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Japan#39;s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on Wednesday appeared to try to ease tension with neighboring countries by repeating Japan#39;s admission of and apology for the suffering it caused its former colonial subjects.日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)周三重申,日本承认该国殖民时期给当地人民带来痛苦并为此道歉。此举似乎是在努力缓解日本与邻国的紧张关系。Abe#39;s remarks came amid growing concern in China and South Korea over what could be considered historical revisionism among Japan#39;s top officials.安倍晋三发表这番言论的背景是,中国和韩国就日本高官的历史修正主义态度越来越感到担心。#39;We have caused tremendous damage and suffering to the people of many countries, particularly to other Asian nations,#39; Mr. Abe said in a parliamentary budget committee session. #39;We share the same recognition as previous cabinets,#39; Mr. Abe added.安倍晋三在日本国会预算委员会会议上说,我们曾给很多国家特别是亚洲国家的人民造成了极大的伤害和痛苦。他还说,我们对此事的认识与历届内阁相同。The premier#39;s remarks were a line-by-line restatement of a landmark 1995 apology issued by then-Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama, marking the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II. Mr. Abe last off the Murayama statement in a February committee meeting in the Diet, in response to opposition lawmakers questioning whether he intends to reassess the government#39;s apology for its wartime aggression.1995年即二战结束50周年时,时任日本首相村山富市(Tomiichi Murayama)发表了具有里程碑意义的致歉讲话。安倍晋三周三其实是逐字逐句地重复了村山富市当年的讲话。他上一次读村山富市讲话是在今年2月日本国会某委员会会议上,当时是为了回应反对派议员的质疑。那些议员想知道他是否打算重新评估日本政府对侵略战争的道歉。Mr. Abe#39;s fresh acknowledgment of Japan#39;s actions comes after weeks of escalating diplomatic tension with neighbors. Anger in South Korea and China was fueled by visits to a controversial war shrine by cabinet members in April and then by comment Mr. Abe made on Japan#39;s wartime role.在安倍晋三这次承认日本当年行径之前,日本与邻国不断升级的外交紧张关系已持续了数周之久。日本内阁成员4月参拜了一座有争议性的战争神社,后来安倍晋三又就日本战时角色发表了,这些都加剧了韩国与中国民众的愤怒情绪。Three top ministers, including vice prime minister Taro Aso, visited the Yasukuni shrine last month, where convicted war criminals, along with over 2 million of Japan#39;s war dead are enshrined.包括副首相麻生太郎(Taro Aso)在内的三位日本高官上月参拜了靖国神社(Yasukuni shrine),那里供奉着日本战犯以及该国逾200万的阵亡将士。Mr. Abe added fuel to the fire by questioning in parliament on April 23 the definition of the word #39;invasion,#39; saying: #39;Things that happened between nations will look different depending on which side you view them from.#39; Likely in response, South Korea#39;s foreign minister canceled a planned trip to Tokyo.4月23日,安倍晋三在日本国会发言时质疑“侵略”一词的定义。他说,对国家之间发生的事情可以有不同看法,具体取决于你看的角度。他的这番话可谓是火上浇油。或许是受此影响,韩国外长取消了原定对东京的访问。Japan#39;s territorial dispute with China has also escalated on a broader front, with China recently sending its largest fleet of paramilitary patrol ships near to disputed islets that Japan controls.日本与中国的领土争端已在更广泛领域升级。中国近日派遣了一最大的准军事巡逻舰队前往中日争议岛屿附近。该岛目前由日本控制。Mr. Abe#39;s remarks on Wednesday came after the Japanese press reported that concerns over his interpretation of history were expressed in a meeting between U.S. President Barack Obama and his South Korean counterpart Park Geun-hye in Washington.安倍晋三周三发表这番讲话之前,日本媒体曾报道说,美国总统奥巴马(Barack Obama)和韩国总统朴槿惠(Park Geun-hye)于华盛顿举行会谈时,双方谈到了安倍晋三对历史解释所引发的担忧。Japanese national broadcaster NHK, citing South Korean Foreign Minister Yun Byung-se, who attended the summit, reported that Ms. Park told Mr. Obama that Japan needs to #39;properly recognize history for the sake of peace in the Northeast Asian region.#39; The issue, however, remained unmentioned in the joint news conference held by the two leaders.日本广播公司(NHK)援引出席美韩总统会见的韩国外长尹炳世(Yun Byung-se)的话说,朴槿惠对奥巴马讲,为了东北亚地区的和平,日本应正确认识历史。不过,美韩总统召开联合新闻发布会时并没有提及这个问题。Meanwhile, Tom Schieffer, the former top U.S. envoy to Japan, expressed his country#39;s concern over Mr. Abe#39;s stance on the so-called #39;comfort women#39; issue at a symposium last week, calling it a big loss to Japan#39;s national interests in the U.S. and Asia. Mr. Abe in the past has questioned the largely accepted historical fact that the women, many from colonial Korea, were forced to serve as prostitutes by the Japanese military.美国驻日本前高级特使西弗(Tom Schieffer)上周在某论坛上表示,美国对安倍晋三就所谓“慰安妇”问题的立场感到担忧。他说,这是日本在美国和亚洲的国家利益的重大损失。安倍晋三以前一直质疑为大多数人所接受的史实,即那些妇女(其中很多来自当时处于日本殖民统治下的韩国)是被迫充当日本军妓的。Japan#39;s top government spokesman Yoshihide Suga assured Japan#39;s neighbors and allies by saying on Tuesday that the government has never considered reassessing its 1993 apology over the issue.日本政府首席发言人菅义伟(Yoshihide Suga)周二安慰邻邦和盟友说,该国政府从未考虑过重估对“慰安妇”问题的道歉。 /201305/239264Job cuts in China appear to be on the rise, dimming prospects for a labor market that has been a resilient bright spot amid a slowdown in the world#39;s second-largest economy. 在中国,裁员的数量正在增多,令劳动力市场的前景变得黯淡。在中国这个世界第二大经济体的增长放缓之际,劳动力市场曾一直是一个抗冲击能力很强的亮点。 The latest sign came on Thursday, when preliminary gauges of August factory activity and hiring showed continued weakness. The HS China Manufacturing Purchasing Managers#39; Index dipped to 47.8 for August from July#39;s 49.3, continuing a 10-month string of results below the 50 level that separates growth from contraction. 周四出现了最新迹象,衡量8月份工厂活动和雇佣情况的预览值显示劳动力市场持续低迷。8月份汇丰中国制造业采购经理人指数(PMI)从7月的49.3降至47.8,延续了10个月来低于50的走势。PMI值高于50表示经济扩张,低于50表示经济收缩。 Behind weak activity: a slowdown in trade and shrinking real-estate investment. China#39;s exports grew just 1% in the year to July, and exports from coastal hot spots such as the city of Shanghai and the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang contracted. 制造业活动低迷背后的原因在于,贸易增长放缓和房地产投资收缩。今年年初至7月份,中国出口仅增长了1%,上海、江苏和浙江等沿海热点省市的出口出现下滑。 Meanwhile, an August ing of 47.7 in the PMI survey#39;s employment subindex, unchanged from July, shows firms shedding workers for the sixth consecutive month. 此外,8月份汇丰PMI分类指数中的就业指数为47.7,与7月份持平,表明企业连续第六个月裁减人员。 The results follow sporadic reports of job cuts in some parts of the country. 这一结果发布之前,有零星报道说中国一些地区削减了工作岗位。 #39;Anecdotal evidence suggests that an increasing number of coastal enterprises are laying off workers or closing down factories,#39; HS economists said in a note. #39;It is time for Beijing to focus more squarely on the job market.#39; 汇丰的经济学家在一份报告中说,有据表明,越来越多的沿海企业开始裁员或关闭工厂;现在是北京更加密切地关注就业市场的时候了。 There are also some signs that labor unrest is on the rise. China Labour Bulletin, a nongovernmental organization that tracks collective action by Chinese workers, recorded 37 incidences of worker strikes and protests in July, roughly double the number in January, with more actions over unpaid wages. 也有一些迹象表明,罢工数量有所上升。专门追踪中国工人集体行动的非政府组织中国劳工通讯(China Labour Bulletin)的记录表明,7月份中国共发生了37次罢工和抗议活动,这一数字大约是今年1月份的两倍。因讨薪而发起的活动数量有所增加。 Third-quarter economic data so far suggest China#39;s first-half slowdown is continuing, increasing pressure on policy makers to increase lending or boost government spending to rekindle growth. 三季度迄今为止发布的经济数据表明,中国上半年经济放缓的趋势仍将继续,这加大了决策者增加贷款数量或增加政府开以重新拉动经济增长的压力。 Judging the true state of China#39;s labor market is difficult. So far the weakness appears to be well short of the job losses that followed the global financial crisis, which saw as many as 20 million unemployed migrant workers head back to their home towns--a major factor in prompting a massive stimulus spending program by Beijing. 想要评估中国劳动力市场的真实状况并不容易。到目前为止失业人数远低于全球金融危机过后的水平。金融危机过后,多达2,000万失业农民工返回老家。这是促使中国政府当年推出大规模刺激性出计划的主要原因。 Other gauges suggest many firms are still hiring, albeit it at a slower pace. 从其它指标看,很多企业仍在招聘,不过速度已有所放慢。 At a government labor exchange in the center of Beijing on Thursday, there was little sign of anxiety among those looking for work. Lin Wei, a recent graduate from China University of Petroleum, was looking for a first job in civil engineering. #39;I have only been looking for a week but there seems to be a number of opportunities,#39; she said. 周四在北京市中心一个由政府举办的招聘会上,几乎看不出求职者有任何焦虑。中国石油大学(China University of Petroleum)的应届毕业生林薇(音)想找一份与土木工程相关的工作,这将是她的第一份工作。她说,我只找了一个星期,但是似乎已经有一些工作机会了。 Song Guibo, a human-resources manager at Vanke Management Services, was at the exchange to fill vacancies for security guards, receptionists, and cleaners. His main complaint was a shortage of workers. #39;We mainly employ migrant workers, and they can get higher wages in the provinces now, so not so many are coming to Beijing#39; said Mr. Song. 北京万科物业务有限公司(Beijing Vanke Property Service Co. Ltd.)的人力资源经理宋贵波在招聘会上招聘保安、接待员和清洁工。他最大的苦衷是招不到人。宋贵波说,我们主要招聘外来务工人员,而这些人在各个省份都能拿到比以往更高的工资,所以没那么多人来北京了。 The Chinese government publishes numbers on unemployment, which shows the rate at 4.1% in the second quarter, unchanged from the end of 2010. But economists widely regard the figure as unreliable, partly because it does not measure joblessness among migrant workers. 中国政府公布的失业统计数据显示,第二季度的失业率为4.1%,与2010年底持平。但是经济学家普遍认为这个数字不可靠,部分原因是数据没有反映外来务工人员的失业情况。 Analysts say that unemployment may lag changes in the economy. A new labor law, which came into force in 2008 and makes it costly to fire workers, and concern about a shortage of workers when growth picks up mean firms are reluctant to let workers go. 分析人士说,就业状况可能会滞后于经济形势的变化。2008年生效的新劳动法提高了雇主解雇劳动者的成本,同时雇主也担心如果经济形势好转企业会出现人手不足的问题,这些因素意味着企业不愿意让员工离开。 A shoe-factory owner in the eastern city of Wenzhou who gave his name as Mr. Mao said that new labor regulations make it difficult for him to lay off any of his 800 workers. #39;We don#39;t fire them, they fire us,#39; he said, referring to a practice in which migrant workers hop between factories based on where orders and wages were strongest. 中国东部城市温州的一位自称姓毛的鞋厂厂主说,由于新劳动法的出台,他很难解雇800名员工中的任何一个。他说,不是我炒他们,是他们炒我。他指的是外来务工人员经常跳槽到订单更多和工资更高的工厂。 #39;The problem with the generation of workers born after the 1980s is that they are not able to eat bitterness,#39; he said. #39;They are not as hard working as their parents.#39; 他说,80后这一代工人身上存在的问题是,他们不能吃苦。他们不像他们父母那一辈工作那么努力。 Chen Shao, China analyst at Macquarie, says that factory owners he visited on a recent trip to Fujian were hanging on to workers to avoid losing face. #39;They don#39;t want to signal to competitors or creditors that they are in difficulty,#39; he said. 麦格理券(Macquarie)中国分析师Chen Shao说,他最近去福建旅行期间见到的工厂厂主都尽可能地不让工人跳槽,为的是不让自己丢面子。他们不想让竞争者或债权人知道他们遇到了困难。 Guo Sheng, the chief executive officer of recruitment website Zhaopin.com, said that growth in the number of jobs advertised on the website had slowed sharply, from 77% growth in 2011 to 17% growth in 2012. #39;The bad news is that growth in job opportunities has slowed, the good news is there is still growth,#39; he said. 招聘网站智联招聘(zhaopin.com)的首席执行长郭盛说,其网站上所发布工作机会的增速正在急剧放缓,从2011年的77%下降到了2012年的17%。他说,坏消息是工作机会的增长在放慢,好消息是工作机会仍在增多。 He also sees signs that the slowdown in China#39;s growth was denting wage increases. #39;At the end of 2011 and the beginning of 2012 wages were rising at around 15% to 20% a year,#39; he said. #39;From the second quarter we are seeing slowing growth and falling inflation reducing wage increases.#39; 郭盛还看到了中国经济增速放缓影响工资增长的迹象。他说,2011年末和2012年初,劳动者工资水平在以每年15%到20%左右的速度增长。从今年第二季度开始,我们看到,经济增速放缓和通胀水平下降正在导致工资增长速度降低。 /201208/196641Can Foxconn, the world’s largest contract manufacturer, keep growing and improve its margins now that cheap and willing hands are scarce?如今又廉价又听话的劳动力可谓凤毛菱角,富士康这个全球最大的合约制造商,能否一直保持增长的态势?TO GET some idea of the scale of Foxconn’s Longhua campus in Shenzhen, in southern China, a visit to its massive central kitchens is all that is needed. They lie at the heart of this sprawling complex of factories, dormitories, sports facilities, banks and stores built by the secretive Taiwanese-owned firm. The food-preparation centre, sp over 12,500 square metres on four storeys, goes through three tonnes of meat a day as it prepares grub with military precision.想知道深圳龙华富士康的规模,去它面积庞大的中心食堂看看足矣。这家神秘的台资公司是由许多厂房、宿舍、运动场、还有商场等不断扩展的综合设施构成,食堂在正中心,占地12.5万平方米,四层楼,每天要消耗3吨肉,他们准备食物的强度简直可以和军队一较高下。The enormous scale is to be expected, given that Foxconn (also known by its parent company’s name, Hon Hai) is the world’s largest contract manufacturer. The Longhua campus, covering 2.5 square kilometres, employs 240,000 people. Across China, it employs 1.4m on 28 campuses . Nor, given the firm’s prowess at churning out gazillions of gadgets like Apple’s iPhones, does the kitchen’s efficiency come as a surprise. Tens of thousands on each shift pay for meals swiftly by swiping cash cards loaded with 400 yuan () a month in food credits.规模如此庞大也是必然,毕竟富士康是世界最大的合约制造商,也因母公司鸿海而名闻天下。占地2.5平方公里的龙华富士康拥有24万员工。它在中国有28个工厂,员工总数高达140万。再想想,既然它能生产出数目惊人的配件,比如为iphone生产,那它厨房效率之高也就不足为奇了。每一个班次有成千上万人刷刷刷的迅速刷卡打饭,每个月每张饭卡里都会有400元。The only things more impressive than the size of the canteen’s woks—more than 1 metre wide—are the firm’s spectacular growth and outsized ambitions. In the past decade it has gone from being one of many invisible firms in the electronics supply chain to the world champion of flexible manufacturing. Barclays, a bank, forecasts that the company’s revenues will exceed NT.9 trillion (4 billion) this year.比食堂的锅——宽达1米——更让人印象深刻是公司迅速的扩张还有它的雄心壮志了。在过去的十年里,它已经从许多默默无闻的电子设备供应商中脱颖而出,夺得了弹性制造的桂冠。巴克莱(Barclays)预计今年富士康的总收入将会超过3.9万亿新台币。Foxconn is investing heavily to expand in the interior of China. By the end of this year its newish facilities in Zhengzhou, in Henan province, will employ more workers than the Longhua campus. It is also expanding in Brazil and Mexico. There are rumours it might even open a factory in America, since Apple, its biggest customer, has just declared that it plans to have some of its Mac computers made at home. Rich-world companies looking to follow suit, “reshoring” jobs back home, are struggling to find enough skilled manufacturing workers; Foxconn could apply to Americans its extensive experience of training Chinese workers from scratch. It admits it is “exploring the opportunity”.富士康公司在拓展中国内陆市场上投入巨资。今年年底它在河南郑州的新工厂招用的工人数量要比龙华工厂的还要多。于此同时,富士康在巴西和墨西哥的拓展工作也在如火如荼的进行着。作为富士康最大的客户苹果刚刚宣布计划将在美国本地生产Mac,就有传言称富士康可能在美国开一家工厂。发达国家的公司似乎纷纷效仿苹果想将产业“迁回本国”,却为寻找足够的技术制造工而愁眉不展;在训练“从零开始”的中国工人上,富士康有丰富的经验可以提供给美国。它承认是在“寻求机遇”。More strikingly, Foxconn believes it can double in size yet again. Executives talk of becoming one of the world’s top 20 businesses. This is no fantasy: Barclays foresees Foxconn’s revenues growing by 15-20% a year in the coming three years. There are two main obstacles to sustaining such growth: finding and retaining good workers in China, and improving the firm’s anaemic profit margins. Both problems will only be aggravated by growth.更引人注目的是,富士康坚信他们的工厂规模还能翻一倍。公司高管们谈论着如何跻身全球20强,这绝非痴人妄想:巴克莱预计在未来的3年里,富士康的总收入将以每年15%—20%的速度增长。实现这一持续增长的目标有两大阻碍:在中国寻找、留住优秀的员工;增加公司利润。而增长只会使问题恶化。As good employees become scarcer, Foxconn is having to pay more attention to working conditions—an issue on which it has attracted much unwelcome publicity. A lunchtime visit to the Longhua campus suggests that nowadays life there is not so bad. Off-duty workers smoke and fiddle with their mobile phones on the kerb outside the production halls, snooze on the campus’s football pitch or sit crocheting together in their dorms. Employees on an assembly line making corporate IT equipment look bored senseless but the facilities are orderly and spotless—a far cry from South Asian firetraps.优秀雇员越来越难得,因此富士康不得不着力改善工作环境——这一问题曾招来众人关注。午饭时间在龙华富士康转一圈,发现现在那里的生活也没多糟。下了班的工人有的坐在厂房外的道沿儿上一边抽烟一边玩手机,有的坐在运动场上打瞌睡,还有的在宿舍打毛衣。一条装配线上的工人,一齐装配IT设备,看起来乏味无聊,但厂房却井然有序,一尘不染,与南亚那些易着火的厂房截然不同。When your correspondent requested an unscheduled visit to an assembly-line workers’ dormitory, officials immediately obliged and remained outside the dorm’s entrance. The women inside, who bunk eight to a room in basic but decent conditions, were unafraid and in good humour. People on campus dress in casual clothes, not company uniforms, and seem only about as discontented as the youth found in any Chinese city. Look closer, though, and you notice something jarring: enormous safety nets hung on many buildings to prevent suicide jumpers.当我们记者突然要求随机走访装配线工人的宿舍时,富士康的管理人员立即同意并一直在宿舍门外等待。宿舍里有八张床,条件虽然简单但也算一应俱全,房内的女工人一点都不怯生,还十分幽默。厂内的工人穿的不是厂,而是舒适的衣,虽然面带不满,却与城里的年轻人没什么不一样。可是,走近一看,却能看到与周围不相符的装备:巨大的安全网悬挂在楼外,防止有人跳楼自杀。That hints at Foxconn’s biggest challenge: demography. No longer can the firm rely on a steady supply of migrant workers grateful for any escape from grinding rural poverty. The country is rapidly ageing, and the pool of hungry young workers is shrinking. Besides expecting ever better pay and conditions, today’s new recruits want more fulfilling lives than those their predecessors put up with.这却暗示了富士康最大的挑战:人口结构。从前,为了摆脱贫困,只要给农民工提供工作,他们就心存感激,忠心耿耿,现在却再也看不到了。中国正在迅速老龄化,又饥又穷的年轻劳动力正在缩减。如今的新进员工期望更加优厚的薪酬以及更加优越的环境,比起他们的前辈来说,他们希望更多的满足自己的需求,而不是默默忍受。Until recently Foxconn was unyielding in its discipline and working practices. But two years ago a spate of suicides led to a global outcry that shook the firm. Since then, several outbreaks of worker unrest and noisy campaigns by activists have further blackened its name. In response, Apple requested that the Fair Labour Association (FLA), an American watchdog, audit its suppliers. A report issued by that group in March found that although Foxconn’s facilities were “no worse than any factory in China” there were violations of the FLA’s code of conduct.直到最近富士康才坚守企业规章和职业操守。两年前,连续不断的自杀事件让公司震惊,在全世界也引起一片哗然。从那时起,爆发了数起工人动乱,让富士康的名声更臭了。苹果公司更是要求美国监督部门美国平等劳动协会(FLA)对富士康进行调查。FLA于3月份公布的一份调查显示,尽管富士康企业“和许多中国企业一样糟”,但是确实多处存在违反FLA规定的情况。Peter Deng, a manufacturing director at the firm, recalls that a decade ago Foxconn gave only one or two days off per month and there was no limit on overtime—“and the workers didn’t mind.” Now, the firm claims to limit overtime and to insist that workers take a day off every week. It is also increasing wages and, after scandals, limiting the use of interns (about 2.7% of its workforce). In August the FLA said that Foxconn was “ahead of schedule” in improving conditions.富士康公司制造主管Peter Deng回忆说,十年前,富士康每月只准休息一至两天,加班倒是没有时限——“工人都不在意”。可是现在,公司要求限制加班,而且坚持每周给工人放一天假。在连环跳楼事件和其他丑闻爆出后,富士康给工人们加了工资,限制实习生人数(约占总劳力的2.7%)。八月,FLA说富士康在改善条件方面做得很好,“远远超出计划”。Fine, but if Foxconn wants to keep booming, it must do far more. The canteen visit hints at three ways it plans to improve workers’ lives.富士康做的不错,但它要想一直保持繁荣,要改善的还有很多。经过这次食堂访问可以看出改善员工生活的方法主要有一下三条。First, automation. It takes just three people to prepare the eight tonnes of rice consumed at lunch. The assembly lines are next. Terry Guo, the company’s flamboyant chairman, has vowed to build “one million robots” in an effort to eliminate mind-numbing tasks and move towards fully automated plants. The challenge is that tastes change quickly in consumer electronics. By the time bespoke robot kit is y to automate a given factory line, the product mix has changed, making it obsolete. Scepticism is warranted, but insiders believe the firm is just a year away from breakthroughs that work at scale on commercial lines. Such “Foxbots”, and related services, could even be sold to other firms.第一:自动化。准备午饭要吃的八顿米饭,仅仅需要三人。下一步是装备线。如明星般耀眼的总裁郭台铭(Terry Guo)立下誓言,说要造“100台机器人”,减少乏味的工作,最终达到建设完全自动化的工厂。这一想法的困难在消费者对于电子产品的需求变化太快。待到装配线上的工人全都变成自动化的机器人时,产品结构又会发生改变,这些机器人就报废了。定会有人对此保持怀疑,但内部人士相信,公司要不了一年就会在商业装配线上做出突破。这些“富士康机器人”以及相关务甚至可以卖给其他公司。Second, a bit of freedom. Workers can now skip the canteen, instead swiping meal cards at food courts on campus or going off campus to eat. They also now get a housing allowance, letting them choose between staying in dorms or (as 70% now do in Shenzhen) living off campus. There is more of a social life, too: a young employee, recently arrived from remote Xianyang, talks blushingly about her evenings with handsome co-workers at the Cyberfox, the campus internet café.第二:更加自由。如今工人们可以不在公司食堂里吃饭,在食堂周边的小吃区同样可以刷卡消费,或者还可以去工厂外吃饭。现在他们也能领到住房津贴,可以住宿舍(在深圳70%都在宿舍)还可以住在厂外。社交生活也丰富了许多:一位新来的咸阳工人,红着脸诉说着在工厂网吧Cyberfox和帅气的同事聊天的夜晚。Third, outsourcing. The dorms, catering, security and much else at Longhua are now run by outsiders. Louis Woo, special adviser to Mr Guo, insists this is not to save money but to improve workers’ quality of life: “they simply do a better job than us.”第三:外包。龙华富士康的宿舍、食堂、保安等都由第三方运作。胡国辉(Louis Woo),郭台铭的特别顾问,称他们不是在节约成本,而是改善员工生活质量,“这方面他们做的比我们好。”Foxconn’s net margin has aly fallen from above 6% a decade ago to around 2% now. It risks being squeezed further as the firm splashes out to attract and retain new workers. The trouble is, Foxconn is stuck in the hyper-competitive middle of the electronics supply chain. Upstream, the designers of components make enormous margins, as do the firms downstream that market the finished products. But midstream gadget assemblers do not. In China, it costs Apple a few dollars to have an iPod assembled, which it then sells for 9.富士康的净利率已从十年前的6%多跌至现在只有2%左右。公司花费巨资吸引并留住新员工,这就可能会有更低净利率的风险。问题在于,富士康卡在高速竞争的电子供应的中间环节。上游是部件设计商,他们能获得丰富的利润;下游是成品销售商,同样获利颇丰。只有想富士康这种配件装配的中间商没有多少利润可言。在中国,苹果仅需几美元就能装配一台ipod,但售价却高达299美元。Could Foxconn’s push towards cheaper inland provinces boost margins? Not for long. Because of tax holidays granted to its new plants, the firm’s effective tax rate will drop from 25% in 2011 to 16-18% this year. But the gains will soon be eroded by higher inventory and logistics costs (because of the more remote locations), rising pay and fading subsidies. Within a few years, argues Alberto Moel of Sanford C. Bernstein, an investment bank, the shift will bring “no net benefit to gross margins.”富士康能像中部省份进军寻求高利润吗?可以,但不是长久之计。富士康的新厂虽在免税期,富士康的有效税率将从2011年的25%降低至今年的16%-18%。但是由于增长的库存和物流成本(因为工厂低处偏远)、工资增长、补贴减少,获利很快会被蚕食一空。投资Sanford C. Bernstein的Alberto Moel认为,不出几年“基本不会盈利”。Dull work, but not dangerous工作虽无聊,但是很安全Still, Mr Guo does have a strategy for increasing margins. First, he is moving upstream. In March he announced plans to buy a stake in Sharp, a troubled Japanese technology firm, and to help finance Sharp’s glass-panel research. (When Sharp’s shares later plunged, he waffled when asked to reconfirm the stake-buying.) Aly, almost everything Foxconn makes has glass display screens—and this week it was reported to be working with Apple and Sharp on a new range of high-definition televisions. Foxconn wants to learn how to make screens better and cheaper. By using its manufacturing savvy to scale up any breakthroughs, it plans to boost Sharp’s sales—pocketing a share of the gains. Other such deals are likely.即便如此,郭台铭还是在增加利润上有其战略。首先,他正跻身上游。三月,他宣布计划购买身处困境的日本技术公司夏普(Sharp)的股份,资助夏普对平板产品的研发。(后来夏普的股票暴跌,当被问及是否确定购买夏普股份时,郭台铭闪烁其词。)富士康产品的屏幕几乎无一例外都是玻璃的,本周就有报道披露,它将会与苹果和夏普一道研制新一代高清电视。富士康想知道如何制造物美价廉的屏幕。凭借自己在制造业的经验,进行新突破,帮助夏普增加销量——从其获益中分得一杯羹。富士康还会进行类似的交易。Mr Guo is also pushing downstream into retailing. He does not want Foxconn to create its own consumer brands; the idea is to use the firm’s supply-chain muscle to help its branded customers promote their products, by guaranteeing retailers that they will get their supplies on time and on demand. To help with this, it has taken stakes in several retail chains in China, including the local operations of Media Markt, a German electronics seller.同样,郭台铭也在潜到下游的销售业。他并不希望打造属于富士康自己的消费品牌,而是希望利用富士康强大的供应链,通过向销售商保可以按时按需完成供应,帮助品牌消费产品提高销量。为了实现这一目标,郭台铭投资了几家中国的连锁店,包括德国电子设备经销商万得城电器(Media Markt)。Foxconn says branded manufacturers, especially Western ones with poor penetration in smaller Chinese cities, will benefit from its promotion of their products, shops will be able to hold lower inventories and consumers will enjoy lower prices. Analysts are doubtful. But if this takes off over the next five years, the firm also plans to tighten its links further with retailers by letting them tap directly into Foxconn’s internal e-commerce portal.富士康说,他们不仅可以帮助那些名牌制造商(特别是对于外国的名牌产品却在中国的二三线城市占有份额较小)提高销量,使之从中获益;能帮助商店获得较低的存货出;还能让消费者享有较低的价格。分析家对此表示怀疑,可是一旦这一计划在未来五年里付诸行动,富士康还计划加强与经销商的关系,将它们直接纳入富士康内部电子商务平台。These moves may pay dividends in the long term. But Mr Moel argues that quicker returns are to be found in the company’s core manufacturing operations, for instance by making more parts in-house. Foxconn is increasingly making components such as batteries, lenses, speakers and touch panels. It has scope to improve the efficiency of its production lines, especially on new campuses purpose-built for automation. The firm could also try demanding higher prices. There are signs that it is y to move away from a low-price strategy, instead stressing reliability and high-volume capabilities.从长远看来, 这些举措可能会给企业带来盈利。但Moel认为富士康的核心制造会进行更快的转变,比如生产过多部件。富士康正在越来越多的生产诸如电池、镜头、扬声器以及触摸板之类的部件。不但如此,它们还在提升生产线的效率,特别是在那些为了自动化生产而建造的新工厂。同时,富士康还可能太高价格。种种迹象表明它已经准备好了从廉价战略转向高可靠性和大批量生产力战略。Can Foxconn really persuade Apple, the world’s most powerful electronics firm, to cough up more money? That risks alienating a customer that accounts for 40-45% of its revenues. But as the world’s largest outsourced manufacturer grows even bigger, it is becoming ever more indispensable to Apple as well. In the end, that is the best thing Foxconn has cooking.富士康真的有能力让全球最大电子商苹果公司愿意付出资更多吗?这样做有可能会让苹果公司不再选择富士康,可是富士康总收入的40%—45%均来自苹果。随着全球最大的外包制造商越来越壮大,富士康对苹果来说也是越来越重要。所以,说苹果公司加价才是富士康心中所想。 /201212/217547Three Chinese women reportedly missing were found dead in Russia#39;s southern Siberian republic of Khakassia, local media reported Thursday。根据当地媒体周四报道,三名失踪中国女性在俄南西伯利亚的哈卡斯共和国被发现已死亡。The police found three charred bodies near a village in the republic late Wednesday soon after a Chinese woman reported that her three female compatriots went missing。在一名中国女性报案称自己的三名女性同胞失踪后,警察周三下午在一个村庄附近发现3具被烧焦的尸体。A preliminary investigation showed that the bodies were the three missing women in their 40s and 50s。初步调查显示,三具尸体确实为失踪的40到50岁女性。The three women aged 43, 45 and 50, respectively, were working for a greenhouse growing vegetables and fruits, according to the initial investigation of the local police。当地警察经初步调查称这三名女性分别为43,45岁以及50岁,她们都在当地一家温室大棚工作,种植蔬菜和水果。It is said the three women had collected the sacrifices of food at the local graveyard after the deceased#39;s relatives and friends left on May 14 which was an annual date for the local people to remember the dead. And three unidentified men kidnapped and packed them into a white car and drove away.5月14日为当地祭祀去世亲人的日子,据称在亲友祭祀完后,这三名女性在墓地里收集那些留下的祭祀食物,三名身份不明者将她们绑架塞进一辆白色轿车后驶离。The police have targeted three suspects who were all born in the 1990s. Some analysts say the Khakas is one of the ethnic minorities in the Russian Federation and people are prohibited from eating the food offering in their customs. The three Chinese may be killed for this reason。警方已锁定三名90后嫌犯。一些分析人士称哈卡斯人是俄联邦中的一个少数民族,根据当地习俗,墓地供品严禁食用,这三名中国人可能是因为这个原因而遇害。 /201306/245208

The Beijing Olympics were accompanied by a huge infrastructure and property building spree that was supposed to set China#39;s capital up for years to come. The city has faced repeated accusations of building too much, too fast, and overestimating the real level of demand - not to mention urban planning buffs#39; complaints that Beijing#39;s vast roads and fragmented sprawl ignore the profession#39;s best prescriptions for efficient development. 北京奥运会曾带来了一波巨大的基础设施和房地产建设热潮,当时有人认为这波热潮将在北京持续数年。北京曾多次面临建筑过多、建设过快、高估了实际需求水平等指责,更不用说城市规划爱好者的抱怨了,他们批评说,北京开阔的道路和碎片化的道路扩张完全无视规划部门为实现高效发展而制定的最佳方案。 Five years on, with barely a pause in its breakneck growth, the capital appears to have run out of office space. 五年来,虽然飞快建设的步伐几乎从无停歇,北京的写字楼供应似乎开始告急。 With the city#39;s existing office space more or less full up, Beijing has #39;no option#39; but to build out further out in the suburbs, according to Marcos Chan, head of North China research at Jones Lang LaSalle, a real estate services firm. 房地产务公司仲量联行(Jones Lang Lasalle)华北区研究部主管陈锦平(Marcos Chan)说,随着现有写字楼或多或少都租满了,北京没有其他选择,只能向郊区扩建。 At just 4.4%, he thinks the city#39;s office vacancy rates are below the #39;natural rate#39; needed to allow the market to churn - like the vital empty slot in a sliding block puzzle. #39;It#39;s basically fully occupied,#39; said Mr. Chan. #39;If you want to expand your business in Beijing, there is simply not much space available.#39; 他说,北京写字楼空置率仅为4.4%,低于市场良好运转需要的“自然空置率”,就像滑块类游戏都要有一个至关重要的空位一样。他说,北京的写字楼基本都租满了,如果你想在北京拓展业务,这里的写字楼房源已经不多了。 That has made Beijing offices the country#39;s most expensive for tenants, with top-grade rents almost doubling between 2008 and 2012. Shanghai office rents grew by less than 10% in the same period, according to JLL#39;s figures. 这也导致北京成为全国写字楼租金最贵的地方,顶级写字楼租金在2008年至2012年期间上涨了近一倍。据仲量联行的数据,上海写字楼租金同期仅上涨了不到10%。 The government has grand plans for a new financial district at Lize in southwestern Beijing to ease the shortage. The planned cluster of banks, insurers and private equity firms will make up the capital#39;s third financial zone. In the 1990s, when the authorities dreamed up Finance Street on the west side of town, the new center was supposed to take pressure off the capital#39;s traditional business district in the east. Finance Street didn#39;t take long to fill up - vacancy rates there are as low as 2%, Mr. Chan said. 北京市政府已经制定了宏大的将西南部丽泽区建设成为一个新的金融区的计划,以缓解写字楼供应短缺局面。这个将汇集、保险公司和私募股权投资公司的新区将成为北京第三个金融区。上世纪90年代,当有关部门计划在北京城西兴建金融街时,这个新金融中心曾被认为将缓解东部传统商业区的压力。陈锦平说,金融街的写字楼没用多久就都租出去了,空置率低至2%。 Beijing#39;s government also has a vision for the satellite towns surrounding the capital. A new airport is planned for Daxing, south of the city - Beijing Capital International Airport, the world#39;s second-busiest by passenger numbers, said in its latest annual report it was reaching saturation point. And unglamorous suburbs like Fangshan and Tongzhou will be designated as #39;hubs#39; for specific industries, like petrochemicals and #39;cultural industries,#39; respectively. 北京市政府也对北京周边的卫星城有所规划。南部的大兴拟建一座新机场,北京首都国际机场(Beijing Capital International Airport)已在最近的年报中表示,即将达到饱和点。按乘客数量计,该机场是全球第二繁忙的机场。房山和通州等不太繁荣的郊区将被定为特定行业的中心,比如房山和通州将分别被规划为石油化工和“文化产业”中心。 China is in the midst of an orgy of building, with 5.7 billion square meters of office space under construction, according to the National Bureau of Statistics. Far away from the capital, smaller cities like Zhengzhou, Changsha and Nanchang are building whole new commercial districts. 中国正在上演一场建筑狂欢,据中国国家统计局的数据,在建写字楼建筑面积总计57亿平方米。离北京较远的郑州、长沙和南昌等城市正在兴建全新的商业区。 Lize is currently a vast construction site, where new skyscrapers rise above the overgrown remains of the three-story apartment houses that once covered the site. In Shuitouzhuang, a half-demolished compound that was once home to 400 residents, only one family remains. Answering the door, Ms. Li said she and her family were still discussing compensation with the city government. Though visibly saddened by the loss of her neighborhood, Ms. Li said the authorities had been reasonable. 丽泽金融商务区目前是一个广阔的建筑工地,新的天大楼在杂草丛生的废墟中拔地而起,这里原先是一些三层住宅楼。在水头庄,一个曾经有400个住户的居民区已经拆掉一半,只有一个家庭还未搬走。李(音)女士给记者打开门说,她和她的家人仍在与市政府讨论拆迁补偿问题。尽管失去老邻居明显令她感到难过,李女士说,有关部门还是讲理的。 #39;I have faith that the government will resolve this question,#39; she said. #39;I#39;ll accept their decision on compensation. Whatever they decide, I won#39;t ask for one fen more.#39; 她说,我相信政府会解决这个问题,我会接受他们对补偿问题的决定,无论他们做出怎样的决定,我都不会多要一分钱。 Sixty-year-old Mrs. Li has lived at Shuitouzhuang for 20 years - ever since her last home, a single story house near Beijing South railway station, was bulldozed for redevelopment. 现年60岁的李女士已经在水头庄居住20年了,此前她住在北京南站附近的一个平房里,那里因为要重建也已经拆迁了。 Beijing is not alone in building out forests of gleaming new office blocks in the middle of nowhere. London did the same when it designated the industrial wasteland around Canary Wharf as a financial hub back in the 1980s. What was ridiculed at the time as a quixotic venture is now one of the world#39;s key financial centers. The development succeeded on its own terms, even if locals complain that it is miles from anything and has all the soul of a car showroom. 北京并不是唯一一个在偏远郊区兴建闪闪发光的新写字楼森林的城市。伦敦也曾在上世纪80年代将金丝雀码头(Canary Wharf)附近的工业废弃地规划为一个金融中心。尽管当时被嘲讽为不切实际的冒险,现在这里已经成为全球主要金融中心之一。这一开发项目靠自身努力取得了成功,尽管当地人抱怨这里离市区太远,并且设计理念完全类似于汽车展厅。 But China aly has a major international financial center at Shanghai, and a secondary stock exchange in the southern city of Shenzhen. Seventy miles south-east of Beijing, Tianjin has ambitions to turn itself into a banking center. If China#39;s troubled financial system really hits the rocks some of those offices are going to be empty a very long time. 但中国已经有上海这个主要国际金融中心了,并且在深圳建立了另一个股票交易所。天津市则雄心勃勃地打算将自身建设成为一个业中心。如果中国麻烦缠身的金融系统真的触礁,这些写字楼中的一些恐怕要在很长时间内空置了。 /201308/252602

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