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2020年01月26日 19:39:35来源:快问专家

【中文原文】我打过流感针了,我对猪流感免疫吗?       不能,目前还没有猪流感疫苗.有可能季节性的流感疫苗会对H3N2型猪流感病毒提供部分抗体.但在加州出现的是H1N1型毒株.与人类流感H1N1毒株区别很大.先前接种过人型H1N1流感疫苗是否能部分抵御此次爆发的猪型H1N1病毒,目前不得而知. 然而,CDC已经从一位被感病人身上提取出的猪流感病毒里开发出一个"疫苗种",并已启动一旦需要立即开发的程序.是否需要在下一个流感季节到来前批量生产是个大问题.    It's possible that the seasonal flu vaccine might provide partial protection against H3N2 swine flu bugs. But the strain that appeared in California is the H1N1 swine flu strain. It is very different from the H1N1 human flu strain included in the seasonal flu vaccine.  It's not known whether previous infection with human type A H1N1 flu might provide partial protection against the type A H1N1 swine flu in the current outbreak.  However, the CDC has made a "vaccine seed" from swine flu isolated from an infected person, and has begun the process of developing a vaccine should the need arise. Whether a vaccine could be produced in quantity by next flu season is a huge question. /200911/88495。

  • I’ve found it interesting ing through the annual “Open Doors 2012” report from the Institute of International Education, which tracks data concerning international students studying in the U.S., as well as U.S. students studying abroad.国际教育学会《2012美国开放门户报告》十分有趣,它对在美留学的外籍学生以及赴海外求学的美国学生进行了跟踪调查。China remained the largest sender of students to the U.S. for the third year in a row in the 2011/12 school year. In IIE’s data gathering, the Chinese mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong are all counted separately. Their work is focused primarily on the tertiary education sector, so their report does not including secondary school enrollment.2011至2012学年,中国连续第三次蝉联美国最大的留学生来源国。在国际教育学会的统计中,中国大陆、台湾及香港被作为独立单元分别进行计算。此项调查以高等教育为主,其中并未体现中学在校生的情况。Overall new college and university level enrollment by international students in the U.S. rose by 5.7% in 2011/12. Students from China, on the other hand, grew by 23.1%, to a total of 194,029.2011至2012学年,在美国大学及学院注册的海外留学生增加了5.7%,其中来自中国的留学生上涨了23.1%,达到194,029人。During that year, students from the Chinese mainland accounted for 25% of all international enrollment. India ranked second with 13.1%, followed by South Korea with 9.5%. Other Asian places of origin in the top ten included Taiwan (in 6th place, with 3% of the total), Japan (7th, with 2.6%), Vietnam (8th, with 2%).这一年,中国大陆留学生占到各国留学生的25%。印度排名第二,占比13.1%,之后是韩国,9.5%。进入前十名的其它亚洲留学生来源地还包括中国台湾(第六名,占总数的3%)、日本(第七名,2.6%)、越南(第八名,2%)。The record high 764,495 international student enrollment in the 50 U.S. states contributed US$ 22.7 billion to the U.S. economy, according to IIE estimates. More than 60% of international students report personal and family sources as their source of funds.据国际教育学会估计,全美50个州登记的留学生人数达到了历史最高点764,495人,共为美国经济带来227亿美元的贡献。其中超过60%的留学生都表示,其资金来源为个人收入或家庭供给。For purposes of rough estimation, if we assumed that all students spent the same amount, then with 29.5% of total international enrollment in US colleges and universities coming from Greater China, that’s an expenditure in the range of US$ 6.69 billion in the US in the 2011 academic year. Big bucks.粗略估算一下,假设所有学生的出相等,那么占美国大学留学生总数29.5%的大中华区学生在2011学年的总出应为66.9亿美元。真是好大一笔开啊!In addition, the “upstream” consumer market in China for test preparation (SAT, GMAT, TOEFL etc.) and private English tuition is in excess of US$ 5 billion per year in tuition and fees. An important driver of this demand is the opportunity for overseas study in English speaking countries including the U.S.此外,中国的“上游”市场——SAT、GMAT、等考前教育和私人英语培训每年的学费收入已超过50亿美元。而前往包括美国在内的英语国家求学是滋生以上市场需求的重要原因之一。Put into this perspective, higher education in China is indeed a very big business, and growing fast.从这个角度看,中国的高等教育真是一个非常巨大而且增长迅速的产业。On a state-by-state basis, California plays host (and cash register) for the largest number of international students, with a total of 102,789 spending some US$ 3.2 billion. New York comes in second, with 82,000-plus and US$ 2.58 billion in expenditures.如果拿各州作比较,加利福尼亚接待(及进帐)的留学生最多,共有102,789人,总消费达32亿美元。纽约位列第二,学生超过82,000人,消费为25.8亿美元。Looking back just ten years to the 2002 data, India was ahead of China as the source of the most international students. California and New York were still the number one and number two destinations for international students.回看一下十年前2002年的数据,当时印度是美国最大的留学生来源地,领先中国。而加州和纽约一直都是海外学生的首选目的地。For ten years’ running, the University of Southern California has been the leader among US universities in terms of numbers of international students ( 9,269 in 2011/12 versus 5,950 in 2002). Second or third place has typically gone to New York University, with traditionally strong rankings also by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Columbia, Purdue, and University of Michigan at Ann Arbor.十年来,南加州大学的留学生人数一直高居各校之首(2011-2012学年为9,269人,2002年为5,950人)。纽约大学通常不是第二就是第三,其它一贯排名靠前的学校还包括厄巴那伊利诺伊大学、哥伦比亚大学、普渡大学、密歇根大学安娜堡分校。The only Ivy League school regularly in the top 20 in terms of hosting international students has been Harvard University.长青藤联盟唯一一所留学生人数经常跻身前二十名的学校是哈佛大学。U.S. students are also studying abroad in growing numbers, but the financial crisis of 2008 put a plateau into the growth curve. Europe is still the traditional leader as a host region for US students studying abroad, with some 54% heading there.与此同时,赴海外留学的美国学生也呈现上升趋势,但2008年的经济危机让增长曲线进入平台期。欧洲历来是美国学生海外留学的热点,有54%的学生都前往欧洲学习。China is now ranked 5th in the world as a host for US students. In 2010/11 (the latest data available), there were 14,596 U.S. students in China, nearly a five-fold increase over the past ten years.中国接待的美国留学生总数在全球排名第五。2010至2011学年(这是现有的最新统计数据),美国在华留学生共有14,596人,相较于10年前增长了5倍。It’s also interesting to reflect on the fact that although international student numbers in the U.S. have been rising very steadily for many years, they have been outpaced by the growth in U.S. student enrollment overall. As a result, the percentage of international students within the total enrollment numbers has remained in the range of between 3 and 4% during the past ten years.调查还反映出一个有趣的现象,尽管赴美留学生的总量连年稳步增长,但仍超不过美国当地学生的整体增长。结果,留学生占学生总数的比例在过去十年中一直保持在3%至4%之间。In 2011/12, total enrollment in US universities and colleges was 20.6 million, as compared with 15.9 million ten years earlier. To put that into a bit more historical perspective, total enrollment in 1981/82 was just 12.3 million; in 1970/71 the number was 8.5 million. In other words, dramatic growth.2011至2012学年,美国大学及学院共有在校生2,060万名,10年前这一数字为1,590万人。如果追溯更远一点儿的历史,1981至1982学年的学生总数为1,230万人,1971至1981学年为850万人。也就是说,增长十分显著。Talking with HR experts, it’s clear that the U.S. now has a surplus of college graduates and a serious shortage of young people with more formal technical training. While there remains serious unemployment in the white collar job sector, companies are finding it hard to fill many technical and skilled manufacturing positions. This is a serious disconnect.与人力资源专家对话发现,如今美国明显面临着大学毕业生过剩、受过正统技术培训的青年短缺的现状。白领岗位失业率居高不下,用人单位苦于找不到高级技工。二者脱节相当严重。Different people will rightly focus on different aspects of the growth story in Chinese students going to America — some positive, some negative. On balance, to me, it’s a good news story. We need all the bright young talent we can get who have the language and thinking skills to help navigate our challenging future.针对中国赴美留学生增长这一现象,不同的人会从不同的角度予以关注——或褒或贬。但总的来说,我觉得这是一则好消息。因为我们需要一切既具备语言能力、又会思考的年轻才俊来帮助我们探索未来。Let’s just hope that in addition to a college degree they learn that the world doesn’t owe them a living. Success takes hard work, the ability to bounce back from adversity, and an ethical compass to navigate by; but international study can open many new doors.只期盼这些年轻人在拿到大学文凭的同时,也能懂得这世界并不亏欠他们一个人生。成功需要努力,需要在逆境中崛起的能力,也需要守正不阿,但海外留学将为他们的人生带来许多新的机遇。 /201212/212956。
  • Technology Report: The Future Of TouchFor mobile touch technology, it's only the beginning.Apple Inc.'s iPhone revolutionized the mobile phone with easy-to-use touch-screen technology that allows users to surf the Web, tap out messages or control any number of inventive applications. But the iPhone and the touch-screen handsets every major phone maker has since come out with have only scratched the surface of the potential of touch.The next generation of touch technology, now in development, promises to be even more intuitive and user-friendly. 'All the work is on improving the speed of devices, the reliability and how they interact with humans,' says Chris Ard, director of marketing for touch technology at semiconductor maker Atmel Corp., based in San Jose, Calif.Among the highlights: Developers are working on new applications for 'multitouch' screens, like those on the iPhone, the GD900 from LG Electronics Inc., due for release in the U.K. imminently, and others soon to come, including Palm Inc.'s Pre. These screens can process commands the user gives with more than one finger, which broadens the possibilities for applications. Other developers are working on advances in 'haptic' feedback -- vibrations and other physical sensations that are now used, for instance, to let a gamer know she's reached a new level, but that can also be used to communicate emotions and may soon give a touch-screen keyboard the feel of a physical keyboard. And for those who still prefer to work with keys on their phones, even some traditional keyboards will perform certain functions in response to touch commands, like a finger run lightly across the keys.When the iPhone was introduced in 2007, its multitouch capability was among its most eye-catching features. Apple Chairman Steve Jobs demonstrated how photos could be resized simply with a pinching or expanding gesture using a thumb and a finger on the screen.Software developers set to work on multitouch applications. Some, for instance, allow users to play virtual musical instruments on the phone. But multitouch developers have largely focused on games.Last month, France's Gameloft SA released a Terminator Salvation game for the iPhone to coincide with the release of the movie with the same title. The game makes use of half-circle, or arc, gestures on both sides of the screen to control the characters' movements and view -- a refinement of the slide gestures that many games use to move characters through their environment.The game is designed for users to control characters with two thumbs, as they would in traditional nonmobile games. Gameloft says that this takes into account the natural rotation of the thumb bone to achieve the most comfortable and intuitive movements by the user.Another innovator in multitouch games, Illusion Labs AB, is planning a new release for the fall. The Swedish company is the creator of Sway, in which the user's thumbs control the swinging movements of a monkey-like character, and TouchGrind, in which two fingers of one hand direct the motion of a skateboard.Haptic technology aly has many nonmobile applications. In games, for instance, it can give gamers the sensation of actually steering a car they're controlling on the screen. In medical training, it can make procedures like endoscopy performed on a simulator feel real, so that medical personnel can develop a better sense of how to perform them.The use of haptics in mobile phones is still in its infancy, with Samsung Electronics Co. leading the way. Its Omnia phone, for example, vibrates to confirm each touch of the screen, and a vibration that shudders to a stop indicates that a call has been dropped.But the wider deployment of haptic-enabled phones will open the door to new applications.Immersion Corp., a haptics developer based in San Jose, Calif., says that in the next nine months three mobile carriers will be launching applications it created that allow users to communicate emotions nonverbally. For example, frustration can be communicated by shaking the phone, which will create a vibration that will be felt by the other party. That person might then choose to respond with what the developers call a 'love tap' -- a rhythmic tapping on the phone that will produce a heartbeat-like series of vibrations on the other party's phone.Immersion's general manager of touch business, Craig Vachon, says the next step is developing a phone that can deliver a physical sensation based on the position of a finger on a touch screen. One application would be a touch-screen keyboard that feels like a traditional keyboard, so that users could more easily distinguish exactly where each key begins and ends. The idea would be to help users avoid errant taps on the screen and the resulting garbled messages.'The technology is such that we could blindfold you and you would be able to feel the demarcation between the keys of a keypad, on a completely flat touch screen,' Mr. Vachon says. The technology is being tested in handsets now and should be made available to consumers sometime in the next 12 months, he says.For now, at least, many mobile users prefer the accuracy of a physical keyboard rather than a touch screen. A new technology is being designed to allow the best of both worlds: a keyboard that can also respond to touch commands.The keyboard, being developed by Berlin-based Tech21 Sensor GmbH, responds normally when a letter or number is pressed. But a user could, say, scroll down a Web page by running a finger lightly across the keyboard; pressing a little harder might be the command to scroll faster or zoom in on a page. The technology is expected to start being deployed in mobile phones in 2010 or 2011.'We want to provide any object with keys or a keypad with smarter keys,' says Tech21 Chairman Christian Lindholm.Ms. Sandler is a reporter for Dow Jones Newswires in London. She can be reached at kathy.sandler@dowjones.com.Kathy Sandler /200906/74383。
  • With their matching hats and bullhorn-equipped tour guides, Chinese tour groups may not win many style points, but according to the ed Nations World Tourism Organization they’re doing more than anyone else prop up the global tourism industry.虽然从旅行团成员统一佩戴的旅行帽和配备扩音器的导游来看,中国旅行团缺少了一些时尚气息,但联合国下属机构世界旅游组织(World Tourism Organization)公布的数据显示,中国游客对全球旅游业的贡献最大。China’s spending on outbound travel swelled to 2 billion last year, a 40% jump from 2011. That surge sent China screaming past Germany and the U.S. ─ the former No. 1 and No. 2 spenders, respectively ─ which both saw tourist outlays increase 6% year-on-year to around billion in 2012, the UNWTO said in a statement on its website.中国人去年花在出境游上的出膨胀至1,020亿美元(合人民币6,330亿元),同2011年相比增长了40%。联合国世界旅游组织在其网站上发布的一份声明中说,这一增幅令中国迅速超越德国和美国。后两者在之前是出境游出最高的两个国家。2012年德美两国出境旅游出均同比增长6%,至大约840亿美元。Thanks in part to growing disposable incomes and an easing of travel restrictions, 83 million Chinese citizens left their country in 2012, up from 10 million a decade ago, the UNWTO said.世界旅游组织说,一定程度上得益于中国人可配收入的不断增长以及中国对旅行限制的逐步放松,中国2012年的出境游客量达到8,300万人次,远高于10年前的1,000万人次。The rise of the Chinese travel market has big implications for businesses, with everyone from airlines and hoteliers to luxury brands and banks aly beginning to change their strategies to attract China’s well-heeled tourists. Hotel chains like the Hilton and cruise operators like Royal Caribbean have begun rolling out special Chinese services such as Vivienne Tam slippers and , 000 industrial-sized woks for better noodles. American Express recently teamed with Industrial and Commercial Bank of China to launched special electronic travelers cheques for the Chinese market.中国旅游市场的增长对诸多行业的企业都会产生巨大影响,从航空公司和酒店运营商,到奢侈品牌和,这些行业的所有企业都已经开始转变其经营策略,以吸引中国那些富有的游客。希尔顿(Hilton)等酒店连锁企业和皇家加勒比(Royal Caribbean)等游轮运营企业已经开始推出专门针对中国客人的特色务,如向他们提供华人设计师谭燕玉(Vivienne Tam)设计的限量版拖鞋, 有的商家还添置了价值50,000美元的专业用铁锅,以便能煮出更好的面条。美国运通(American Express)最近与中国工商(Industrial and Commercial Bank of China)合作,推出了专门针对中国市场的电子旅行票。Even lesser-known businesses like the South Coast Plaza shopping mall in southern California have started adding payment services and Mandarin-speaking concierges so that Chinese travelers can pay with their country’s credit cards and get advice from personal stylists in their own language.甚至像美国南加州的South Coast Plaza购物中心等不太知名的企业也增加了新的付务内容以及配备了会说普通话的礼宾员,以便中国游客能用他们本国的信用卡付款并能获得个人造型师以中文提供的建议。Many Chinese tourists plan their travel specifically with shopping in mind, as taxes on luxury goods boost price tags by 30% to 50% in China. The price difference often causes some purchases overseas to surpass those at home. In an August survey of 1, 200 Chinese shoppers by consulting firm KPMG, 51% of the shoppers said they bought watches in Hong Kong, Taiwan or Macau during the 12-months prior to August 2012, while only 31% said they had bought one within China’s borders during that time.许多中国人赴海外旅游就是为了购物,因为加上税后奢侈品在中国的售价会比海外高出30%到50%。这种价格差异经常导致中国人在海外购买某种奢侈品的出金额比这种奢侈品在中国国内的销售额还要高。咨询公司毕马威(KPMG)去年8月对中国1,200名购物者进行的调查发现,其中51%的人说他们在此前的12个月里在香港、台湾或购买过手表,而只有31%的人说过去12个月里他们在中国内地购买过手表。 /201304/234954。
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