明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月21日 17:04:09
Finance and economics财经商业Civil servants and austerity公务员与财政紧缩The times they arent a-changin不曾变革的时代Civil-service payrolls have held up surprisingly well一直以来,公务员的薪酬都出奇地好AFTER the party, the hangover.盛宴之后,宿醉来临。When debt-fuelled economic growth came to a crashing halt in the financial crisis of 2008, governments across much of the rich world sought to cut spending.在2008年的经济危机中,由债务推动的经济增长模式彻底崩溃,随后许多富裕经济体政府则力图缩减开。One obvious target was the states payroll.而其中一个明显的着手点便是公务员薪酬出。Leviathans minions are certainly costly.利维坦仆从们的耗费当然不菲。In the European Union public-sector wages and salaries take up about 10% of GDP.在欧盟国家当中,公共部门的薪水出大约占国民总收入的10%。The Initiative for Policy Dialogue, based at Columbia University, reckons that since 2010 almost 100 governments have set out plans to cut their payrolls.据哥伦比亚大学的政策对话倡议组织估计,自2010年以来,已有接近100个政府着手削减他们的公务员薪酬开。Some cuts may be savage.一些裁员计划或许能用残忍来形容。The headcount in many British government departments may fall by as much as 40% by 2019 from current levels, says a recent report from the Institute for Fiscal Studies, a think-tank.近期一篇来自英国政府智囊团财政研究院的报告表明,英国许多政府部门将于在2019年之前裁减目前总数40%的员工。Relative to its 2012 level Italy plans to jettison 20% of public-administration managers by 2016.而意大利政府则计划于2016年之前裁减相当于2012年总量20%的公务员。However, aggregated data on public-sector headcounts offer some surprises.然而,公共部门员工的统计数据却有些出人意料。Whereas Britains public-sector workforce has aly contracted by 8% since 2007, in Germany and France the number has increased.自2007年起英国政府公务员人数已缩减了8%,与此相反的是德国与法国方面却在增加。More intriguing still is what has happened to compensation costs—the amount governments pay bureaucrats in wages and salaries, but not pensions.更耐人寻味的是官僚薪酬待遇变化情况,而不是津贴方面的问题。Of the 30 countries in a Eurostat database, half are spending more after inflation on public employees than they were in 2007, even in cases where headcount has fallen.据欧盟统计局的资料显示,有半数国家公务员薪酬开与2007年的水平相比有所提升。The euro zone as a whole spends only 1.7% less on government wages than it did six years ago.其中部分国家甚至已经着手削减了其公务员规模。以欧元区国家作为整体来统计,其公务员薪酬开仅比6年前减少了1.7%。Belgium spends 10% more, Luxembourg 24%.与此同时,比利时政府反而增加了10%,卢森堡增加了24%。And since 2007, 21 countries, including Cyprus, Italy and France, have not cut the proportion of GDP that they devote to public servants wages.自2007年以来,有21个国家仍未削减公务员薪酬,这其中包括塞浦路斯、意大利和法国。Finding explanations for dearer public payslips is tricky.要为日益高昂的政府工资单找理由,不是一件容易的事情。One reason might be wage drift—the automatic increases in salaries that can occur as civil servants are granted annual promotions in seniority, simply for having been in their jobs for another year.其中一个原因或许可以总结为工资浮动—这一机制确保了公务员薪酬随着职位的逐年提升而增加,而职位的提升往往并不需要什么理由,仅仅在自己的岗位上又待了一年的公务员便可获得提升。In 2012, for example, more than 600,000 staff from Britains National Health Service received rises averaging 3.5%, despite a pay freeze.例如,除了一次薪金冻结之外,英国国家医疗卫生务系统超过60万名员工,在2012年得到了平均3.5%的薪金涨幅。In 2010 Barack Obama also decided to freeze government pay, yet the median salary for federal employees climbed by over ,000 during the following two years.在2010年,美国总统奥巴马虽然同样地实施了薪金冻结,然而在其后的两年内,公务员薪酬中位数则突破了3000美元的大关。Wage drift could outweigh the effect of reduced headcount, which is likely to be concentrated in the lower echelons of the civil service.工资浮动机制的影响,可能远比裁减人员的作用更大,而这是由于政府的裁员计划主要面向低层公务员。Another possibility, suggests Alberto Alesina of Harvard University, is that governments simply failed to implement planned spending cuts.哈佛大学的艾尔波托?艾莱斯那表示还有另一种可能:简单地说,那就是政府没有去执行早已制定好的开削减计划。At the end of January Greeces highest administrative court ruled that pay reductions for the armed forces and emergency services were unconstitutional: the government now faces a heavy bill in back pay.在一月底,希腊最高行政法院宣布,政府对军队以及应急务部门的经费削减行为是违宪的:这意味着政府现在要面对的是堆积如山的欠薪账单。Portugals constitutional court also opposed the scrapping of Christmas bonuses for civil servants on similar grounds.同样地,葡萄牙宪法法庭也反对其政府取消相关部门公务员圣诞节奖金的计划。These data are worrisome.以上种种数据令人十分不安。The implicit trade-off of austerity was pain now, prosperity later.如今交由政府当局权衡的利弊是自己能否忍受开削减的痛苦,以换取将来的经济繁荣。Yet as growth in advanced economies picks up, many civil services seem no more streamlined than before.但随着发达国家经济增长复苏,许多公共务将愈发臃肿不堪。 /201403/279136Business商业报道Crowdsourcing “Monopoly”众包“强手棋”The Mayfair shuffle梅菲尔洗牌One of the worlds largest toymakers tests the wisdom of crowds世界最大的玩具制造商之一体验众包智慧!IN 1904 a young American named Elizabeth Magie received a patent for a board game in which players used tokens to move around a four-sided board buying properties, avoiding taxes and jail, and collecting 0 every time they passed the boards starting-point.1904年,一位名叫Elizabeth Magie的美国青年申请获得了一个桌面游戏的专利。在该游戏中,玩家通过在一个四边的图板上左右移动一指示物赢取钱财。游戏中不仅免税合法,免除牢狱之灾,玩家还可以在每次通过棋盘上的起点时赢得100美元。Three decades later Charles Darrow, a struggling salesman in Pennsylvania, patented a tweaked version of the game as “Monopoly”.三十年之后,宾夕法尼亚的一位为生活艰苦挣扎的推销员Charles Darrow,申请了该游戏调整后的另一个版本的专利,并命名为“强手棋”。Now owned by Hasbro, a big toymaker, it has become one of the worlds most popular board games, available in dozens of languages and innumerable variations.如今,该游戏为一个大玩具商Hasbro所有,且成为了世界上最为流行的桌游之一,被翻译成几十种语言且有无数个版本。Magie was a devotee of Henry George, an economist who believed in common ownership of land.Magie是坚持土地公有制的经济学家Henry George的推崇者。Her game was designed to be a “practical demonstration of the present system of land-grabbing with all its usual outcomes and consequences.”她的游戏被设计为一个“目前土地掠夺造成的通常结局和后果的实际演示系统”。And so it has become, though players snatch properties more in zeal than sadness.尽管玩家在游戏中更多的是热衷于对财富的争抢而并非对土地掠夺问题的忧虑,但该游戏也确实反映了上述土地问题。In “Monopoly” as in life, it is better to be rich than poor, children gleefully bankrupt their parents and nobody uses a flat iron any more.无论是在“强手棋”还是在生活中,富有总是比贫穷好,……,并且也没有人再使用扁铁块了。Board-game makers have had to find their footing in a digital age.在如今的信息时代,桌游玩具制造商们不得不为自己重新寻找一席之地。Hasbros game-and-puzzle sales fell by 4% in 2010—the year the iPad came to market—and 10% in 2011.在iPad上市的2010年, Hasbro的游戏和拼图的销售额下降了4%,且在2011年下跌了10%。Since then, however, its game-and-puzzle sales have rebounded, rising by 2% in 2012 and 10% in 2013.而到了2012年和2013年,游戏和拼图的销售额又上涨了2%和10%。Stephanie Wissink, a youth-market analyst with Piper Jaffray, an investment bank, says that Hasbro has learned to become “co-creative…Theyre infusing more social-generated content into their marketing and product development.”青少年市场分析师Stephanie Wissink和投资 Piper Jaffray有关负责人表示Hasbro已经学会了集体创造。他们将更多当代社会生成的内容植入于他们的市场营销和产品开发。Some of that content comes from Facebook.有些新的元素来自于Facebook。Last year, “Monopoly” fans voted on Hasbros Facebook page to jettison the poor old flat iron in favour of a new cat token.去年,“强手棋”的粉丝在Hasbro的Facebook上投票,要求用新的猫造型令牌代替老式的扁铁块。“Scrabble” players are voting on which word to add to the new dictionary.“Scrabble”的玩家则在投票决定将哪一个词语添加到新字典中。“Monopoly” fans, meanwhile, are voting on which of ten house rules—among them collecting 0 rather than 0 for landing on “Go”, requiring players to make a full circuit of the board before buying property and “Mom always gets out of jail free. Always. No questions asked”—to make official.同时,“强手棋”的粉丝也在投票决定十条俱乐部补充规则,其中包括玩家在到达“出发”之前需集齐400美元而非200美元,在购买财富之前完成一次完整的桌面巡回,“妈妈总能无条件的出狱”。The Economist has also asked its ers for new rules, through our website and Facebook page.本刊也在通过网页和Facebook向读者征求新的规则。However, we wanted ours to reflect modern business realities.但是,我希望我们能反映现代商业现实。Several ers proposed for the bank, inevitably leading to bail-outs by other players when things went south.几个读者为提供了更为有效的建议,自然而然的,当一切都变得顺利时,其他的玩家也将得到纾困。One suggested that property prices in the London version of the game rise by 25% per turn.有一位玩家建议在伦敦那一版地游戏中,房地产价格应每一轮上涨25%。Building in inequality featured in several suggestions, the best being that some pieces begin far ahead of the others, with more money: these effects could be mitigated with cards such as “Art School” and “Finding Myself” that let other players catch up.针对那些特别的建筑,有数条建议……。这些差距会被一些类似于“Art School”、“Finding Myself”这样给其他玩家时间追赶的卡片减小。 /201404/285514

  Domestics in Britain英国佣人Life below stairs阁楼下的生活Servants—in their own words仆人的自述WINSTON CHURCHILLS valet always said the great man could not dress himself: “He sat there like a dummy and you dressed him.” Whether anyone ironed the wartime prime ministers shoe laces, washed his loose change or made sure the yolks in his boiled eggs were centred, Lucy Lethbridge does not say. But as she shows in this absorbing history, much of it in the words of servants, such things were the rule in some houses.WINSTON CHURCHILL的男仆总是说,该伟大的男人无法自己更衣:“他笨拙地坐在那里,让你给他穿衣。” Lucy Lethbridge并没说战时是否有仆人为首相熨鞋带、洗零钱、确保餐桌上有水煮蛋蛋黄。但她在书里展现的这段历史引人入胜,用仆人的话来说,这些都是作为仆人的义务。This is the extreme end of Ms Lethbridges survey—a vivid sweep from ducal palace to suburban villa, from lordly butler to Barnardos orphan, from decaying gentry and aspiring middles to the foreign nannies and cleaners of today. Her subject is many-branched and full of pressing issues, not least, the status of housework itself. All the same, there is a peculiar fascination about the old order, with its skivvies and tweenies and gentlemens gentlemen. This is where the class system most resembled a theatre of the absurd, where maids became invisible by turning their faces to the wall as their master walked by. Virginia Woolf captures the ethos brilliantly in “Mrs Dalloway”, where a society lunch is apparently magicked into existence. Tables self-sp with glass and silver, food self-cooks and is served, not by working women, but by handmaidens, “adepts in a mystery”.Ms Lethbridge向我们展现了截然不同的生活场景—从公爵官邸里忙碌的大扫除到僻静的郊区住宅,从贵族男管家到Barnardo的孤儿,从衰落的贵族、兴起的中产阶级到外国保姆,如今的清洁工。所列议题广而紧迫,尤其是家务劳动本身的情形。但过去关于下等佣人、女仆、贴身男仆的约定俗成也同样令人好奇。 这就是阶级体系与荒诞派戏剧最为相似的部分,一看到主人,女仆们就要扭头脸贴墙变成隐形人。Virginia Woolf在《达洛维夫人》一书中绝妙地捕捉了这种社会现象。社交午餐何其充满了魔力,餐桌自己摆上了杯具和刀叉,食物自己煮好端上桌。其实这些并非职业女性所为,而是出自“善于隐形”的女仆之手。Ms Lethbridge is good on the mystifications that enveloped both employers and employed. Most servants were drudges or “slaveys”. It was estimated that a maid carried three tonnes of hot water up and down stairs each week. And they were expected to be grateful for a place in a home rather than a factory (often they were). A home, so the myth went, was a haven of moral purity and order. Even its furniture was sanctified. According to one advice book, a maid should keep a place in her heart for it, next only to family. No amount of digging with chapped fingers into greasy saucepans could shake the employers sense of conferring a privilege.Ms Lethbridge擅长刻画雇主与佣工身上的神秘莫测。大多数仆人过去做过苦力,当过“奴隶”。据估计,一个女仆每周要拎三公吨的热水楼上楼下地忙碌。对此他们心存感激,因为他们可以住在称作家的地方,而不是住在工厂。家如同神话般被视为纯洁的道德和秩序的庇护所。就连家具都充满了神圣感。一本指南里写道,女仆应当忠于它们仅次于忠于这个家庭。女仆用皲裂的双手清洗油锅洗得再多也不会动摇雇主享受特权的信念。Nor could anything modernise them. American innovations, such as rubber gloves, detergents and vacuum cleaners, took decades to arrive in Britain. True cachet lay in the old and customary. There is a wonderful story of footmen having to remove for cleaning all the electric lamps each morning, as if they were oil lamps. As for Lloyd Georges 1911 bill to bring in compulsory insurance and unemployment benefits for servants, there was uproar; the delicate balance between employer and servant would be destroyed, it was said.没有事物能让英国佣人与时俱进。美国的发明创造,像是橡胶手套、洗涤剂、吸尘器,过了几十年才在英国流行起来。老派的作风习惯体现了真正的贵族威望。有个有趣的故事是说一名男仆每早起来都要卸下灯泡并清洁,搞得它们跟煤油灯似的。就在1911年,Lloyd George专门为仆人开设法定保险与失业津贴一事引起骚动;舆论说这将打破雇主与佣人间微妙的平衡。Victorian and early-20th-century domestics were the largest single group of workers in Britain after agricultural labourers. Yet histories of the working class have neglected them. Scorned by their peers as flunkeys, they felt constrained by their position from doing much more than sing rudely over the washing-up. In telling their story so fully and humanely, Ms Lethbridge manages to suggest what the words to that song might have been.维多利亚及二十世纪初期的英国,佣人是继劳农群体后最大的工人群体。而工人阶级的史料中却遗漏了这一群体。同阶层的工人蔑视他们,认为他们是奴仆,社会地位让他们无路可寻,只能边洗餐盘边唱悲歌。Ms Lethbridge通过完整人道的故事叙述,成功说明了那些歌声到底意味着什么。 /201405/295939



  If you follow football, hockey, soccer, or boxing, then youknow that athletes in these and other contact sports are at constant risk for a concussion.如果你喜欢橄榄球、橄榄球、足球或是拳击运动,那么你就会很清楚这些以及其他接触性运动中的运动员常处于脑震荡的危险境地。Everyseason several football players miss a number of games after absorbing vicious blows to the head.每个赛季都有数名橄榄球运动员由于头部遭受剧烈冲击而缺席接下来的一系列赛事。A concussion is a blow to the head that can result in temporary confusion,amnesia, nausea,dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness.脑震荡是头部受到撞击而导致的,可能造成暂时性思维混乱,失忆,呕吐,眩晕,视觉模糊以及失去意识。Although a single concussion does not appear to result in structural brain damage or swelling ofthe brain, repeated concussions can cause both.尽管一次脑震荡不会导致大脑结构性损伤或导致脑水肿,但是数次脑震荡可能引起上述两种情况同时出现。Concussions are caused in one of two ways: either by the head hitting a hard surface, or by thehead spinning suddenly.造成脑震荡的原因不外乎是这两种中的一种:头部撞到硬物,或者头部突然旋转。Take, for example, a common incident during a football game.以橄榄球赛比较普遍的事件为例,Thequarterback is hit, falls backwards, and bangs his head on the turf.四分卫触地得分,朝后方倒下,其头部就会猛烈撞击到草坪上。Although his skull stops suddenly upon impact, his brain, floating in cerebral fluid, keeps movingand hits the skull.尽管他的头骨在受到冲击时瞬间会保持不动,但是他大脑内的脑脊液仍然在晃动并不断撞击头骨。Similarly, when a boxer gets hit in the head with a right hook, his head twistsviolently.同样的,当一名拳击手头部受到一记右勾拳时,他的脑袋瞬间剧烈扭转。The skull stops moving, but the brain keeps shaking for a few moments and may brushthe skull.头骨停止移动,但是脑浆却还会震动一会儿,并有可能擦到头骨。The result is a chemical imbalance in the brain.结果是脑部化学失衡。All the neurotransmitters in the damaged area firesimultaneously, causing an overload of chemicals that impair receptors involved in learning andmemory.所有受损区域的神经传递素同时作用,造成脑内化学物质超负荷运转,从而损坏学习与记忆的神经元。The flood of chemicals also constricts arteries, making it difficult for the damaged cells toget the nutrients they need to recover.化学物质过多也会引起动脉收缩,导致大脑受损细胞难以吸收到利于复原的营养物质。Because the brain can take as long as several weeks to recover from a concussion, its a good ideato take a break from contact sports if youve had one.由于脑部需要长达数周的时间来恢复脑震荡带来的损伤,如果你脑部受到撞击最好还是休息一段时间再继续参加此类接触性运动。 201402/277100Business商业报道Intellectual property in Silicon Valley硅谷知识产权之争Rumble in the Java jungleJava丛林大战The legal fight between Oracle and Google is arcane, but the stakes are high甲骨文和谷歌之间的诉讼晦涩难解,牵涉的商业利益却是非常巨大LARRY ELLISON and Larry Page, the bosses of Oracle and Google, share a name.甲骨文的老板拉里·埃里森和谷歌的老板拉里·佩奇都有一个相同的名字,But they clearly do not share the same view of a particular intellectual property matter.但他们在某些知识产权问题上的看法却是迥然不同。On April 16th a jury began hearing arguments in a trial to determine whether Googles Android operating system infringes copyrights and patents owned by Oracle.4月16日,为确定谷歌的安卓操作系统是否侵犯了甲骨文的版权和专利,陪审团开始听取法庭辩论。The outcome could shake up the Android world of more than 300m mobile devices.审理的结果也许会震动安卓业界,这一产业涵盖了超过3亿部的移动设备。The judge has called the trial the World Series of IP cases. That sounds about right—though both firms are far more global than the baseball contest in the analogy.法官将这次审判称为知识产权案件中的总冠军赛2.这样说起来大概不错,虽然拿来类比的两家公司可比这项棒球赛事国际化多了。Oracle is hoping to hit a legal home run—and win 1 billion in damages—by showing that Google failed to pay for its use of Java,甲骨文希望通过明谷歌使用Java没有付费,在法律上打出一记全垒打,赢得10亿美元的赔偿金。a programming language which Oracle inherited when it bought Sun Microsystems in 2010, and on which Android is based.Java是一种编程语言,甲骨文2010年收购Sun微系统后将其接手,它也是安卓的基础。Google says it has done nothing wrong.谷歌表示自己没有任何过错。The trial is delving into the complex world of computer programming and providing fascinating glimpses of the inner workings of the two tech giants.案件的审理是对复杂的计算机编程业界的深入研究,也让众人对两大技术巨擎的内部运作有机会惊鸿一瞥。In testimony this week, for instance, Mr Ellison revealed that Oracle had considered buying Research in Motion, the maker of the BlackBerry.例如,埃里森先生本周在作时就披露甲骨文曾考虑过收购RIM。But at the heart of the case lies the thorny issue of whether copyright law applies to application programming interfaces,但本案的核心在于,版权法对于应用程序编程接口是否适用,这是个棘手的问题。or APIs—the specifications that allow one piece of software to talk to another.API是允许软件不同部分进行通信的规范。Oracle claims that Google used 37 Java APIs in Android without paying, and that the APIs are covered by copyright because they are the creative work of Javas developers.甲骨文的主张是,谷歌在安卓系统中使用了37个Java API,但没有付费用,而且由于这些API是Java开发者们创造性的工作成果,所以它们是受版权保护的。Googles lawyers have responded by arguing that APIs are akin to words in a poem.谷歌的律师们回应辩称API就像诗歌里的词语。Copyright can protect the poem itself, but not the underlying elements used to create it.版权能保护诗歌本身,但不能对用来创造它的基本元素进行保护。Google—whose chairman once worked for Sun—has also made much of the fact that Javas creators cheered the launch of Android.谷歌,公司董事会主席曾为Sun效力,也特别强调了Java的创造者们为安卓的发布而欢呼这一事实。If Oracle prevails, Google may have to reach a settlement with Mr Ellisons firm so it does not have to cut the offending APIs from Android, which would cause huge disruption.如果甲骨文赢得诉讼,谷歌可能只好与埃里森先生的公司达成和解,这样才不必从安卓中将侵权的API移除,一旦移除将会引发巨大的混乱。Oracle wants a financial piece of Android, says Tyler Ochoa, a law professor at Santa Clara University.甲骨文想从安卓的金钱蛋糕中分得一块,圣克拉拉大学的法律学教授泰勒·奥乔亚这样说到。A victory would also raise further questions about the legal status of APIs.诉讼的胜利同样会激起对于API法律地位更深层次的疑问。Like a baseball game, this saga could have plenty of innings.如同一场棒球比赛,这场业界传奇可能要大战三百回合。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/244316


  After all,too much oxygen can be toxic.毕竟过多的氧气是有毒的。After several days of breathing nothing but pure oxygen, youd begin to experience nausea, dizziness, muscle twitches, and convulsions.只呼吸纯氧几天之后,你会觉得恶心,头昏眼花,肌肉痉挛,抽搐。You might even die.甚至你可能会死亡。Ironically, too much oxygen actually inhibits ventilation and ends up slowing down the delivery of oxygen to your bodys tissues.讽刺的是,过多的氧气实际上会阻止空气流通,最终会减慢氧气在身体组织中的输送速度。Another problem is that certain tissues, like the lining of the lungs and the walls of the arteries, are very sensitive to oxygen.另一个问题是,特定的组织,例如肺粘膜,动脉壁都对氧气很敏感。The cornea is also very sensitive to oxygen; you may have heard of people who have gone blind because, as newborns, the oxygen levels in their incubators were too high.眼角膜也对氧气很敏感,你或许听说过有人在婴儿时期因为恒温箱中的氧气量过高而失明的事情。Scientists arent really sure why oxygen affects the body this way.科学家们不是很确定为什么氧气会这样影响身体。Some think it has to do with a special form of the oxygen molecule which bonds with the proteins and membranes in the lining of the lungs, and ends up destroying them.一些认为氧气分子以特殊的形式与肺粘膜上的蛋白质和细胞膜结合,最终破坏它们。In other words, with too much oxygen around, your insides begin to oxidize.换句话说,周围的氧气过多,身体内部会开始氧化。 /201312/267010

  Oh! Good to have buffet, I love buffets.今天要出去吃自助餐了,真是太好了。I like to get a taste of lot of different things.我喜欢吃自助餐,我喜欢品尝不同的美味,I like to nibble a little of this, and a little of that.喜欢吃吃这个,再尝尝那个。Who wants to eat a mass of potatoes when you canalso have chicken, corn and gravy and…吃自助餐最好的就是当你想要吃各种花样的土豆时还可以吃点鸡肉,啃根玉米,喝几口肉汤,还可以…Are you saying that if all you could eat were mash potatoes,youll get bored with them?你是在说如果你只能吃土豆泥你就会觉得厌倦?Exactly!没错!But dont you think youll eat more when there is a variety of things to eat?但是你有没有想过,如果你有更多吃的东西可以选择,你就会吃的更多?Well, maybe a little more. I dont know. What are you going in?嗯,可能会多吃那么一点点,我也不太清楚。你想说明什么呢?Well, like you said, studies suggest that when we eat a variety of foods, we are less likely to get bored.呃,就像你说的一样,有研究显示,如果有很多吃的东西可供选择,人们就不那么容易厌食。But therefore we are more likely to eat more.但是,这样的结果就是,人们很可能吃更多的东西。That might contribute to the current obesity problem in America-people like the taste of different foods and keep eating even after theyve hadenough.这也是造成美国当下肥胖问题的一大元凶—各种美食当前,有时即使是吃饱了,人们还会再继续吃。So eating meals with foods that are similar in taste, color, and shape could help you eatless.因此,吃东西的时候尽量吃色香味相近的东西有助于降低食欲,让人少吃一些。That sounds terrible!这也太夸张了吧!I just mention I thought variety was supposed to be good for you.我只是觉得保持饮食多样对身体好。You are right. Research shows that eating a variety of foods is the best way to get all thenutrients we need.这也是对的。研究表明,保身体摄入所需营养的最好方法就是保持饮食的多样性。And food is supposed to be enjoyed, not just tolerated.再说了,食物是用来享受的,可不是用来忍受的。So go ahead and enjoy your buffet…just be careful to take small portions.放放心心地去吃你的自助餐吧…只是要注意一点:少吃一点。Fill your plate only as much as you wouldnormally.你平时吃多少就吃多少就是了,盘子里不要装得太多了。Then eat slowly and savor each interesting taste!夹好菜后坐下来,细嚼慢咽,慢慢品尝各种美味吧! /201409/325415。

  Zx0Kbadd#E@@2luf@L|%miEy!In a Colorado gully,在科罗拉多一处溪谷中,hunters carried out a mammoth massacre,猎人们进行了一场大屠杀,leaving behind the remains of at least 16 animals.在这里留下至少16具猛犸象的遗骸VEv#,EsGy.tNsP]x。The site recreated here contains a treasure trove of evidence relating to the mammoths daily life.模拟当时的情景,这里拥有和猛犸象日常生活景象相关的物AE@3a5#flEs#XP。Again by comparing mammoth bones to elephants,同样的,经由比对猛犸象和大象的骨骸,we can calculate the sex and age of all the animals that died here,就可以推算出死在这里的动物的性别和年龄,and deduce the make-up of a Columbian mammoth herd.推测这个哥伦比亚猛犸象群的组成状况^GE7pOp;D(Busp5F*(Vi。These are the bones of juveniles, up to around 14 years old, both males and females.这些是年轻幼象的遗骨,年纪在14岁左右,公象和母象都有R[Z0Jih2AU。Several adults lied here, too, all females,这里也有几只成象,都是母象GQRaK2-pK%GXpF,+Q。including one huge specimen, at least 40 years old.包括一具巨大象骨,年龄至少40岁;V~*k;O9BeH(oK。This range of age and sex exactly matches that of a modern-day African elephant herd.这样的年纪和性别范围和现代非洲象象群组合完全相符,w007w-#KsRFa+MUMtf0。An older matriarch, the leader of the herd,年长的母象王,是象群的首领;I@,Hh*Qy。is accompanied by her daughters and other female relatives.陪伴在旁的有女儿们和其他母象亲戚0gi1E*V;;wt。And they in turn are with their young, both male and female.他们会轮流 陪伴公象母象共有的幼象uNMW8pzR6IOrySq7pC)o。But where were the adult males when this herd was destroyed?但是象群被赶尽杀绝时,成年公象在哪里呢?A unique clue to their lives was uncovered in Nebraska.在内布拉斯加曾发现公象生活的独特线索,Recreated here are the skulls of two gigantic males that died with their tusks interlocked.模拟现场情景,这里两具巨大公象的头骨显示它们命丧于象牙缠在一起.C]aidfBPDvlKf9xML9。How could this have happened? Again our best bet is to look at elephant society.这是怎么发生的呢?同样的,最佳解答就是去观察大象社会#JKi2fb40)05o。During the breeding season, sexually mature bull elephants fight for access to the female herds.在交配季期间,性成熟的公象会为了接近母象群的权力而战GD8A8@6)*c[ndahq。The tangled tusks are direct evidence that mammoths were aggressive,too.纠结在一起的象牙是猛犸象同样具有攻击性的直接据(9^tmRA-MFW3-IU,。*!q|aftSy1uz+A%eBOm.-MBmmeuXzTwZt^ayHgOkI201304/235690


  When you go back to work or class after lunch, why is it so hard to stay awake?当我们用完午餐回去工作或上课时,为什么很难保持清醒呢?Although we get energy from food, we also use lots of energy to digest it. Your energy use increases 25-50% as you digest a meal.尽管我们从食物中获取能量,但也需要耗费许多能量来消化这些食物。消化一餐就会增加百分之二十五至五十的能量消耗。With all that action going on in the digestive system, the body sends extra blood to the gut to supply oxygen and other necessities.有了消化系统内的一系列活动,身体才能源源不断地将额外的血液输送到消化道以提供充足的氧气和其它必需物。How does the body know when to do this?身体如何知道何时这样做?As food enters the stomach, the intestines secrete substances that dilate, or expand, the blood vessels that supply them with blood.当食物进入胃,肠道便分泌许多物质,它们使得为肠道供血的血管膨胀或扩张。As a result, more blood flows to the upper digestive tract, and there’s a bit less to go around to the rest of the body.结果便是更多的血液流向上消化道,而循环于身体其它部分的血液则相应减少,That might make your arms and legs and brain feel a little sluggish!这时你可能感觉浑身懒洋洋的,连大脑也变得迟钝起来。At the same time, the small intestine releases a hormone that activates the part of the brain that controls sleep, making you drowsy.同时,小肠释放出一种荷尔蒙,它可以激活控制睡眠的大脑区域,让你昏昏欲睡。Finally, the natural components in foods can also contribute to the snooze effect. Certain foods, especially carbohydrates, increase production of serotonin in the brain.最后,食物中的天然成分也会让你打盹。某些食物,特别是碳水化合物,会增加大脑中血清素的生成。Serotonin works both to stop sugar craving, and to make you very relaxed. The larger the meal, the more pronounced that feeling can be.血清素既可以抑制吃甜食的欲望,又可让你倍感放松。吃得越多,这种感觉就越明显。With all of these physiological reasons why we might feel sleepy after eating, a siesta after lunch sounds like a brilliant idea, and maybe after dinner and breakfast too!鉴于诸多生理原因导致我们餐后昏昏欲睡,也许午餐抑或早晚餐后小憩一会儿是个明智的选择。 /201306/243199

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