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来源:京东晚报    发布时间:2020年01月29日 14:26:21    编辑:admin         

Science and technology.科技。The psychology of morality.道德心理学。Time to be honest.诚实是需要时间的。A simple experiment suggests a way to encourage truthfulness.一个简单的实验却为我们提供了一种鼓励诚实的途径。;IS SIN original?; That is the question addressed by Shaul Shalvi, a psychologist at the University of Amsterdam, in a paper just published in Psychological Science. Dr Shalvi and his colleagues, Ori Eldar and Yoella Bereby-Meyer of Ben-Gurion University in Israel, wanted to know if the impulse to cheat is something that grows or diminishes when the potential cheater has time for reflection on his actions. Is cheating, in other words, instinctive or calculating?;人性本‘恶?;这是由阿姆斯特丹大学的一位心理学家—— Shaul Shalvi,在《心理科学》杂志上发表的一篇论文中所提出的问题. Shalvi士和他的两位同事——以色列Ben-Gurion大学的Ori Eldar 和 Yoella Bereby-Meyer,希望知道如果那些潜在的骗子有时间对他们的行为作出充分考虑,他们撒谎的冲动会否因此增强或减弱呢?换句话说,撒谎究竟是人的一种本能行为,还是经过仔细分析后所作出的选择呢?Appropriately, the researchers apparatus for their experiment was that icon of sinful activity, the gambling die. They wanted to find out whether people were more likely to lie about the result of a die roll when asked that result immediately, or when given time to think.研究人员为他们的实验选择了一样合适的工具—骰子—罪恶活动的标志。他们想查明的是:人们是在摇骰后立即被询问其结果时容易撒谎呢,还是在他们获得一定的思考余地的时候呢?To carry out their experiment, Dr Shalvi, Dr Eldar and Dr Bereby-Meyer gave each of 76 volunteers a six-sided die and a cup. Participants were told that a number of them, chosen at random, would earn ten shekels (about .50) for each pip of the numeral they rolled on the die. They were then instructed to shake their cups, check the outcome of the rolled die and remember this roll. Next, they were asked to roll the die two more times, to satisfy themselves that it was not loaded, and, that done, to enter the result of the first roll on a computer terminal. Half of the participants were told to complete this procedure within 20 seconds while the others were given no time limit.实验前,Shalvi士,Eldar士和Bereby-Meyer士给作为实验对象的76位志愿者每人发了一个摇盅和一粒骰子。参加者被告知他们中的一部分被随机抽选出来的,会依据其掷出的骰子点数而得到相应数目的奖励,每点10谢克尔(约合2.5美元)。接着他们便按照指示摇盅,开盅查看结果,记住点数。然后他们被要求多摇两次,以让自己确信骰子中没有被灌铅。最后,让他们自己在电脑终端里输入第一次所掷出的点数。有一半参加者被要求在20秒内完成整个实验流程,而另一半则没有时间限制。The researchers had no way of knowing what numbers participants actually rolled, of course. But they knew, statistically, that the average roll, if people reported honestly, should have been 3.5. This gave them a baseline from which to calculate participants honesty. Those forced to enter their results within 20 seconds, the researchers found, reported a mean roll of 4.6. Those who were not under any time pressure reported a mean roll of 3.9. Both groups lied, then. But those who had had more time for reflection lied less.研究人员当然无法知晓每个参加者实际掷出点数。但他们知道,依照统计学规律,如果所有人都能做到如实上报点数,那么这次实验的平均掷出点数应为3.5。这就为研究人员提供了一个测量参加者诚实程度的依据。他们发现,那组被要求于20秒内输入结果的的参加者所上报的掷出点数平均值为4.6,而另外没有时间压力的参加者的为3.9.显然这两组人都撒谎了,不过在那些有充分时间进行考虑的参加者中撒谎的较少。A second experiment confirmed this result. A different bunch of volunteers were asked to roll the die just once. Again, half were put under time pressure and, since there were no additional rolls to make, the restriction was changed from 20 seconds to eight. The others were allowed to consider the matter for as long as they wished.第二次实验则验了这一结果。这次是另一群不同的志愿者被要求掷骰子,不过只掷一次。同上次一样,他们中一半人被限制了时间,并且由于此次只需掷一次骰子,时间限制也从20s缩短为8s.其余一般则想考虑多久都行。In this case the first half reported an average roll of 4.4. Those given no time limit reported an average of 3.4. The second lot, in other words, actually told the truth.在这次实验中,前面有时间限制的一半人所上报点数的平均值为4.4,而没有时间限制的所上报的平均值为3.4。换言之,后者如实上报了数据。The conclusion, therefore, at least in the matter of cheating at dice, is that sin is indeed original. Without time for reflection, people will default to the mode labelled ;cheat;. Given such time, however, they will often do the right thing. If you want someone to be honest, then, do not press him too hard for an immediate decision.因此,得出的结论是——至少在此次摇骰作弊的案例中如此—;人性本‘恶;。在缺少时间进行考虑的情况下,人们会进入默认的;撒谎;模式。然而,如果他们获得了那样的考虑时间,一般会作出道德上正确的选择。所以,如果你希望某人对你诚实,那么千万别逼迫他立即做出出决定啊 /201209/199363。

Business.商业。The New York Times.《纽约时报》。From B to NYT.从 B 到 NYT。A new boss for an old paper.老报纸,新总裁。THE New York Times Company, an American newspaper group, has a history of ill-fated acquisitions, such as About.com, a loss-making online information service it bought in 2005 and may soon offload. On August 14th the company appointed Mark Thompson, the departing director-general of the B, a British public broadcaster, as its new boss. Will Mr Thompson be another acquisition that the company will regret?作为一家美国报纸集团,纽约时报公司的收购之路一直坎坷不平。它曾于2005年收购 About.com(一家亏损的在线信息务商),但可能很快就要将这个包袱易手他人了。8月14日,该公司委派马克·汤普生(Mark Thompson)为新任总裁。汤普生是英国公共广播公司 B的总裁,但即将离任。;收购;汤普生是否将再次让纽约时报公司感到后悔?Arthur Sulzberger, the papers hands-on publisher and chairman, is hoping that Mr Thompson can help to rescue the Grey Lady, which has swooned because of falling print circulation and advertising revenues. Janet Robinson, chief executive since 2004, abruptly resigned last December; she had risen up through the ranks of the advertising division.《纽约时报》凡事亲力亲为的出版人兼董事长阿瑟·苏兹伯格(Arthur Sulzberger)希望汤普生能够帮助拯救由于印刷版发行量下滑、广告收入降低而深陷泥潭的;灰色女士;。自2004年起担任《纽约时报》执行总裁的詹妮特·罗宾逊(Janet Robinson)于去年十二月突然辞职;她在就任总裁之前曾在公司广告部工作,后来步步高升。Expertise of that sort is passe: newspapers can no longer rely on big cheques from advertisers to sustain them. Mr Thompson, the thinking goes, can help to boost revenues by attracting a more global audience and experimenting with new platforms. Under his leadership, the B launched innovative tools, such as the iPlayer, a popular online television and radio service.广告这种专长已经落伍了:报纸公司现在已经无法依靠广告商的大额票来养活自己了。《纽约时报》认为汤普生能够吸引更多来自全球各地的读者并尝试新的平台,借此来帮助公司增加收入。B 曾在他的领导下推出了创新业务,比如受人欢迎的在线电视广播务 iPlayer。But Mr Thompson is an odd choice to lead a big, struggling private company. One analyst uncharitably compares his appointment to hiring the boss of a big charity to do a corporate turnaround. Mr Thompson has spent most of his career in public-service broadcasting at the B, save for a few years as boss of Britains Channel 4 television, a commercial broadcaster. The B is state-backed, and owes its survival to a tax on every household in Britain with a television set. That tax brought in £3.6 billion (.8 billion) last year.但选择汤普生来领导一家在泥潭中挣扎的大型私营公司,不免有些奇怪。一位分析人士刻薄地将任命汤普生比作雇佣大型慈善机构的老板来重振商业公司。除了曾在一家商业电视台——英国第四频道担任了几年总裁之外,汤普生大部分的生涯都花在 B 公共务广播方面。B 是由国家持的,其生存依靠税收维系。在英国,每个有电视机的家庭都需要缴纳这笔税收。去年,该税收让 B 进账36亿英镑(合58亿美元)。The New York Times, by contrast, needs to make money to survive. The fundamental challenge facing newspapers, says Mark Oliver of Oliver amp; Ohlbaum Associates, a consultancy, is how to get ers to pay for news online. At the B Mr Thompson did not have to worry about that.相比之下,《纽约时报》需要赚钱才能生存。一家咨询公司——奥利弗和欧哈巴姆联合公司(Oliver amp; Ohlbaum Associates)的马克·奥利弗(Mark Oliver)表示,报纸公司所面临的根本挑战在于如何让读者为在线新闻付费。而在 B,汤普生不需要为此担心。He will have to start. Recently the New York Times found some success getting more online ers to fork out. Last year it adjusted its pay wall and by June had boosted the number of digital subscribers to 509,000 between the New York Times and its stablemate, the International Herald Tribune, up by 12% in three months. However, the company still relies on advertisers for over 40% of its revenues, and online advertising rates are lower than those in print. Mr Thompson will have to devise a more radical business plan than trying to catch print papers fleeing subscribers.现在他得开始考虑这个问题了。最近,《纽约时报》成功地让更多的在线读者大掏腰包了。去年,该报调整了其付墙。截至去年六月为止,《纽约时报》和同公司的《国际先驱论坛报》(the International Herald Tribune)的数字订户增加到了50.9万人,在三个月内上升了12%。然而,该公司超过40%的收入仍然依赖于广告商,而在线广告费用相比印刷版要低一些。汤普生将必须设计出更具新意的商业方案,而不是试图去挽留印刷版迅速流失的订户。He will also have to confront Rupert Murdoch of News Corporation, who has tried to lure away some of the New York Timess subscribers and advertisers by bulking up the Wall Street Journals general coverage and its news about New York in particular. Mr Thompson may relish the fight: as boss of the B, he publicly criticised Mr Murdochs (unsubsidised) British television network for threatening to ;dwarf; its rivals. So he will fit right in with the Manhattan media set. But complaining about Mr Murdoch is not the same thing as beating him.他还将不得不对抗新闻集团(News Corporation)的鲁伯特·默多克(Rupert Murdoch)。默多克一直试图吸引部分《纽约时报》的订户和广告商,为此,他增大了《华尔街日报》(the Wall Street Journal)的总体报道范围,特别是纽约方面的新闻报道。汤普生可能会从这场争斗中获得乐趣:他在 B 担任总裁时,曾公开抨击默多克(不受政府资助的)英国电视网络,称该网络扬言要将让其竞争对手;显得渺小;。因此汤普生将与曼哈顿媒体模式完全相符。但要战胜默多克,可不只是发发牢骚那么简单 /201208/196779。

Science and technology.科技。Neutrino communications中微子通信ET, phone home外星人,致电家中The worlds first neutrino-messaging service世界上首次中微子通信务PARTICLE physics is all very well for addressing trivial matters like ;why are we here?; (see article). But some people question its practical usefulness. To answer such naysayers a group of physicists at Fermilab have just submitted a paper to Modern Physics Letters A in which they describe how they have built themselves a neutrino-powered telephone.粒子物理学总是能很好地解决我们生活中遇到的像;为什么我们在这里?;这类的琐事。但是一些人会质疑它的实际可行性。为了消除类似的质疑,费米实验室的一群物理学家刚向物理学界权威杂志Modern Physics Letters A提交了一篇论文,论文中描述着他们怎样为自己成功定制了利用中微子载波的无线电通信电话。Naturally, their neutrinophone is digital. A pulse of neutrinos (small, elusive subatomic particles with no electric charge) corresponds to the digit ;1; while no pulse corresponds to ;0;. The neutrinos themselves are created by smashing bunches of protons into a target made of graphite. They are detected roughly 1km away by researchers who, in their day jobs, work on a neutrino collaboration called MINERvA. By modulating the pulses of protons the group was able to send a message in binary that, when translated, ;neutrino;. Whether this will go down in history alongside Alexander Graham Bells first message, ;Mr Watson, come here, I want to see you,; remains to be seen.显然,他们的中微子电话通信是数字化的。一个中微子(一种不带电荷形态诡异的亚原子粒子)脉冲对应着逻辑电平;1;,没有脉冲时就对应着逻辑电平;0;。中微子产生于一些质子束轰击一个石墨目标后产生脉冲介子,介子随后衰变而成。整天工作于一个「主注入器之中微子V-A交互作用实验(MINERvA)的研究员们在大概在一公里远处能检测到中微子。通过对质子束脉冲的调制编码后,以二进制码的形式进行中微子传输。是否这将延续亚历山大?格拉汉姆?贝尔(Alexander Graham Bell)的历史,以;Watson先生,请过来,我想见到你;进行首次中微子通信,我们拭目以待。The point, though, apart from sheer wackiness, is that neutrinos are not easily intercepted by collisions with other sorts of matter. If humanity wanted to broadcast its existence to intelligent life forms that might be out in the galaxy listening, a modulated beam of neutrinos would be a good way of doing so. Conversely, some people argue that listening for ET at radio frequencies is the wrong approach. The right one, they think, would be to build a neutrino-receiver. And that would mean plenty of work for neutrino physicists. Perhaps, then, from its makers point of view, the neutrinophone is not such a nutty idea, after all.然而,重要的不仅是其古怪性而且中微子在传输中当受到其他物质的撞击时不容易被破坏。如果人类想让远在系的地方听到充满智慧生命存在性的广播,那么经过调制的中微子光束则是使他实现的一种很好的方式。相反,一些人认为利用无线电广播频率收听外星人是一种错误的方式。他们认为正确的方式应该是搭建一个中微子载波的接收器。这就意味着中微子的物理学家将需要做大量的工作。那么,也许中微子电话的制造商会认为,毕竟中微子电话并非是一个疯狂的创意。201208/193991。

Science and technology科学与技术Water purification水的净化Any old iron?有废铁吗?A little-known chemical may provide a new way to clean water一种鲜为人知的化学物质可能为清洁水源带来一线希望IRON in water is normally regarded a pollutant.水中的铁原子通常被认为是一种污染源。Luke Daly, the boss of Ferrate Treatment Technologies of Orlando, Florida, however, plans to turn that thought on its head.然而,弗罗里达州奥兰多高铁酸盐技术处理所所长Luke Daly,计划颠倒这一认知。He intends to use a chemically unusual form of iron to clean water up, not make it dirty.他将利用铁原子的一种非通常化学形态来净化水源,而非污染水源。Iron is found in the part of the periodic table known as the transition metals.铁是化学元素周期表中的一部分,也被熟知为过渡金属。Like all metals, these react with other elements by giving up electrons to form positively charged ions.像所有的金属一样,铁原子与其他元素反应,释放电子形成带正电的离子。Transition metals, though, give up different numbers of electrons in different circumstances, and thus have ions of various charges.但过渡金属在不同的情况下释放不同数量的电子,因此就形成乐携带不同数目正电的离子。Usually, iron loses two or three electrons.通常情况下,铁原子丧失2-3个电子。But in ferrates, which are compounds of iron and oxygen with non-transition metals like sodium and calcium, it loses six.但是在高铁酸盐中是铁原子、氧原子以及非过渡金属如纳原子、钙原子的化合物,它失去了6个电子。That makes ferrates extremely reactive, and it is this reactivity which Mr Daly hopes to exploit.这使得高铁酸盐极其具有活性,而这也是Daly先生希望挖掘出的活性。First, ferrates are strong oxidising agents.首先,高铁酸盐是强氧化剂。That means they destroy bacteria and viruses, and break up organic molecules with alacrity.也就是说,它们能够破坏细菌和病毒,并能迅速分解有机分子。Second, they are coagulants and flocculating agents.其次,它们也是凝结剂和絮凝剂,They attract other chemicals in the water, including dissolved metals, and precipitate them for easy removal.吸引水中其他的化学物质并生成沉淀就可以毫不费力的去除掉。Moreover, once it has done its job, the iron in ferrates precipitates too, as iron oxide, leaving pure water behind.此外,当它的使命结束后,高铁酸盐中的铁离子也会以氧化铁的形式沉淀,过滤后就是洁净的水了。The reason these wonder materials have not been used as water purifiers before is that their reactivity makes them unstable and thus difficult to store.先前这些神奇的物质并没有用来做水源净化剂,因为它们的活性使得本身不稳定,也难以储存。Thomas Waite of the Florida Institute of Technology, an academic scientist on whose work the company has drawn, jokes that in the early days of his research he kept the whole worlds supply of ferrates in a cabinet in his laboratory.佛罗里达理工学院的理论科学家Thomas Waite,开玩笑的说,在他的早期研究中,当年全世界量的高铁酸盐供应量都在他的实验室橱柜中。Ferrate Treatment Technologies trick is to make ferrates on site, for instant use, rather than attempting to transport them to where they are needed.高铁酸盐技术处理所所玩的戏法就是将高铁酸盐现场即用,而非运送到异地再使用。The firms Ferrator uses three cheap raw materials—bleach, ferric chloride and caustic soda—to produce sodium and calcium ferrate at a price competitive, in terms of oxidising power, with more familiar water-cleaners like chlorine and ozone.公司的高铁酸盐系统是用三种便宜的原材料—漂白剂、氯化铁以及氢氧化钠—来制造高铁酸钠和高铁酸钙,并使其价格,在氧化效果来看,媲美于氯水和臭氧这类的水源清洁剂。A machine small enough to be carried around in a pickup truck, Mr Daly claims, could generate enough ferrates to purify 75m litres of water a day.Daly先生称,一个足以让小货车携带的小型机器,能够制造出足够的高铁酸盐一天净化7500万公升的水。The system is now being tested at two plants in Florida.这套系统现正在接受位于弗罗里达州两座工厂的测试。If all goes well, the first commercial Ferrators will be up and running later this year.如果一切正常的话,第一个商业性高铁酸盐系统将建立并且于年后投入运营。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/228298。

When its raining, it may seem that every raindrop is the same—same size, same basic shape, same wetness. But if you could compare and measure raindrops, youd find that theyre not all the same size or shape. In fact, raindrops vary from one to six millimeters in diameter and come in all sorts of shapes. When they first fall from clouds, raindrops are surprisingly large—in rare cases, some are as wide across as a baseball. So what happens to break these monster drops into many smaller drops of different sizes?下雨时,似乎每一滴雨都是一样的——一样的大小,一样的基本形状,一样的湿润。但如果你能比较和测量雨滴,就会发现它们的大小、尺寸并不完全相同。实际上,雨滴的直径从一毫米到六毫米不等,形状和尺寸也各不相同。当雨滴第一次从云端落下时,它们出奇的大——在很少见的情况下,某些雨滴甚至会宽如棒球。那么是什么让这些“怪兽”雨滴破碎成许多大小不一的小雨滴呢?Scientists used to think it was the result of drops colliding and splintering as they fell. But one study has found that although individual large drops do indeed break up into smaller shards, it has nothing to do with mid air collisions. Instead, drops shatter all on their own. French scientists observed the phenomenon when they used a high speed camera to capture drops falling from a nozzle to simulate rainfall.过去,科学家认为这是由雨滴在下落过程中相互碰撞、不断分裂所致。但一项研究发现,大雨滴确实分裂成为较小的碎片,但这与半空中的碰撞无关。实际上,雨滴是自动破裂的。法国科学家观察到这一现象,他们用喷嘴模拟降雨,用高像素的相机捕捉到了水滴下落时的镜头。As it falls from the nozzle or cloud, the drop flattens. Then it seems to inflate like a balloon. Finally, after a few milliseconds, the upward pressure of air causes the drop to explode into hundreds of watery bits. The researchers created mathematical models to demonstrate that the shattering of individual drops explains why raindrops come in different sizes. Now, math is always useful—but to really get a sense of how raindrops shatter, you have to see it up close.随着水滴从喷嘴或云端不断下降,雨滴趋于平缓。然后,它们像气球一样膨胀。最后,几毫秒过后由于空气的上行压力,雨滴爆炸成上百个小水滴。单个雨滴的爆炸解释了为什么雨滴的大小各异,研究人员还创建了数学模型来加以说明。现在,数学总是能派上用场——但想要真正了解雨滴是如何分裂的,你必须近距离观察它。原文译文属!201302/226213。