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Meals at the family dinner table could be the key to preventing a generation of teenage girls from developing eating disorders.New research shows girls who regularly have family meals are much less likely to adopt extreme weight control behaviors such as vomiting, using laxatives or diet pills.A study surveying more than 2500 American high school students found that girls who ate five or more family meals a week had a much healthier relationships with food in later life.The research, published in international journal Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, polled students aged 13 to 17 in 1999 who were followed up five years later. Regular family meals were found to have a protective effect regardless of the girls' age, weight, socio-economic status, dieting habits or relationship with her family.Experts say doctors should encourage families to have dinner at the table instead of on the couch in front of the television to protect against serious eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia.Belinda Dalton, director of eating disorders clinic The Oak House, said eating with family helped "normalise" young people's relationship with food."When adolescents are feeling that they're not coping they turn to something that they can control and food is something available and accessible for them to control. Clearly, if they're sitting with their family on a regular basis then their family can be more in control of their eating," Ms Dalton said."It's about young people feeling connected with their family and that builds self-esteem and sense of worth and that works very actively against someone developing an eating disorder."An eating disorders expert, Kirsty Greenwood, said meal times were often difficult for sufferers. "It's typical that they feel very ashamed of their eating habits and often won't eat with other people. Perhaps it's because they haven't experienced the importance of the family meal in their growing up," she said. 与家人一起吃饭对于预防少女患上饮食紊乱症具有重要作用。最新研究显示,经常与家人一起吃饭的女孩采用极端减肥法的可能性较小,比如:催吐、用泻药或减肥药。一项针对2500多名美国中学生的调查发现,每周与家人一起吃饭达到五次或五次以上的女孩日后的饮食习惯要健康得多。该项在《儿科与青少年医学档案》国际期刊上发表的调查开始于1999年,调查对象为13岁至17岁的中学生,他们接受了为期五年的跟踪调查。调查发现,定期与家人一起吃饭具有“保护”作用,而这与女孩的年龄、体重、社会经济地位、饮食习惯以及与家人的关系都无关。有关专家称,为了预防厌食和贪食等严重的饮食紊乱症,医生应鼓励人们都到餐桌上吃饭,而不要坐在电视机前吃。“橡树屋”饮食紊乱诊所主任比琳达#8226;达尔顿说,与家人一起吃饭有助于促进年轻人的饮食“正常化”。她说:“当青少年遇到烦恼时,他们会去寻求一些他们能控制的东西,食物就是个很好的选择。显然,如果他们能定期与家人一起吃饭,他们的饮食会得到更好的控制。”“这会让年轻人感到自己与家人紧密相连,有助于他们建立自尊和自我价值感,而这对预防饮食紊乱具有十分重要的作用。”厌食紊乱专家克斯蒂#8226;格林伍德说,吃饭时间对于饮食紊乱症患者来说总是很痛苦。“他们会为自己不正常的饮食习惯感到十分羞愧,而且很少与别人一起吃饭。这可能是因为他们在成长过程中没体会过与家人一起吃饭的重要性。” /200803/32756When I ran software companies in the late 1990s, my peers and I both hoped for, and ded, meetings with Microsoft.上世纪90年代末,当我掌管软件企业的时候,我的同行和我一方面希望与微软(Microsoft)会面,另一方面又害怕与它会面。The prospect of being acquired and making real money — that was tempting. But little fame and glory would follow. Chances were high that the technology would be bought in order to kill it; partnering and collaboration were decidedly and pointedly not the name of the game.被收购,挣到真金白银——这样的前景十分诱人。然而,接下来不会有什么名誉和荣耀。很可能发生的情况是,微软收购该技术的目的,就是为了将其扼杀;合伙与合作明摆着是不存在的。How things have changed.今非昔比了。Since chief executive Satya Nadella was appointed in February 2014, Microsoft has become a far more open place. Many in the tech world thought the sky had fallen in when Kirk Koenigsbauer, vice-president of Microsoft’s Office 365, appeared on stage at an Apple product launch. But that was indicative of a whole new mindset: instead of trying to eliminate every other tech company on the planet, these days Microsoft wants friends. Partnerships abound: Dropbox hosts billions of Office 365 documents, while Skype and Salesforce are integrated into Office productivity apps.自2014年2月萨蒂亚#8226;纳德拉(Satya Nadella)被任命为首席执行官以来,微软已变得开放多了。当微软Office 365的副总裁柯克#8226;柯尼希斯鲍尔(Kirk Koenigsbauer)出现在苹果(Apple)产品推介会的舞台上时,技术圈的很多人都感觉太阳打西边出来了。不过,这显示了一种全新的思维:如今,微软不再试图消灭地球上其他每一个高科技企业,它也想结交朋友了。微软与许多企业达成了合作:Dropbox上存有大量Office 365的文档,而Skype和Salesforce也被集成进了Office的效率应用。Acquisitions are done differently too. Where acquired businesses were once shut down, now they are tapped for wisdom and insight. Founders of acquired companies are taken seriously as entrepreneurs, their views canvassed not just about Microsoft’s products but about its culture too. Where once founders were deemed a threat, now their position as entrepreneurial outsiders is seen as an asset, an opportunity to learn and to refresh both culture and know-how.完成收购的方式也不同了。微软曾经把收购来的企业关闭,如今却会利用这些企业的智慧和洞察力。微软把被收购企业的创始人当做创业家认真对待,不仅征询他们对微软产品的看法,还征询他们对微软企业文化的看法。微软曾经将这些企业创始人视为威胁,如今将他们作为外部创业者的立场视为一份财富,认为有机会从中学到东西、更新企业文化和相关专业技术。Anyone who has been part of an acquisition knows that, however strategic such moves may be, what makes them succeed or fail is how well the two cultures fit. So most companies insist that the newcomer conforms to the ways of its acquirer. Microsoft’s approach is both harder and potentially richer: recognising in its acquisitions the opportunity to reinvigorate itself and its place in the world.任何参与过收购的人都知道,不论这种举动有怎样的战略意义,结果成功与否都取决于两者的企业文化是否匹配。因此,多数企业坚持让被并购的新来者遵从收购方的行为方式。微软的处理方法则更困难一些,可能也会带来更多回报:它在其收购交易中发现为自身重注活力和提振自己全球地位的机会。You could say that the cultural transformation at Microsoft has replaced fortress walls with a porous membrane: a dynamic relationship between the company and the markets it serves, because that is the only way companies stay young and relevant.可以说,微软的文化转型是用透气的薄膜代替了城墙,这个透气的薄膜就是微软与其所务市场间的动态关系。微软这么做的原因是,这是企业保持青春和市场地位的唯一方式。Most companies I know today are attempting something similar. Daunted by the pace of change, they are trying to become more adaptive: less obsessed with planning, more concerned with flexibility. At Microsoft, this is framed as a shift from a fixed mindset — one that depends on a few superstars — to a growth mindset, in which everyone must be open to learning from everything and from each other.如今,我了解的多数企业都在试图采取类似做法。变革的节奏之快令他们害怕,他们试图提高适应能力:不再那么执着于规划,而是更关心灵活性。在微软,这种做法被表述为从固定式理念转向增长式理念。固定式理念依赖于少数几位超级巨星,而在增长式理念下,每个人都必须愿意从任何事物和彼此身上学习。This shift is in line with Mr Nadella’s overall strategy: one in which all technology moves to the cloud and works seamlessly with any and every kind of software. To be a company that can do this requires people who can work effectively with all kinds of technology and all kinds of people. So the company has to be inclusive — both technologically and culturally. And because the technology environment changes at a furious pace, people must be able to do likewise.这一转变符合纳德拉的总体战略:按照该战略,所有技术都要转向云端,与任何一种软件都能无缝协作。要成为能做到这一点的企业,需要能够与各种各样的技术和人有效协作的人才。因此,微软必须具有包容性——不论是在技术上还是在企业文化上。而且,由于整个科技大环境正在急速转变,人也必须能够迅速地改变自己。“Transformation has to start with you,” says Michel Van der Bel, chief executive of Microsoft UK, argues.微软英国首席执行官米海尔#8226;范德贝尔(Michel Van der Bel)声称:“转型必须从自身开始。”In the past, Mr Van der Bel told me, performance was all about numbers. If the numbers were great, only at the end of a good third quarter might you start thinking about corporate culture.过去,范德贝尔曾告诉我,业绩只与数字有关。如果数字表现优异,只有在业绩良好的第三季度末,人们可能才会开始考虑企业文化的问题。But not now. “Now,” he says, “you have to perform and transform at the same time, all the time. Sitting in your office looking at spsheets won’t help you meet your numbers. You have to get out, talk to partners, to customers — directly. You have to think about: what have you done differently in your behaviour that makes the company better? What are you learning?”不过,如今的情况并非如此。他说:“如今,任何时候都必须在保业绩的同时进行转型。坐在办公室盯着电子表格不会有助于完成业绩目标。你必须走出去,与合作伙伴、与客户——面对面地——对话。你必须思考这样的问题:你对自己的行为方式做出的什么改变让公司变得更好了?你正在学到什么?”Mr Van der Bel carries an iPhone. It is OK to be curious and informed about other companies’ products. He is learning, he says, that for everyone else to change, they have to see change in their leaders immediately. “It starts with you. You must always show up energised and open. Annual surveys are a thing of the past; you have to get a sense of pulse on a weekly basis. I’m much more thoughtful about which meetings I attend, how I add value. You have to get out more and listen more.”范德贝尔带着一部iPhone手机。对其他公司的产品保持好奇和了解是完全没有问题的。他说,他正在学到的是,要想让其他人改变,必须让他们一眼看到领导身上的变化。“改变从自身开始。你必须始终显得精力充沛并且思想开放。那种一年一度的调查已经是过去式了。你必须每周都去了解。对于我要开什么会,如何贡献价值,我的想法更多了。你必须更多地走出去,更多地听取他人的意见。”No one at Microsoft believes they have got it all right and, given the task they have set themselves, change never ends. With acquisitions such as its bn deal for LinkedIn, no doubt the company is due another dose of honest feedback. But at least this time, Reid Hoffman, LinkedIn’s chief executive, is less likely to fear being relegated to the broom cupboard — and a lot more likely to be talking to the board.在微软,没有人认为自己全做对了。而且,考虑到他们为自己制定的任务,改变是永远不会结束的。像260亿美元收购领英(LinkedIn)这样的交易,无疑又会让微软得到一剂真诚的反馈。不过,至少现在领英首席执行官杰夫#8226;韦纳(Jeff Weiner)不太可能担心被打入冷宫,更可能出现的,是他会与微软的董事会对话。 /201608/458767Taking antibiotics? You might want to boost their powers by drinking some green tea. New research indicates that drinking green tea helps the action of important antibiotics in their fight against resistant superbugs, making them up tothree times more effective.“We tested green tea in combination with antibiotics against 28 disease causing micro-organisms belonging to two different classes,” says Dr Mervat Kassem from the Faculty of Pharmacy at Alexandria University in Egypt. “In every single case green tea enhanced the bacteria-killing activity of the antibiotics. For example the killing effect of chloramphenicol was 99.99% better when taken with green tea than when taken on its own in some circumstances.”Green tea also made 20% of drug-resistant bacteria susceptible to one of the cephalosporin antibiotics. These are important antibiotics that new drug resistant strains of bacteria have evolved to resist.The results surprised the researchers, showing that in almost every case and for all types of antibiotics tested, drinking green tea at the same time as taking the medicines seemed to reduce the bacteria’s drug resistance, even in superbug strains, and increase the action of the antibiotics. In some cases, even a low concentration of green tea was effective.These data were presented during the Society for General Microbiology’s 162nd meeting recently held at the Edinburgh International Conference Centre. 用抗生素吗?那么你也许想喝点绿茶来增强它们的效用。最新研究表明,绿茶有助于抗生素对抗那些顽固的超级病菌,使得抗生素的功效达到之前的三倍。埃及亚历山大大学医药学教授Mervat Kassem说:“我們在结合抗生素对抗 28 种疾病的情況下测试绿茶(這些疾病由属于两种不同纲的微生物所引起)。在每個单一的例子中,我们发现绿茶都能增強抗生素的杀菌作用。例如,当抗生素与绿茶结合在一起用時,氯黴素在某些情況下的杀菌效果比单独药要好上99.99%。”绿茶也使得20%的抗药性细菌易受其中一种头孢子菌素(cephalosporin)抗生素的影响。這都是些重要的抗生素,而新抗药性品种的细菌正逐步对它们产生抗药性。这些结果让研究者感到惊讶,因为几乎在所有被测试的抗生素例子中显示,在人们药的同時,辅佐绿茶可以減少细菌的抗药性,即便是在超级病菌存在的情况下,绿茶也能增加抗生素的作用。在某些例子中,即便是低浓度的绿茶都有效果。这些数据都来源于近期于爱丁堡国际会议中心举行的第162届普通微生物大会。 /200804/34939

Some of Google’s fiercest corporate critics in the US have written to Europe’s antitrust chief backing what is expected to be a record fine against the internet search company, and rejecting claims that the case has been fuelled by anti-American bias.美国一些对谷歌(Google)持最强烈批评态度的企业致信欧洲最高反垄断官员,持对这家互联网搜索公司处以金额有望创纪录的罚款,并反驳了该案受到反美偏见推动的说法。“As US companies, we wish to go on record that enforcement action against Google is necessary and appropriate, not provincial,” the seven signatories, including News Corp, Oracle and Yelp, wrote.在信上签名的7家企业——其中包括新闻集团(News Corp)、甲骨文(Oracle)和Yelp——写道:“作为美国企业,我们希望公开声明,对谷歌采取的执法行动是必要和适当的,不是地方保护主义。”The attempt to dispel claims of European protectionism came ahead of the expected announcement on Tuesday of a fine topping 1bn against the US search company over an eight-year-old probe involving online shopping.此举是对有关欧洲奉行贸易保护主义说法的反驳。预计,欧盟周二将宣布对谷歌处以逾10亿欧元罚款,这一处罚是基于一项长达8年的对在线购物问题的调查。Signatories to the letter supporting the EU action include some of Google’s most bitter rivals. Oracle won a contentious copyright case against the search company last year, while News Corp has long railed against Google’s growing power over the media industry. Yelp has pushed — so far unsuccessfully — for Brussels to take up its own antitrust complaint against the company.在上述信上签字持欧盟处罚行动的,包括谷歌一些最激烈的竞争对手。甲骨文去年打赢了一场充满争议的、针对谷歌的版权官司,新闻集团则长期抨击谷歌对传媒产业日益增强的影响力。Yelp已推动欧盟接受它自己提出的针对谷歌的反垄断申诉,但迄今未获成功。The case has threatened to ignite simmering unhappiness in Silicon Valley and Washington over Europe’s recent challenges to leading US tech companies. These last burst into the open a year ago when Apple fiercely criticised a 13.2bn fine levied over the special tax deal it had struck with Ireland.该案可能会引爆硅谷和华盛顿方面对欧洲近期挑战美国顶尖高科技公司行为的不满。在硅谷和华盛顿,这种不满情绪已接近临界点。这种情绪上次公开爆发是在一年前。当时,苹果(Apple)猛烈抨击了因它与爱尔兰达成的特殊税务协议而受到的132亿欧元罚款。 /201706/515632

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