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2019年10月21日 16:58:44 | 作者:国际咨询 | 来源:新华社
Did you know that every time musicians pick up their instruments, there are fireworks going off all over their brain?知道每当音乐家弹奏他们的乐器时,他们脑里是到处在施放烟火吗?On the outside, they may look calm and focused, ing the music and making the precise and practiced movements required.由外表看来,他们很冷静、专注看着乐谱,做出所需的准确和熟练动作。But inside their brains, there#39;s a party going on. How do we know this?但他们的脑里正开着一个派对。我们怎么会知道呢?Well, in the last few decades, neuroscientists have made enormous breakthroughs in understanding how our brains work在过去的几十年中,神经科学家对理解脑功能有了巨大的突破,by monitoring them in real time with instruments like fMRI and PET scanners.这要功归于能即时监测脑功能的仪器,例如功能性磁振造影、正电子发射计算机断层扫描仪。When people are hooked up to these machines, tasks, such as ing or doing math problems,这些仪器扫描显示阅读、做数学题等行为each have corresponding areas of the brain where activity can be observed.引起脑内相应的活动区域。But when researchers got the participants to listen to music, they saw fireworks.但给研究参与者听音乐时神经学家看到了烟火。Multiple areas of their brains were lighting up at once, as they processed the sound,处理声音的同时脑里多处同时亮起,took it apart to understand elements like melody and rhythm, and then put it all back together into unified musical experience.将其分解成旋律、节奏等元素,而后再重新组合成一个完整的音乐体验。And our brains do all this work in the split second between when we first hear the music and when our foot starts to tap along.这些大脑运作发生在听到音乐和脚开始打节拍的一瞬间。But when scientists turned from observing the brains of music listeners to those of musicians,而当科学家由观察聆听者的大脑转至音乐家的大脑,the little backyard fireworks became a jubilee.后院的小烟火变成了喜年庆典烟火。It turns out that while listening to music engages the brain in some pretty interesting activities,事实明,听音乐时大脑忙碌于一些很有趣的活动,playing music is the brain#39;s equivalent of a full-body workout.而弹奏音乐是相当于大脑的全身锻炼。The neuroscientists saw multiple areas of the brain light up,神经科学家看到了脑内多处亮起,simultaneously processing different information in intricate, interrelated, and astonishingly fast sequences.同时以复杂、互相关联、惊人的快速序列处理不同的讯息。But what is it about making music that sets the brain alight?但究竟弹奏音乐是如何将大脑点亮的呢?The research is still fairly new, but neuroscientists have a pretty good idea.虽然该研究才刚起步,但神经科学家有不错的理念。Playing a musical instrument engages practically every area of the brain at once, especially the visual, auditory, and motor cortices.弹奏乐器同时动用到大脑几乎每区域,特别是视觉、听觉、运动皮质。As with any other workout, disciplined, structured practice in playing music strengthens those brain functions,犹如其它锻炼,有纪律、组织性的弹奏练习能加强这些脑功能allowing us to apply that strength to other activities.因而应用到别的活动。The most obvious difference between listening to music and playing it is that the latter requires fine motor skills,聆听和演奏音乐最明显的差异是在后者需要精确运动技巧,which are controlled in both hemispheres of the brain.这是受大脑两边半球控制。It also combines the linguistic and mathematical precision, in which the left hemisphere is more involved,这也结合了大多处理语言及数学精准度的左半脑,with the novel and creative content that the right excels in.以及擅长处理新颖、创造性内容的右半脑。For these reasons, playing music has been found to increase the volume and activity in the brain#39;s corpus callosum,由于如此,演奏音乐被发现能增加大脑胼胝体的容量与活动,the bridge between the two hemispheres, allowing messages to get across the brain faster and through more diverse routes.胼胝体是大脑两半球的桥梁,让讯息能以不同的路途更快速的通过大脑。This may allow musicians to solve problems more effectively and creatively, in both academic and social settings.这能使音乐家在学术和社会环境里更有效、有创意的解决问题。Because making music also involves crafting and understanding its emotional content and message,因为演奏音乐也触及塑造和了解其感情内容与讯息,musicians often have higher levels of executive function,音乐家通常具有较高水平的执行功能,a category of interlinked tasks that includes planning, strategizing, and attention类属有互相关联的计画、策略、细节关注等,to detail and requires simultaneous analysis of both cognitive and emotional aspects.以及需要同时分析认知和感情方面的任务。This ability also has an impact on how our memory systems work.这种能力也能影响记忆系统的运作。And, indeed, musicians exhibit enhanced memory functions, creating, storing, and retrieving memories more quickly and efficiently.的确,音乐家有提高的功能,能更快、有效创造、储存、重拾记忆。Studies have found that musicians appear to use their highly connected brains to give each memory multiple tags,研究发现,音乐家似乎用他们高度连接的大脑给予每个记忆多个标签,such as a conceptual tag, an emotional tag, an audio tag, and a contextual tag, like a good Internet search engine.例如,概念性标签、情感标签、声音标签、语境标签等,犹如一个好的网络搜寻引擎。How do we know that all these benefits are unique to music, as opposed to, say, sports or painting?那如何得知这些是音乐特有的益处而不是运动或绘画等会有的益处?Or could it be that people who go into music were aly smarter to begin with?或者接触音乐的人会不会一开始就比较聪明?Neuroscientists have explored these issues, but so far,神经科学家已探索这些问题,但目前为止,they have found that the artistic and aesthetic aspects of learning to play a musical instrument are different from any other activity studied, including other arts.发现了在学习演奏乐器的艺术、审美方面不同于其它研究过的活动,包括其它艺术。And several randomized studies of participants, who showed the same levels of cognitive function and neural processing at the start,一些随机研究在开始时,认知功能和神经处理有相同水平的参与者,found that those who were exposed to a period of music learning showed enhancement in multiple brain areas, compared to the others.其中有受过一段音乐学习的人相对于其他人显示多个增强的脑区域。This recent research about the mental benefits of playing music has advanced our understanding of mental function,这有关演奏音乐对脑有益处的近期研究提升了我们对脑功能的理解,revealing the inner rhythms and complex interplay that make up the amazing orchestra of our brain.显示出构成脑内精管弦乐团内在的节奏以及复杂的互动。 Article/201706/514717原味人文风情:So, if you#39;re like me, you probably have at least a few bad habits you would like to break.如果你和我一样,你可能至少有几个想改掉的坏习惯。But it#39;s tough because no matter how hard I try, I seem to slip back into the same old routines again and again.不过那很难,因为不管我多努力尝试,我似乎一次又一次地重蹈覆辙。In the last decade, we#39;ve learned a lot about how habits work.过去十年来,我们对习惯的运作有许多了解。That#39;s Charles Duhigg, author of the book The Power of Habit.那是 Charles Duhigg,《习惯的力量》那本书的作者。And in particular we#39;ve learned the neurological structure of a habit.而我们特别认识到习惯的神经结构。He says that we tend to think of habits as a single thing, but actually...他说我们往往把习惯想成单独一件事,但事实上...Each habit has three components: There#39;s a cue, which is like a trigger for a behavior to start.每个习惯都有三项构成要素:有提示,那就像触发一个行为开始的东西。And then there#39;s a routine, which is the behavior itself.然后是惯性行为,也就是行为本身。And then, finally, a reward, which is how our brain learns to encode that automatic behavior for the future.接着最后,奖励,也就是我们的大脑如何为未来学习替那自发行为编码。And one of the big differences is that for years, when people thought about habits, they focused in on the routine, on the behavior.其中一个最大的差异是,几年来,当人们想到习惯时,他们专注在惯性行为、行为上面。But what we now know is that it#39;s these cues and these rewards that really shape how habits occur and how to change them.不过我们现在知道,这些提示和这些奖励,它们才是真正构成习惯形成和改变习惯的方法。And Charles says that whether we like it or not, this kind of habit formation is endemic to our brain.Charles 表示,无论我们喜不喜欢,这种习惯形成是我们的大脑特有的。And what it will do is our brain will latch on to a cue that it associates with a behavior and a particular reward.它的作用是,我们的大脑会抓住一个提示,一个大脑连结到某个行为和特定奖励的提示。And over time, that cue and that reward become more and more and more, sort of, intertwined.随时间过去,那提示和那奖励会变得有点越来越纠缠在一起。A particular part of your brain named the basal ganglia will relate them together.你脑内一个称为基底核的特定区块会将它们连结在一起。And the behavior that#39;s associated with that, that will just sort of happen automatically.而和那相关的行为,那就会有点不自觉地发生。But Charles says the good news is we can also use this knowledge to our advantage.不过 Charles 表示,好消息是我们可以善用这项知识。There was a big study that was done about how to create exercise habits.有一个关于如何养成运动习惯的重大研究。And so what they did is they told a group of people, ;Okay, first of all, choose an obvious cue.他们所做的事是告诉一群人:「好,首先,选一个明显的提示。Always go running at the same time every day or put your workout clothes next to your bed so that you see them first thing when you wake up.;每天都在同样时间去跑步,或把运动放在床边,好让你起床第一眼就看到它们。」And then they said, ;And then go for a run or go workout. And when you get back from exercising, give yourself a small piece of chocolate.;接着他们说:「然后去跑步或健身。在你运动完回来时,给自己一小块巧克力。」Now, this is kind of counterintuitive, right? Because people who are exercising are trying to lose weight, not eat more chocolate.现在,这有点违反直觉,对吧?因为运动的人是在试着减重,不是吃更多巧克力。And yet what the researchers knew is that their brain needed that reward.然而研究者所知的事情是,他们的大脑需要那奖励。Their basal ganglia needed some reward.他们的脑部基底核需要一些奖励。And what they found was that people who ate a small piece of chocolate after coming home from a run or a workout, they were much more likely to start exercising habitually.他们发现人们,跑步或健身完回家有吃一小块巧克力的人,他们比较有可能开始规律运动。So, according to Charles, whether you want to break a habit or start a new habit, the key is to divide the habit into its component parts: cue, routine, and reward, and design it for the result that you want.所以,根据 Charles 所说,无论你是想改掉一个习惯,或开始养成一个新习惯,关键是将习惯划分成它的构成要素:提示、惯性行为以及奖励,并依你想达到的结果来设计。 Article/201611/475437You know one of the most important chapters in establishing our present existence你知道 网络是我们目前生活中最重要的组成部分之一so to speak, our present media existence was the realization of the power of the check-in.或者说多媒体生活最重要的组成部分之一 就是多次查看社交软件That is that urge, maybe you’ve felt it, I’ve got to check my email也许你已经感受到了那种焦虑比如我必须要看一下我的邮箱或者or maybe I should see what’s going on in my Twitter stream or it’s time to go to Facebook.或者你可能该查看一下推特动态或者打开脸书看看都有什么新鲜事儿发生了That’s kind of an unusual thing.这种现象很不正常I don’t know how you’d explain it to another generation but it’s kind of almost like a biological feeling that you need to check-in.我不知道你会如何向另一辈解释 但它很像 一种生理反应——你想要上网看看I would say it was invented sometime in the 1970’s with email, the first emails.它是在20世纪70年代伴随着第一批电子邮件出现的In fact, the first email addict in my ing was a man named Stephen Lukasik事实上 我所知的第一起邮件上瘾事件是一个名为史蒂芬 卢卡斯克的人who was the head of the ARPA agency in the Pentagon in the early 1970’s.他是20世纪70年代早期美国五角大楼国防部高级研究计划署的领导人And he was an interesting guy because he carried around what was then a portable computer in70#39;s同时他是一个有趣的家伙 因为在70年代 他会随身带一台便携式计算机This huge terminal and he would plug it in everywhere he went and he would check his email.这样巨大的一个终端 无论他走到哪里他都会插上电源打开电脑 然后查看一下邮件And he insisted everyone do it and he was the first guy who had what many of us have right now并且 他持每一个人都这样做 他最早拥有我们现在都有的这个东西which is just this almost addiction to checking in.那就是沉溺于查看社交软件Now the psychology behind it is interesting.其背后的心理现象很有趣It is very reminiscent of what B.F. skinner described as operant conditioning这不禁让我们想起了斯金纳所说的操作性条件反射That is to say that the tendency of all creatures, not just humans but pigeons and other animals那时就说所有生物都会具有的一种倾向 不光是人类 鸽子和其他动物也有这种倾向to take actions that will lead to rewards那就是它们都会倾向于去做能够得到奖赏的事you know, pecking at a little button to get a little snack就像啄一个小按钮就能得到食物But one of the things that Skinner noticed that I think is very relevant for our lives我认为斯金纳发现的一件事跟我们的生活息息相关is the most addictive forms of rewards are those that are unpredictable.奖赏的不确定性是最让我们着迷的And so, for example, if you peck every time and outcomes a little prize that’s not that interesting.就比如说 如果你每次按按钮都能得到一点奖励的话 那这就不是很有趣了It’s the things that you can’t predict whether they’re slot machines让人着迷的是无法预测的事 即使只是投币游戏机whether it’s fishing, whether it’s playing golf.钓鱼或是打高尔夫All the things that like actually really capture our interest are things where the reward payout is quite unpredictable.让我们非常着迷的都是那些 可获得非常不确定的奖励的事And email obviously has that quality. So does Facebook.很明显脸书和邮箱都具有那种特质Most of the time you show up there’s nothing much there.大多数时候 你上线什么信息也收不到But occasionally you might see something extraordinary in email with great news or maybe a very meaningful message.但偶然你可能会通过邮箱收到一些好消或一条意义重大的消息You know you log into social media, most of the time it’s kind of a bore but occasionally something quite profound is there.大多数时候你登录社交媒体都觉得很无聊 但有时会发现十分有意义的事And this turns out to be the most addictive kind of thing, these unpredictable reward schemes这就说明最吸引人的是那些让人无法预测奖励的东西And I think there’s a sense in which we’re little pigeons sitting inside our boxes pecking away有时候我觉得我们就像那些小鸽子 在我们的盒子里啄那个按钮I mean this is not the most inspiring model of humanity but sometimes it all like that.我不是说这是人性中最给人启发的的一面 但有时的确是这样Pecking away and waiting to see what rewards come to us and that has proven to be a very啄那个按钮 然后等着看会得到什么 已经明这很让人上瘾addictive – I don’t know if that’s the right word but very compelling scheme and one which I think many of us have gotten involved in.我不知道我说的是不是完全正确 但是那是很诱人的 并且我想很多人已经上瘾了 Article/201706/513070


We know that time in some sense is at rock bottom that which allows change to take place, right.我们知道 从某种意义上来说 处于最低点状态的时间能够变化发生,对吧When we say that time has elapsed we notice that because things now are different from how they were a little while ago.当我们说时光已逝时,我们之所以能够觉察到它,是因为我们发现现在的事物与他们先前的状态有所不同了That’s what we mean by time elapsing.这就是为什么我们说时光不再原因。But is time some fundamental quality of reality但是时间真的是现实的基本本质吗or is it something that our brains impose on our perceptions to organize our experience into some coherent framework that allows us to survive?还是我们的大脑臆想出来的幻象。这些幻象能够使我们将经验组织为一个连贯的框架 以便我们更好生存下来I mean I can well imagine that we have been under evolutionary pressure over the millennia我的意思是我能想象到我们在千年的进化压力下to organize perception so that we can survive, get the next meal, plan for the future.去形成我们的认知 以便我们能够存活下去 吃下一顿饭 计划未来All of that would seemingly require that we have a conception of time that we apply to所有这一切似乎都需要我们有一个时间的概念 然后我们能够将时间的概念应用于what we experience out there.我们所经历的一切But that doesn’t mean time as we experience it is real.但是这并不意味着我们所经历的时间是真实存在的It doesn’t mean that time as we experience is how the world is actually structured.这并不意味着 我们所经历的时间就是这个世界被构建的过程I mean there are many ideas that people put forward.我的意思是说人们对此提出了很多想法The possibility for instance that, you know, we all know that matter is made of molecules and atoms.比如说人们可能提出这样的想法 我们都知道 物质是由分子和原子构成的Could it be that time is also made of some kind of ingredient?有没有可能时间也是由某种成分构成的呢A molecule of time? An atom of time?我们可以称之为时间分子 或是时间原子Is that really what time is at fundamental level and时间最基本的组成真的是那样的吗what if it had one of these ingredients in time you can stitch you in time all by itself如果时间的一个元素能够自己对号入座will there be any hint of time as we experienced all那时间会有什么暗示吗during many of these ingredients in order to fill out time as we know it当我们在那些时间元素里经历一切 为了填满所知道的时间I mean to find hint to do a molecule of age to all我是指找到一个暗示you wouldn#39;t know that is wet that can你不会知道那是不是right mean the ingredient doesn#39;t necessarily bare a direct relationship to the microscopic a merging qualities也就是指时间原材不必基于与微观合并质量的直接关系that many of those ingredient want put together we#39;re yelled ,like your glass of water.许多时间元素就像我们希望的聚集在一起 像一杯水一样Time could be the same thing, there might be ingredient of time that bare no resembling the time we experienced时间也可以这样 可能一些时间元素和我们经历的时间完全不同and yet that might be the more fundamental way the time is injected into the make up of proprietary那也可能是时间被注入集合体的更为基本的方式Time travel is absolutely possible.时间旅行绝对是有可能的And this is not some sort of weird sci-fi thing that I’m talking about here.现在我谈论的绝对不是某种奇怪的科幻小说类的事物Albert Einstein taught us more than 100 years ago that time travel is possible if you’re100多年以前 爱因斯坦就告诉过我们时间旅行是有可能的focusing upon time travel to the future.当你指的是通往未来的时间旅行And I’m not referring to the silly thing that we all age, right.当然 我并不是指人人都会随着时间变老这件事We’re all going into the future.我们都在走向未来Sure, I’m talking about if you wanted to leapfrog into the future, if you wanted to当然 我说的是如果你想跳跃到未来的某个时间see what the Earth will be like a million years from now, Albert Einstein told us how to do that.看看一百万年后地球会将会变成什么样子 爱因斯坦告诉我们如何去做In fact he told us two ways of how to do it.事实上他告诉了我们两种方法You can build a spaceship, go out into space near the speed of light, turn around and come back.一是你可以造一艘宇宙飞船 以接近光速的速度进入太空 转个身然后回来Imagine you go out for six months and you turn around and you come back for six months.想象一下 你去了六个月 然后一转身 然后你回来也需要六个月的时间。You will be one year older.这时候你就会发现你老了一岁But he taught us that your time is elapsing much slower than time back on Earth.但他告诉我们 你的时间流逝地在地球上慢得多So when you step out of your ship you’re one year older but Earth has gone through many, many years.所以当你走出你的飞船 你只是老了一岁 然而地球上已经过去了很多很多年It can have gone through 10,000, 100,000 or a million years depending on how close to它可能过去了一万年 十年或者是一百万年 这取决于你的速度the speed of light you traveled.和你旅行时的光速the speed of light you traveled.和你旅行时的光速And he also taught us if you go and hang out near the edge of a black hole他还告诉我们 如果你去黑洞边缘附近闲逛time again will elapse more slowly for you at the edge of the black hole than back on Earth.对你来说 在黑洞边缘的时间流逝得比在地球上更慢So you hang out there for a while, you come back and again you get out of your ship and所以你在那里逗留一会 返回地球 再次走出你的飞船it will be any number of years into the future, whatever you want all depending on how close你能够到未来的任何时间,你想到哪段时间取决于you got to the edge of the black hole and how long you hung out there.你离黑洞边缘有多近和你在那里逗留了有多久That is time travel to the future.这就是到未来的时间旅行Now of course what people really want to know about is getting back.当然 现在人们真正想知道的是如何回到过去Can you travel back to the past?那么你能够穿越到过去吗?I don’t think so.我认为不是这样的。We don’t know for sure.我们都无法确定。No one has given a definitive proof that you can’t travel to the past.没有人给出一个明确的据表明你不能穿越到过去In fact, some very reputable scientists have suggested ways that you might travel to the past.事实上 一些非常有声望的科学家已经提出了你可能穿越到过去的方法But every time we look at the proposals and detail it seems kind of clear that they’re但每次当我们看这些建议和细节时 似乎清楚地知道right at the edge of the known laws of physics.他们正处于已知物理定律的边缘And most of us feel that when physics progresses to a point that we understand things even我们大家都能感觉到 当物理学发展到一定阶段,我们能够更好地理解事物的时候better, these proposals just will be ruled out, they won’t work.我们会将这些建议都剔除掉,因为我们知道他们不会奏效But I guess I would say there’s a long shot possibility based on what we know today that但是我想我要说的是 这是个基于我们目前所知的概率极低的可能性time travel to the past might be possible.即穿越回去的时间旅行或许可行But most of us wouldn’t bet our life on it.而我们大多数人是不会拿我们的生命做赌注的 Article/201706/512114

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