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福州做第三代试管婴儿医院南平检查输卵管造影正规医院龙岩查生育那个医院最好 China’s politicians have legitimate historical reasons for expecting the industrialised West to take the lead on dealing with climate change. China is responsible for only 11% of past emissions while the West has flourished from centuries of burning fossil fuels.从历史角度看,中国官员们有理由期望已经高度工业化的西方带头解决气候变化问题。中国只占全球历史总排放量的11%,而西方已通过几个世纪的化石燃料使用实现了繁荣。However, China is now the main decider on the future global temperature and climate of the world, whether it likes it or not.然而,无论中国乐不乐意,它都已成为未来全球气温和气候的主要决定因素。UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon this week invites World Leaders to New York to break the deadlock on negotiating what to do about the international challenge of climate change. This is why my colleagues and I have published our latest annual update on the global carbon budget, to help focus minds. You can view the carbon budget like the housekeeping budget. How much carbon did all countries of the world last year spend, or emit to the atmosphere, and how much have we left to avoid dangerous climate change?联合国秘书长潘基文(Ban Ki-Moon)本周邀请世界各国领导人访问纽约,以期打破全球在应对气候变化问题上的谈判僵局。为此,我和我的同事们发布了最新的年度全球“碳排放预算”报告,希望能帮助大家厘清思路。你可以把“碳排放预算”想象成家庭开预算——全世界所有国家去年花掉了多少预算(或者说向大气中排放了多少二氧化碳)?若要避免危险的气候变化,还有多少预算可以花?We show that measured as CO2 pollution instead of GDP, China is the leading global industrialist. China is not a developing country. In 2013, China put 10 billion tonnes of CO2 pollution into the atmosphere, almost one third of global emissions.我们的报告显示,若不以国内生产总值(GDP)、而以二氧化碳污染量来衡量,中国已是全球主要的工业国家之一,而不再是“发展中国家”。2013年,中国向大气中排放了100亿吨二氧化碳,占全球总排放量的近三分之一。China has been the largest emitter of CO2 pollution since 2006 when it overtook the US. Emissions in China now exceed the combined emissions of the US and Europe. If trends continue along the current trajectory, by 2019 China’s emissions will overtake the US, Europe and India combined.中国的二氧化碳排放量在2006年超过美国,自那以来,中国一直是全球最大的碳排放国。中国的碳排放量如今已超过美国和欧洲的总和。按现在的趋势发展下去,到2019年,中国的碳排放量将超过美国、欧洲和印度的总和。With China’s per capita emissions now larger than those of Europeans and 45% above the world average, it is difficult to argue against a leadership role for China in solving the international stalemate in climate negotiations, even when considering its lower GDP and the fact that 16% of Chinese emissions are from goods manufactured for elsewhere.中国的人均碳排放量如今已超过欧洲,是世界平均水平的1.45倍。即便是考虑到中国人均GDP水平仍然较低、以及中国有16%的碳排放源于为其他地区生产商品,也很难再继续坚持一个主张,即中国无须在打破气候谈判僵局中扮演主要角色。Construction of infrastructure is the major driver of China’s rapid economic and emissions growth. Our global carbon budget shows that emissions from existing infrastructure will lead China and the US to exceed their fair access to the remaining CO2 emissions a on a world per-capita basis. This a is necessary to keep climate change below two degrees warming above pre-industrial temperatures, a limit that is widely supported by scientists and policymakers around the world, including in China.基础设施建设是中国经济增长的主要驱动力,也是碳排放量迅速增长的主要原因。我们的统计显示,在中国和美国,来自现有基础设施的碳排放,会导致这两国的排放量超过它们在全球剩余人均碳排放配额中应占的比例。各国科学家和政策制定者——包括中国在内——普遍认同一点:全球气温上升,应以高出前工业时代的气温2摄氏度为限,而要将气温保持在这一限度内,就必须实施这样的配额。The CO2 emissions a, which gives the world a 66 per cent chance of remaining below 2 degrees is only about one third of that total emitted so far. At current emissions this means that there is just one generation (30 years) before the safeguards to a two-degree limit may be breached.如遵循这一配额,全球气温有66%的几率不超过上述2摄氏度的上限。而这一配额的总量,仅相当于迄今全球二氧化碳总排放量的三分之一。按照现在的排放速度,或许仅仅再有一代人的时间(30年),2摄氏度的上限就会被打破。The global costs of climate change will be borne locally – more flooding and coastal storm surges, more droughts, strains on food production and health. The benefits of cutting carbon emissions are also regional and local, particularly in the case of China.全球气候变化的代价,通常会由一些局部地区承担——那里会出现更多的洪涝灾害、台风和旱灾,对食物生产和人类健康构成挑战。同样,削减碳排放的好处也更多体现在局部地区,特别是就中国而言。Over 1 million deaths can be attributed each year to severe air pollution in China, said the Lancet Medical Journal. Children and old people are most at risk. Achieving ambitious targets for cutting carbon emissions means less air pollution.《柳叶刀》(Lancet)称,中国每年有逾100万人因严重的空气污染死亡。儿童和老年人面对的风险最大。如果中国能实现艰巨的减排目标,意味着空气污染将大幅缓解。Burning cheaper low-grade coal is more polluting. Coal burning in 2010 produced 3 million tonnes of microscopic particulates and 20 million tonnes of sulphur dioxide emissions that penetrate deep into lungs and the blood stream. These fine particles are classified a Group 1 carcinogen by the cancer agency by the World Health Organization.燃烧较便宜的低品位煤炭会造成更大的污染。2010年,中国燃煤排放了300万吨粉尘和2000万吨二氧化硫。这些精细粉尘会渗入人的肺部和血液中,被世界卫生组织(WHO)归为1类致癌物(Group 1 carcinogen)。Premier Li Keqiang in March declared “war against pollution and fight it with the same determination we battled poverty”. Action to fight air pollution, if well designed, also fights climate change and vice versa.今年3月,中国总理李克强曾宣称:“我们要像对贫困宣战一样,坚决向污染宣战。”其实,设计良好的抗污措施,也能有效地缓解气候变化,反之亦然。China could also lead the rest of the world in showing the world how to slash emissions. China has made energy efficiency progress at a scale unequalled anywhere else, but not fast enough. CO2 emissions in China doubled in the past ten years because of surging economic growth fuelled by coal. China currently aims to cut the equivalent of 3 billion tonnes of CO2 in efficiency improvements for the five years to 2015, the same as 60% of US emissions at 2010 levels, but this does not match the scale of Chinese emissions and the urgency of the climate problem.中国还可以起到表率作用,向世界展示如何减排。中国在提高能源使用效率方面取得的进步,超过了其他所有地区,但它进步的速度仍不够快。中国经济增长高度依赖燃煤,过去十年二氧化碳排放量翻了一番。目前,中国的目标是,在截至2015年的5年内,通过提高能源使用效率,将二氧化碳等价排放量减少30亿吨,这相当于美国2010年排放量的60%。不过,这一目标,与中国碳排放的规模、以及气候问题的紧迫性并不相称。China also deploys new technology and penetrates domestic and international markets at speeds unequalled in the West. It leads the world in renewable energy, investing more than one-fifth of the global total for 2012. In 2011, installed renewable capacity was aly twice the US. China#39;s wind turbines and hydropower stations are the world#39;s most productive. A binding international agreement on climate change instantly creates for China a global market for its low carbon technologies.在国内外市场中推广和运用新技术方面,中国的力度也是西方无法比拟的。中国在可再生能源领域的投资领先全球,2012年占全球总投资的五分之一以上。2011年,中国可再生能源装机容量已是美国的两倍。中国风力发电机组和水力发电站的发电量为全世界最高。一旦世界各国在气候变化上达成具有约束力的协议,就立刻会为中国的低碳技术创造一个全球市场。There are many long term economic advantages to implementing a low carbon future in China, with co-benefits to energy security, water security, food security, and therefore human security. In turn, ignoring the rise in global and local carbon emissions threatens access to sufficient food and water, human health and wellbeing and the long-term prosperity of China.一个更为低碳的中国,长期而言能带来许多经济益处,同时能提高能源安全、水资源安全、食品安全,从而有益于人类自身的安全。反过来说,如果忽视全球和中国国内碳排放的增长,将威胁到人类对充足的食品和水的获取、人类的健康和幸福、以及中国的长期繁荣。The global leadership of China is crucial for an international agreement in New York on climate change and the deployment of its low carbon technologies and market knowhow is essential around the world. Strong collective political action on climate change could bring China’s development journey to a new path of cleaner air and energy efficiency. The race is on for China to decouple economic growth from fossil fuel burning. The benefits are immediate for current citizens and for generations not yet born.要想在纽约峰会上就气候变化问题达成国际协议、在全球推广中国的低碳技术和市场经验,中国必须担当起带头人的角色。各国领导人们在抗击气候变化上更加坚定、协调一致,就能将中国的发展引导至一条更清洁、更高效的道路。对中国来说,现在就该加速让经济增长摆脱对化石燃料的依赖。这会给中国带来立竿见影的好处,不论对现在的中国人,还是未来几代人而言。Professor Corinne Le Quéré is an international authority in assessing carbon sources and sinks with the Global Carbon Project. She is Professor of Climate Science and Policy at the University of East Anglia, Director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and a regular visitor to the Tyndall Centre at Fudan University in Shanghai.作者科琳娜#8226;勒凯雷(Corinne Le Quéré)是全球碳计划(Global Carbon Project)组织评估碳来源和去向方面的国际权威。她是东英吉利大学(University of East Anglia)气候科学与政策研究教授、廷德尔气候变化研究中心(Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research)主任、复旦大学(Fudan University)廷德尔中心(Tyndall Centre)定期访问人员。Professor Dabo Guan is an expert in climate change economicsand policy. He is a Lead Author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Assessment on Mitigation and a winner of the Philip Leverhulme Prize for outstanding scholars at an international level. He is joining the University of East Anglia as Professor of Climate Change and Development.作者关达是一位气候变化经济学与政策研究方面的专家。他是联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)《第三工作组评估报告:减缓气候变化》(Assessment on Mitigation)的主要作者之一。 /201409/331769A staggering 8m tonnes of plastic waste are entering the world’s oceans every year, or the equivalent to five grocery bags filled with plastic for every foot of coastline in the world, according to the first scientific assessment of the problem.根据对海上塑料垃圾问题的首次科学评估,全球每年流入海洋的塑料垃圾达到令人震惊的800万吨,相当于全球每英尺海岸线都流入5只塞满塑料的食品袋。The joint US-Australian study, released at the American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting in San Jose, analysed waste production data from 192 countries to conclude that between 4.8m and 12.7m tonnes of “mismanaged plastic” entered the oceans in 2010; 8m tonnes is the central estimate.这一由美国和澳大利亚联合开展的研究,是在美国科学促进会(American Association for the Advancement of Science)圣何塞年度会议上公布的。该报告根据来自192个国家的垃圾产出数据,经分析得出,2010年流入海洋的“不受管理的塑料垃圾”在480万吨到1270万吨之间,800万吨的数据是上述区间取中位数得出的估计结果。Plastic in the oceans is becoming a serious ecological problem for marine life, as well as an ugly pollutant washed up on beaches and floating on the open seas.塑料垃圾不但是海岸上及海面上影响观感的废弃污染物,对于海洋生物来说,它们正成为严重的生态问题。Large pieces such as intact plastic bags are a hazard for animals from turtles to dolphins, which can become entangled or swallow them with fatal results. More insidious is the weathering of plastic debris into tiny particles that can be ingested even by microscopic invertebrates.对于从海龟到海豚在内的海洋生物,完整的塑料袋等大块塑料垃圾是一大威胁。它们可能会被这些塑料袋缠住或将其吞噬,从而导致致命后果。此外,更不易被人察觉的是,这些塑料废品被分解成微小颗粒后,甚至会被微观层面的无脊椎生物吞噬。The study, which also appears in the journal Science, lists the world’s 20 biggest national sources of mismanaged plastic waste. The top 19 are all middle and low income countries, with the US in 20th position.这份研究报告也发表在学术杂志《科学》(Science)上,该报告列举了全球20个最大的塑料垃圾来源国。其中,前19位都是中低收入国家,第20位则是美国。The worst offenders are in Asia, with China responsible for 28 per cent of all mismanaged waste, followed by Indonesia with 10 per cent.问题最严重的是亚洲国家。其中,来自中国的废品占了所有废品的28%,印尼以10%的比例落于其后。The amount of plastic going into the oceans is increasing fast, keeping pace with global plastic production, said the study leader Jenna Jambeck of the University of Georgia.这项研究的带头人、美国佐治亚大学(University of Georgia)的詹娜#8226;简贝克表示,流入海洋的塑料垃圾总量正在迅速增长,速度正在赶上全球的塑料生产量。“In 2025 the annual input would be about twice the 2010 input or 10 bags full per foot of coastline,” she said. “The cumulative input in 2025 would be nearly 20 times our 2010 estimate: 100 bags of plastic per foot of coastline in the world.”她说:“2025年,每年流入海洋的塑料垃圾将是2010年的两倍,差不多相当于每英尺海岸线上流入10袋塑料垃圾。到2025年,累计塑料垃圾流入量将是我们2010年估值的20倍,相当于全球每英尺海岸线上放100袋塑料垃圾。”Developed nations have the infrastructure to dispose properly of the vast majority of their plastic or recycle it. Poorer countries do not. Altogether about 3 per cent of the world’s total plastic waste ends up in the oceans through littering or dumping.发达国家拥有相关的基础设施,能够处理绝大部分塑料垃圾,或将其回收利用。相比之下,较贫穷的国家则没有这种条件。总的说来,全球全部塑料垃圾中,约有3%会由于乱扔乱倒,最终流入海洋。A huge investment will be needed to save the oceans and their inhabitants from choking on human plastic debris.要想拯救海洋,防止海洋生物不会因人造塑料废品而导致窒息,必须投入巨额资金。“Solutions will require a combination of local and global efforts,” said Prof Jambeck. “A shift in how we manage waste could provide jobs and opportunities for economic innovation — and it could improve the living conditions and health of millions of people.”简贝克教授表示:“解决这个问题,需要全球和各地共同努力。改变废品管理方式可能会创造就业,还可能为经济创新创造机遇。这么做还有助于改善数百万人的生存条件和健康水平。” /201502/360134闽清县输卵管造影多少钱

福州结扎复通手术哪家医院好Compare two ways of earning the same amount in London. The first is to work. A job in one of the capital’s thriving industries will on average pay about 35,000. The second is to own enough office space for a few desks in the city’s West End. Just 17 sq m currently yields about the same amount.请比较一下在伦敦赚到相同数额的钱的两种方式。第一种是工作。在伦敦蓬勃发展的行业找一份工作,平均薪水约为3.5万英镑。第二种是在伦敦西区(West End)拥有一套足够放几张桌子的办公用房。按照最近的行情,只要拥有17平米就能赚到差不多相同数额的钱。Despite Britain registering deflation for the first time in half a century, its capital remains an expensive place to do business. The overriding cause is expensive property. Even against other global centres, the cost of renting an office or roof over one’s head is steep.尽管英国刚出现了半个世纪以来的首次通缩,但其首都仍然是一个昂贵的经商地点。最主要的原因是高昂的房地产价格。即使是与全球其他几个中心相比,在伦敦租赁一间办公室或住房的成本也相当高昂。To superficial eyes this is a badge of success. Cities teetering on the brink of failure, such as Detroit, are often studded by boarded-up houses and empty business districts. London can charge so much because it is an excellent place to work. Alongside financial services, the city is a global hub for the creative industries, law and even high-value manufacturing.表面上看来,这是成功的标志。底特律等濒临破产边缘的城市中,通常布满了木板房和空荡荡的商业区。伦敦的租金之所以能收那么高,是因为这里是绝佳的工作地点。除了金融务,伦敦还是创意产业、法律、甚至高附加值制造业的全球中心。Yet this high demand to work and live in Britain’s capital only makes more abject its failure to provide sufficient space. What is more, the scarcity of land for development is artificial, and largely comes down to politics.不过,这种在英国首都工作和居住的高需求,只是使它无法提供足够空间的问题显得更加令人遗憾。更重要的是,用于开发的土地稀缺是人为造成的,而且在很大程度上要归咎于政治。The Conservatives sailed into power on a wave of promises that would boost the demand for property, such as inheritance tax breaks and an ill-received idea for selling off social housing. Since the election, developers’ share prices have risen and estate agents’ phones rung hot with inquiries from overseas buyers. Surprised at the scale of their victory, the Tory government might not have expected to enact many of its measures.保守党(Conservatives)借着提振房地产需求的承诺执掌了权力,比如遗产税优惠和一个令人难以接受的想法——出售公屋。自大选以来,地产开发商的股价一路上涨,房地产经纪人的电话被来电咨询的海外买家打得发烫。惊讶于此次大获全胜的保守党政府,此前也许没有预料到其要将竞选时提出的很多措施付诸实施。Now, to stop prices spiralling further out of sight the government must supplement its populism with a proper strategy to close the gap between demand and supply, starting with London. It can learn from others’s past failures: the Swedish National Bank tried to quench the roaring property market in Stockholm through its monetary stance, damaging the rest of the economy. Other tools are not available to the UK: Singapore owns 80 per cent of the homes its population inhabits. Like Hong Kong, it imposes restrictions on foreign buyers with which London should be ill at ease.如今,为了避免价格进一步攀升至遥不可及的高度,政府必须在民粹主义之外拿出适当的策略来弥合需求和供应之间的差距,从伦敦开始。它可以从其他国家过去的失败中学到教训:瑞典央行(Swedish National Bank)曾尝试通过货币政策给斯德哥尔飙涨的房地产市场降温,但损害了经济的其他部分。还有些工具是英国没有的:新加坡有80%人口居住在政府提供的组屋里。再比如香港,那里限制外国人买房,而伦敦应该无法坦然接受这种做法。In contrast to Manhattan or Singapore, London is not an island and has no physical reason for limiting the supply of land. But releasing more for development will take courage. Much of the land needed is derelict but nevertheless marked as “greenbelt”. This inspires misguided environmental protectionism from an array of bodies determined to protect every last scrap. Even without such organisation, existing property owners create a fearsome political block. Many of London’s citizens have become wealthy owning houses that are collectively worth 1.5tn. They also savour the rules that bear down on congestion, keep the view uncluttered and hold back the sprawl typical in cities elsewhere. Opposition to development seeds many a political campaign.与曼哈顿或新加坡相比,伦敦并不是一个岛屿,并没有必须限制土地供应的客观原因。但是,释放更多土地用于开发需要勇气。很多亟需的土地都是荒地但却被标记为“绿地”。这激起了大批被误导的环保团体的热情,它们决心保护每一寸仅存的绿地。即使没有此类机构,现有的房地产业主也构成一个令人望而生畏的政治障碍。很多伦敦市民已变得富有,他们拥有的房产总价值达到1.5万亿英镑。他们还青睐那些旨在减轻拥堵、保持城市景观和谐以及阻止城市出现无序扩张常见病的规定。许多政治游说都源于反对土地开发。Against these, the victims of insufficient development are voiceless and dispersed: families in cramped accommodation, workers slogging in on a long commute and younger people kept from a promising career by the lack of a wealthy relative. These also feed through to business costs.相比这些人,承受土地开发不足之痛的人发不出声音,也缺乏组织:住所狭小的家庭、长途通勤的工人、以及因为没有富有的亲戚而无法拥有前途光明的职业的年轻人。这些也转化为商业成本。The Conservatives have launched their new spell in government with the aspiration to govern for one nation, and do all they can for business. For the former they will need to heal the fissure in British society caused by the sheer expense of living in London. As for business, no single measure could save companies more than bringing down rents in the capital city.怀着“为着同一个国家执政”(govern for one nation)和竭尽全力促进营商的抱负,保守党已经开始新一届任期。就前一个抱负而言,他们需要修复伦敦高昂生活成本在英国社会中造成的裂缝。就营商而言,没有哪一项措施能比降低首都的租金成本更能拯救企业。 /201505/377478南平哪间医院输卵管通液 南平看无精症哪个医院最好

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