性解决方案。因此,我认为企业家会变得非常必要,因为这些是过去常打破固有想法的人。Most people have to see to believe, but I think that social entrepreneurs believe, and then they see. Social entrepreneurs have seen that end result before even got started.大多数人必须要眼见为凭,但我认为社会企业家们先相信,接着他们才看到。社会企业家甚至在他们开始之前就已看见最终结果。And they#39;ve done so all over the world. In Mozambique, Blaise Judja-Sato transformed health care by providing reliable medical services to millions of villagers who have never previously been reached. In India, Bunker Roy#39;s Barefoot College teaches people with no prior training to build and install solar electric technologies. And in the ed States, Dorothy Stoneman has shown how young people can change their lives and their communities through job training and education.而他们已在世界各地都做到了。在莫桑比克,Blaise Judja-Sato改善医疗照护,透过提供可靠的医疗务给数百万以前从未被接触过的村民们。在印度,Bunker Roy的赤脚学院教导没受过事先训练的人们建造及安装太阳能电力技术。在美国,Dorothy Stoneman已明年轻人可以怎么透过工作训练及教育改变他们的生活以及他们的社区。We had three hundred abandoned buildings in East Harlem where I lived. We had hundreds, maybe thousands of young people standing on the corners with nothing to do, and lots of homeless people. So I looked at that. I thought there#39;s something wrong with this picture. Someone should hire these young people to rebuild these buildings and create housing for the homeless people, and that#39;s what we set out to do.在我居住的East Harlem区有三百栋废弃的建筑。我们有数百个,也许数千个年轻人站在街角无所事事,还有许多无家可归的人。所以我看到这个。我想这个画面有些不对劲。有人需要雇用这些年轻人来重建这些建筑,并建造住家给这些无家可归的人,而这是我们正着手进行的事。What#39;s those powerful force you can bring to bear is a really big idea, but only if it#39;s in the hands of a really good entrepreneur, it#39;s not combination that changes the world.你能够运用的那股强大力量是个伟大的理念,但只有当它是在一个非常优秀的企业家手上,否则就不是个改变世界的组合。Today, thousands of social entrepreneurs are tackling a range of problems in all corners of the globe, but until recently, few of them saw themselves as part of a larger movement.今日,数千位社会企业家正在世界各个角落解决一系列的问题,但直到最近,他们之中很少人把自己看做是个较大型运动的一份子。Some twenty years ago, social entrepreneurs were working alone, fundamentally they had no idea many times that other social entrepreneur existed. They had an experience of essentially going against stream. Very hard. These are very tough people, but still, alone.在大约二十年前,社会企业家都孤军奋战,他们常常根本不知道有其他社会企业家存在。他们有本质上和趋势背道而行的经历。那非常困难。这些是非常坚韧的人们,但仍然,孤零零的一个人。I think social entrepreneurs have always existed, but because they haven#39;t always been defined as social entrepreneurs, because we#39;ve not always recognized them as such, they#39;ve had no collective identity. They have been lone pioneers.我认为社会企业家一直以来都存在,但因为他们并不老是被定义为社会企业家,因为我们并不总是认为他们是,所以他们没有共同的身分。他们都是孤独的先锋。And now what you see in the world are a whole framework of supports that are coming up, coalescing very very quickly to say, ;Hey, social entrepreneurship is very viable.;而今你们在世界上看到的是一整个拥护组织的出现,非常非常快速地联合起来说:“嘿,社会企业家是非常可行的。”Oxford recruits about three hundred highly talented MBA students each year. Students want to know how to change the world. They want to know how the skills they learn in business school can help them change the world.牛津每年大约招收三百位非常优秀的MBA学生。学生们想要知道怎么改变世界。他们想知道他们在商管学校学到的技能可以如何帮助他们改变世界。When you see social entrepreneurs, regardless of how many problems and challenges that they have, they don#39;t give up. They just push forward and they push forward, and that#39;s inspiring to me.当你看到社会企业家,不论他们有多少问题和挑战,他们都不放弃。他们就是奋勇前进,然后再奋勇前进,那对我来说非常激励人心。Today, Oxford is just one of the many universities teaching social entrepreneurship and providing homes where practicing entrepreneurs can meet and learn from each other.今天,牛津只是众多教授社会企业家精神、并提供执业企业家可相互见面学习根据地的大学之一。The point of supporting the social entrepreneurship movement is to create a home for those people to make them less maverick and more of a movement.持社会企业家精神运动的重点是要为那些人建立一个根据地,让他们较不必特立独行,且更能投入运动。The more we wire the field together from local to national to global means that ideas go from Bangladesh to the US and Brazil, Poland to South Africa. That wasn#39;t happening ten years ago. That#39;s a function of the increased productivity at the field.我们从当地、到全国、到全球所串接的领域越多,表示理念从孟加拉传到美国和巴西,从波兰传到南非。那不是十年前发生的。那是在这领域中增长的生产力的作用。I think the key thing that we have to come back to time and time again is these entrepreneurs cannot do this on their own. They need support. They need support from funders clearly, but they need strategic partnerships with that mainstream business, and they need the support of government and policymakers.我认为我们必须时不时地回顾的关键事情是这些企业家无法只靠自己完成这些事。他们需要持。他们很明显地需要投资者的持,但他们需要与主流企业的策略性伙伴关系,而且他们需要政府和决策者的持。What#39;s so exciting to be alive at this moment, as a social entrepreneur connected to thousands of social entrepreneurs around the globe, is that within all of us there#39;s this growing movement, and that there#39;s a hopefulness in starting to look at the problems we have as our problems.在这一刻活着最兴奋的事是,身为一位和世界各地数千位社会企业家联系的社会企业家,最兴奋的事是在我们所有人之中有这样一个不断成长的运动,还有在开始将我们拥有的问题当作我们的问题去看待时,所抱持的希望。My hope for the future is that by virtue of the stories that we tell about reasons for optimism, by virtue of the small pieces of success, we build some big pieces of success. Said in a decade#39;s time, we can say this movement began with one very demonstrable success story, and that was called microfinance. But very quickly it built to series of other success stories, and look at the effect they#39;ve had on the world.我对未来的希望是,凭借着我们所说的这些有关乐观理由的故事、凭借着小片的成功,我们拼出一些大片的成功。十年时间的阐述,我们可以说这个运动是以一个非常明显的成功故事开始的,而那叫做微型金融。但很快地它发展成一系列其他成功故事,然后看看那它们对世界带来的影响。 Article/201504/367975克瑞斯阿巴尼——人性的冥思 Article/201509/398082For example, over Europe.譬如 整个欧洲It is, indeed, true that when you reduce the ice确确实实 当冰川体积减小时that lets lots of heat out of the ocean, so in the Arctic,海洋中会释放很多能量 因此在北极you see several degrees of warming在大气层底部in the lower part of the atmosphere.温度确实上升了几度And there#39;s little doubt毫无疑问that it#39;s been getting warmer in the Arctic.北极确实正在变暖In the last ten years,过去的十年里the sea ice has reached record low levels.海冰的总体积已经下降至极低点According to the Met Office#39;s从英国气象局所建立的highly sophisticated computer models,极为复杂的计算机模型中可以看到a hotter Arctic doesn#39;t equal a warmer Britain.北极变暖并不意味着英国也会变暖That warming that#39;s happening北极变暖的同时over the Arctic is not seen over Europe.欧洲并没有随着一起变暖The reason for that is because导致这个现象的原因是the circulation changes, the wind changes.大气环流的变化 风的变化It turns out when you remove the Arctic ice,当冰川体积减小时and the winds become more easterly.风向会变的更偏东So the winds start to circulate from east to west around the Arctic因此北极的风向转为围绕着北极由东向西and south of the Arctic,并且开始影响北极以南and that dominates the response over Europe.这个风向则是决定欧洲气温变化的原因So instead of warming in the winter因此 在北极海冰减小的同时over Europe when the ice is depleted欧洲的冬季并不会变的更温暖we get cooling because we#39;re欧洲会变得更冷dragging the air from Siberia over northern Europe.因为西伯利亚的冷风被气流带到了北欧 Article/201411/339670

Professor Travis Pickering is travelling to northern Namibia特拉维斯·皮克林教授 远赴纳米比亚北部to meet some of the world#39;s most expert hunters.去拜访世界上最为专精的猎人By watching them in action, he hopes to get an insight通过观察他们的活动 特拉维斯·皮克林希望into how it is possible to carry out能够因此了解是否可能the complex business of hunting仅凭简单基本的器具using only basic weapons.就能完成复杂的狩猎活动I can#39;t wait to watch these people hunt tomorrow -我迫不及待的想见识他们明天怎么狩猎了it#39;s going to be a lot of fun.一定会十分有趣These are the Jut#39;want, which means ;Real people;.他们便是Jut#39;want ;真人;的意思Their remote position他们地处偏远means they have been relatively untouched by the 21st century.说明他们受现代社会影响较小In this society, there is no farming.这个社会里 没有农业Everything they eat comes from hunting and gathering.他们的食物都来自捕猎和采集Travis is meeting N#39;lao and his friends特拉维斯在劳和他的战友as they set out to catch an evening meal for their families.为准备全家的晚餐出发前相见 Article/201504/370804

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