时间:2020年02月17日 11:46:27

日本——测测你的笑有多少“aH”Japanese professor Yoji Kimura believes laughter is a weapon that in healthy doses can end the world's wars. To measure it, the expert on communications has invented a machine to chart out laughter -- and a new unit of "aH" to calculate it."We have found that children laugh more freely, releasing 10 aH per second, which is about twice as much as an adult," Kimura, a professor at Kansai University in the western city of Osaka, told reporters on Friday."Adults tend to calculate whether it's appropriate to laugh and under those restraints they eventually forget how," he said."Laughing is like a restart function on a computer. Laughing freely is very important in the course of human evolution," he said.Kimura, who believes in "a shift from a century of wars to a century of humour and tolerance," has studied the science of laughter for decades in Osaka, the hub of Japan's stand-up comedy scene.In his theory, human laughter is produced in four successive emotional stages -- letting loose, then deviating from the norm, followed by freely laughing and then having the laughter overflow."I believe there is a circuit in the human brain that creates laughter through these steps to the stage of overflowing," Kimura said confidently. "Understanding this mechanism is the door to resolving one secret of human beings."To measure laughter, he attaches sensors on the skin of a tested subject's stomach, particularly the diaphragm, and detects muscle movements."I have a theory that humour detected in the brain gets directly discharged through the movement of diaphragm," he said.By checking the movement of the diaphragm and other parts of the body, it will be possible to see if a person is only pretending to laugh while also distinguishing different types of laughter such as derision and cynicism, Kimura said.Kimura wants to make the measuring device as small as a mobile phone and possibly market it as a health and amusement gadget.Kimura said he planned to present his findings this summer to the US-based International Society for Humor Studies, adding that he looked forward to looking at differences in laughter internationally. 在日本教授木村誉二看来,笑好比一种武器,“适度的”笑具有结束战争的力量。但如何对“笑”进行测量呢?这位沟通学专家发明出一种“测笑”图仪——及其测算单位“aH”。来自日本西部城市大阪的关西大学的木村教授于上周五接受记者的采访时说:“我们发现,儿童笑起来更加无拘无束,每秒钟能释放10aH,为成年人的两倍。”他说:“成年人往往会考虑何时该笑,何时不该笑,在这些因素的制约下,他们最终就会忘记如何去笑。”他说:“笑就像电脑的重启功能,自由自在地笑对于人类的进化过程十分重要。”大阪为日本的单口相声中心,数十年来,木村教授一直在此研究“笑”这门科学。他相信,(笑可以让)“一个充满战争的世界变为一个充满幽默而包容的世界”。根据木村教授的理论,人的笑声主要经过四个相继的情绪阶段而产生,依次是放松、偏离常态、自由地笑,最后大笑。木村教授自信地说:“我认为人脑中存在一个回路,能通过以上这几个步骤产生笑声。了解这一机制有助于我们解开人类自身的一大秘密。”在“测笑”过程中,木村教授在试验对象的腹部(尤其是横膈膜位置)安置了传感器,以检测肌肉运动。他说:“我有一个理论,在大脑中检测到的幽默能通过横膈膜的运动直接释放出来。”通过检测横膈膜及身体其它部位的运动,能够判断一个人是否是假笑,同时还能辨别出不同类型的笑,比如嘲笑、冷笑等。木村教授希望能将这种“测笑”装置制成手机大小,并将其作为一种健康的小玩意儿推向市场。木村说,他计划于今年夏天向位于美国的国际幽默研究学会呈报将他的研究成果,他还希望自己能研究出世界各地笑声的不同。 /200803/30364

【中英对照】If there's one thing Johanna Rothman knows, it's the corrosiveeffects of jealousy. At 30, the author of "Behind Closed Doors: Secrets of Great Management" was incensedwhen a coworker got a job she wanted. Later, when she took a job managing former peers, she felt their jealousy in curt, backhanded compliments.有一件事情是Johanna Rothman非常清楚的,那就是嫉妒所产生的危害性。Johanna Rothman 是“关起门来:成功管理的秘密”一书的作者,在其30岁的时候,一个同事得到了她梦寐以求的职位,她很愤怒。稍后,当她升职,开始管理以前的同行时,她感到了他们讥讽的恭维中所包含的嫉妒。"If you can admit you're jealous, you can start dealing with it," says Rothman. "If you don't, jealousy can poison your relationships."Rothman说:“如果你肯承认自己是在嫉妒,那么你就可以处理好自己的嫉妒。若你没有及时处理好你的嫉妒情绪,它会毒害你的人际关系。”Jealousy can also poison your career by distracting you from your job and forcing you into constant comparisons that leave you demoralized, she says. 她还说:“嫉妒也会让你无心工作,只专注于和别人攀比,最后在自卑中一蹶不振,毁了你的职业生涯。”Want to curbyour or others' jealousy while keeping your eye on your goals? Consider these tips:想要在专注于自己的人生目标的同时,化解掉自己的或别人的嫉妒,参考下面的小贴士吧: /200907/76918

1、One of the best feeling in the world is when you're hugging the person you love, and they hug you back even tighter. 世界上最美妙的一件事是,当你拥抱一个你爱的人,他把你抱得更紧。 2、I walk slowly, but I never walk backward. 我走的很慢,但我从不后退。 /201108/147952

The Earth is a mysterious place. There is much going on around us every day that goes unexplained. For all our advanced technology and scientific understanding, there are ten perplexing events for which we have no answers.地球是个神秘莫测的所在,周遭日常的许多事物至今仍然没有解释。我们有那么多先进技术和科学知识,却还是不能为以下十件让人困惑的事情找到:10. The Body/Mind Connection 身心关联Medical science is only beginning to understand the ways in which the mind influences the body. The placebo effect, for example, demonstrates that people can at times cause a relief in medical symptoms or suffering by believing the cures to be effective--whether they actually are or not. Using processes only poorly understood, the body's ability to heal itself is far more amazing than anything modern medicine could create.对于心灵影响身体的各种方式,我们的医学只是刚刚有所了解。比如说,安慰剂效应表明人有时候能通过相信治疗有效来减轻症状和痛苦——不论治疗是否真的有效。我们的身体能通过一系列我们至今知之甚少的过程来自我疗救,其治愈能力远比现代医学所能创造的一切更加令人惊叹。9. Psychic powers and ESP 灵力与超感知觉Psychic powers and extra-sensory perception (ESP) rank among the top ten unexplained phenomena if for no other reason than that belief in them is so widesp. Many people believe that intuition is a form of psychic power, a way of accessing arcane or special knowledge about the world or the future. Researchers have tested people who claim to have psychic powers, though the results under controlled scientific conditions have so far been negative or ambiguous. Some have argued that psychic powers cannot be tested, or for some reason diminish in the presence of skeptics or scientists. If this is true, science will never be able to prove or disprove the existence of psychic powers.对灵力和超感知觉(简称ESP)的信仰流布甚广,就凭这一点,这两样东西也应该进入十大未解之谜的行列。许多人相信,直觉就是灵力的一种表现形式、一种获取有关世界或未来的特异知识的方法。研究人员已经对一些自称拥有灵力的人进行了测试,但是迄今为止,他们在受控实验室条件下得到的都还是否定或含糊的结果。有些人辩称灵力不可测试,因为它会因怀疑论者或科学家的在场而莫名其妙地减弱。如果这是真的,科学就永远无法明或驳斥灵力的存在。8. Near-Death Experiences and Life After Death 濒死体验与死后生活People who were once near death have sometimes reported various mystical experiences (such as going into a tunnel and emerging in a light, being reunited with loved ones, a sense of peace, etc.) that may suggest an existence beyond the grave. While such experiences are profound, no one has returned with proof or verifiable information from "beyond the grave." Skeptics suggest that the experiences are explainable as natural and predictable hallucinations of a traumatized brain, yet there is no way to know with certainty what causes near-death experiences, or if they truly are visions of "the other side."曾经濒临死亡的人有时会宣称自己有各式各样的神奇体验(比如进入一条隧道、出现在光之中、与亲爱的人重聚、获得一种平静感,如此等等),这样的体验也许暗示着人死后有知。但是,尽管这些体验让人刻骨铭心,但却没有人从“坟墓那边”带回过什么据或是可资验的信息。怀疑论者的看法是,濒死体验可以解释,但是是受损大脑可以预期的自然幻觉。然而,我们还是不能确切知道濒临体验的来由,也无法知道它们是否真的是“那边”的景象。7. UFOs 不明飞行物There is no doubt that UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects) exist - many people see things in the skies that they cannot identify, ranging from aircraft to meteors. Whether or not any of those objects and lights are alien spacecraft is another matter entirely; given the fantastic distances and effort involved in just getting to Earth from across the universe, such a scenario seems unlikely. Still, while careful investigation has revealed known causes for most sighting reports, some UFO incidents will always remain unexplained.UFO(不明飞行物)的存在是毫无疑问的,因为有许多人在天上看到过自己无法识别的东西,从飞行器到流星应有尽有。至于说这些物体和光影当中有没有外星人的宇宙飞船就完全是另外一回事了——但是想想穿越宇宙空间来到地球的遥远距离与巨大困难,你就会觉得这样的事情不太可能。但是,尽管大多数目击报告已经借由认真的调查得到了平平无奇的解释,有些不明飞行物事件还是会一直神秘下去。6. Deja vu 幻觉记忆Deja vu is a French phrase meaning 'aly seen,' referring to the distinct, puzzling, and mysterious feeling of having experienced a specific set of circumstances before. A woman might walk into a building, for example, in a foreign country she'd never visited, and sense that the setting is eerily and intimately familiar. Some attribute deja vu to psychic experiences or unbidden glimpses of previous lives. As with intuition, research into ,human psychology can offer more naturalistic explanations, but ultimately the cause and nature of the phenomenon itself remains a mystery.Deja vu(幻觉记忆)是一句法文短语,意为“似曾相识”,指的是一种令人不解的特殊神秘体验,就是你觉得自已以前经历过某个特定的场景。举例来说,一个女人可能会走进她初次拜访的异国的一座建筑,但却觉得眼前的景象似曾相识,感觉怪异又亲切。有些人认为幻觉记忆是通灵体验的产物,或是因为人在不经意间瞥见了前世的光景。跟直觉一样,人类心理学研究也可以为这种现象提供更为自然主义的解释,但这种现象本身的来由和性质始终还是个谜。5. Ghosts 鬼魂From the Shakespeare play "MacBeth" to the N show "Medium," spirits of the dead have long made an appearance in our culture and folklore. Many people have reported seeing apparitions of both shadowy strangers and departed loved ones. Though definitive proof for the existence of ghosts remains elusive, sincere eyewitnesses continue to report seeing, photographing, and even communicating with ghosts. Ghost investigators hope to one day prove that the dead can contact the living, providing a final answer to the mystery.从莎士比亚的剧作《麦克佩斯》到美国国家广播公司的电视节目《灵媒缉凶》,亡者的魂灵一直在我们的文化和传说中萦绕不去。许多人都声称自己曾目睹鬼魂现身,其中既有面目模糊的陌生人,也有业已故去的亲朋好友。鬼魂存在的可靠据至今还是无从取得,虔信不疑的目击者们却依然在继续报告自己看到鬼魂、拍到鬼魂乃至与鬼魂交流的经历。致力调查鬼魂的人们希望有一天能明死者可以和生者接触,由此为这个谜题找出最终的。4. Mysterious Disappearances 神秘消失People disappear for various reasons. Most are runaways, some succumb to accident, a few are abducted or killed, but most are eventually found. Not so with the truly mysterious disappearances. From the crew of the Marie Celeste to Jimmy Hoffa, Amelia Earhart, and Natalee Holloway, some people seem to have vanished without a trace. When missing persons are found, it is always through police work, confession, or accident never by 'psychic detectives'). But when the evidence is lacking and leads are lost, even police and forensic science can't always solve the crime.人们会因为各种各样的理由消失不见,大多数是自行逃遁,有一些是碰上了事故,还有少数则是遭人绑架或杀害。但是,其中的大多数最终都会被人找到。真正神秘的消失就不是这样了。从“玛丽·塞莱斯特号”船员、吉米·霍法、艾米莉·亚艾尔哈特到娜塔莉·霍洛威,有些人似乎消失得无影无踪了。失踪人口被人找到不外乎警方破案、相关人员等自供以及偶然发现等几种原因,绝没有借助“通灵侦探”的情形。但是,在据不足、线索中断的情况下,即便是警方和鉴科学也并不总能解决罪案。3. Intuition 直觉Whether we call it gut feelings, a "sixth sense", or something else, we have all experienced intuition at one time or another. Of course, gut feelings are often wrong (how many times during aircraft turbulence have you been sure your plane was going down?), but they do seem to be right much of the time. Psychologists note that people subconsciously pick up information about the world around us, leading us to seemingly sense or know information without knowing exactly how or why we know it. But cases of intuition are difficult to prove or study, and psychology may only be part of the answer.说是“心底的感觉”也好,“第六感”也好,别的什么东西也好,我们或多或少都有过直觉的体验。当然,心底的感觉经常会错(有多少次,坐飞机颠簸的时候你觉得它肯定会掉下去呢?),可也有很多时候似乎是正确的。心理学家们已经发现,人们会下意识地收集周遭世界的信息,由此便似乎能在不自知如何或为何的情况下感知或了解信息。但是,直觉的案例很难明,也很难分析,而心理学家也可能只是的一部分而已。2. Bigfoot 大脚For decades, large, hairy, manlike beasts called Bigfoot have occasionally been reported by eyewitnesses across America. Despite the thousands of Bigfoot that must exist for a breeding population, not a single body has been found. Not one has been killed by a hunter, struck dead by a speeding car, or even died of natural causes. In the absence of hard evidence like teeth or bones, support comes down to eyewitness sightings and ambiguous photos and films. Since it is logically impossible to prove a universal negative, science will never be able to prove that creatures like Bigfoot and the Loch Ness monster do not exist, and it is possible that these mysterious beasts lurk far from prying eyes.几十年当中,美国各地都不时有目击者声称自己看到了人称“大脚”的巨型多毛人形野兽。尽管目击者口中的“大脚”数以千计、足以构成一个繁殖种群,人们却连一具尸体也未曾找到。没有一个“大脚”被猎人杀死或是被超速的汽车撞死,连自然死亡的都没有。没有牙齿骨骼之类的实在物,“大脚”存在的依据只是人目击以及模糊不清的照片和录像。要明一个全称否定判断从逻辑上说是不可能的,因此科学将永远不能明“大脚”和尼斯湖怪兽之类的东西不存在。也有可能,这些神秘莫测的生物的确潜藏在人们好奇视线之外的远处。1. The Taos Hum 陶斯之声Some residents and visitors in the small city of Taos, New Mexico, have for years been annoyed and puzzled by a mysterious and faint low-frequency hum in the desert air. Oddly, only about 2 percent of Taos residents report hearing the sound. Some believe it is caused by unusual acoustics; others suspect mass hysteria or some secret, sinister purpose. Whether described as a whir, hum, or buzz and whether psychological, natural, or supernatural no one has yet been able to locate the sound's origin.多年以来,美国新墨西哥州小城市陶斯的部分居民和访客一直被沙漠空气中一种微弱的低频噪声所困扰。奇怪的是,只有大约2%的陶斯居民说自己听见了这种声音。有些人认为它产生于特殊的声学作用,也有些人怀疑这是集体幻觉或是某种神秘邪恶行为的产物。不管人们形容这种声响还是呼呼声、嗡嗡声还是咝咝声,也不管它究竟是心理作用、自然产物还是超自然产物,至今还没人能找到它的来源。 /200908/81325

It appears the secret of a man's attractiveness to the opposite sex lies in his hands. Men whose ring fingers are longer than their index fingers are seen as better bets by women, a study found. By contrast those seen as wimpier sorts will have longer index fingers.最近一项调查发现,一个男人对异性有没有吸引力在于他长着怎样的一双手,而女性更易选择那些无名指比食指长的男性作为心仪对象。与此形成对比的是,她们不中意的男性则长着较长的食指。British, French and Swiss researchers photographed 49 young men and measured the length of their ring and index fingers. They then showed a group of women the photos and asked them to rate the men's looks.Those whose ring fingers were longer than their index fingers were more likely to win the women's approval. They were seen as good prospects for both a fling and a long-term relationship.来自英,法,瑞士三国的研究人员给49名年轻小伙子拍了照片,并测量了他们食指和无名指的长度,然后把拍摄的照片给一群女性受访者看,并对照片上男性的相貌打分。Stirling University researcher Craig Roberts said exposure to testosterone in the womb likely affects facial structure as well as finger length. Having a long ring finger confers a host of other benefits. For instance, scientists believe the longer a man's ring finger is compared to his index finger, the richer he is likely to be. They claim he is also likely to be a promiscuous, extroverted go-getter with strong muscles and has a greater likelihood of playing a musical instrument.结果显示那些更易俘获女性芳心的男性无名指都较长。女性受访者认为这些男性不仅是绝佳的情人,也会是相守终生的伴侣。斯特林大学的研究员克雷格#8226;罗伯茨表示,一个人的面部轮廓和手指长度受其胎儿时期在母亲子宫里接触到的睾丸激素的影响。无名指较长的人拥有很多天赋。比如,科学家相信无名指越长的人越有可能成为富翁。他们还表示这样的男性肌肉发达,性格外向,极有女人缘,并有可能精通某一种乐器。Unfortunately such men also have a higher chance of ending up in prison, being murdered or going mad.但这样的人也极易犯罪,死于非命或精神崩溃。 /201104/132961

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