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来源:365社区    发布时间:2019年06月27日 11:21:53    编辑:admin         

1. We#39;re not impatient, just efficient.我们不是没耐心,而是有效率Long lines? Traffic? Type A individuals loathe them all. This is because we feel as though they#39;re slowing our progress of a certain goal-- even if that goal is just to deposit a check at the bank.排长队?堵车?我们A型人格患者恨透了这些。这是因为,我们感觉这些事情会拖累我们向某个目标前进的进度——即使所谓的目标只是去存个钱。2. Arriving late to anything is ;agonizing;.在任何情况下迟到都是可耻可恨的If you tell us to be somewhere at 6:30, more likely than not, we#39;re rolling up to the parking lot at 6:25. Type A folks tend to have an oversensitivity to time, because we don#39;t want to feel like we#39;re wasting it.如果你让我们A型人格患者在6:30到达某个地方,很有可能我们在6:25就已经到达目的地的停车场了。A型人格患者往往对时间过度敏感,因为我们不希望觉得自己在浪费时间。3. We live by to-do lists.我们按照任务清单来生活How else are we supposed to track what we#39;re supposed to get done?!否则我们怎么明确自己该干什么事呢?4. Each task we#39;re assigned is urgent.我们接受的每项任务都很紧迫Because of this, we value team members who work with the same brevity and speed that we do. Once again, wasting time is our ultimate enemy.正因为此,我们很看重团队中能和我们一样做事干练、有速度的团队成员。再说一遍,浪费时间是我们的死敌。5. We#39;re extremely goal-oriented.我们非常以目标为导向。Once we commit to something, we see it through until the very end, whether it#39;s a work project or Friday night plans.一旦我们决定要做某件事,我们就会不达目的决不罢休,不管是对一个工作项目还是对周五晚上的计划。6. It#39;s hard for us to relax.我们很难放松This is where time sensitivity comes into play again. We hate the idea of letting time pass if there#39;s something we need to be doing. Downtime tends to feel unproductive to Type A folks -- unless, of course, it#39;s on our to-do list.这又是我们对时间的高度敏感性在起作用了。我们讨厌明知道自己必须做某件事,却让时间白白流失。我们觉得休整时间是无生产率的——当然,休整作为任务被列入任务清单的话就另当别论了。7. We get stressed out easily.我们很容易感到焦虑Type A are more sensitive to stress (which, as we know, is terribly bad for our health). We also tend to default on the worst possible outcome when working through a situation. Sorry in advance for the slight negativity.A型人格患者对压力更为敏感(众所周知,这对我们的健康非常不利)。我们常常在事情尚未处理完毕的时候,就已经预见到最坏的结果。先为我们这种略为悲观的倾向道歉啦。8. We have nervous habits.我们在神经紧张时会做某种习惯性动作For me, it#39;s hair twirling. For others, it#39;s nail biting or teeth grinding. This behavior is common for Type A personalities.对我来说,这种习惯动作是用手指缠绕自己的头发。对其他A型人格患者来说,这种习惯性动作也可能是咬指甲或者磨牙。这种应对神经紧张的小动作在A型人格者身上很常见。9. We#39;re emotional.我们很容易情绪化The reason we behave the way that we do is because we care (some could even argue that we care just a little too much). Researchers suggest that Type A people are highly conscientious-- so while it may seem like we#39;re uptight when we#39;re organizing our friend#39;s birthday party, it#39;s really just because we want it to be spectacular. They deserve it.我们之所以做事情如此锱铢必较是因为我们在乎这件事(有人可能会抱怨说,我们在乎过头了)。研究者称,A型人格患者都是极度认真负责的——所以,如果我们在为朋友举办生日派对时显得焦躁易怒,这只是因为我们希望把它办的尽善尽美。寿星们值得拥有!10. We#39;re constantly ruminating over something.我们总会回想某件事You know when you just replay a mistake over and over in your head? This is a common occurrence for Type A individuals. We are notorious for dwelling on our worries, sometimes to the point where it keeps us up at night.人们总会在脑子里一遍一遍回想自己犯过的一个错误,你懂的?这种现象对A型人格患者很常见。这是我们臭名昭著的坏习惯,我们会不断纠结于自己的烦心事,有时甚至为此整晚难以入睡。11. We have a competitive side.我们有好胜的一面This is perhaps one of our most glaring flaws. Type A#39;s put a lot of pressure on themselves to be the best possible version of themselves, which sometimes is taken to mean ;the best person in the room.; It doesn#39;t matter if it#39;s a work assignment or a board game, they#39;re all the same to a Type A personality.这可能是我们最突出的缺陷。A型人格患者的一大乐趣在于,让自己扮演最完美的自己,虽然有时这会被误解成“充当一个屋子里最完美的人”。不管是对一项工作任务还是对一场棋类游戏,他们总是那个好胜的A型人格患者。 /201506/378454。

DUNHUANG, China — In the cool shadows of Cave 98, Li Lingzhi watched as workers in blue suits inspected the Buddhist frescoes commissioned in this Gobi Desert cliff grotto more than a millennium ago by a local ruling family.中国敦煌——李凌志(音译)站在98号窟阴凉的暗处,看着身穿蓝色工装的工作人员查看洞窟里的佛教壁画,这些在戈壁滩崖洞里的壁画,是1000多年前由一个统治当地的家族出资创制。It has taken a decade to restore the cave. Metal scaffolding still surrounds the central statue, a three-story seated Buddha with orange robes.修复这个洞窟前后花了十年时间。洞窟中心是一座三层楼高、身披橘色袈裟的坐佛,佛像周围还立着金属脚手架。“We’re waiting for an expert to inspect this, and then we will discuss when we can open it to the public,” said Mr. Li, who works on conservation for the Dunhuang Research Academy, which has managed the Mogao Caves for the central government since 1944, even before the Communists took power. “We’re monitoring humidity and temperature now in this cave.”“我们正在等待一位专家来检查这座佛像的修复情况,然后再讨论何时可以向公众开放,”李凌志说到,他在敦煌研究院负责文物保护工作。该院自1944年就开始为中央政府管理莫高窟,当时中国共产党还没有掌权。“我们正在监测这个洞窟现在的湿度和温度,”李凌志説。Such is the delicate work that goes into preserving these small, centuries-old caves, with nearly 500 of them providing a time capsule of art along the Silk Road and ranking among the world’s greatest Buddhist treasures.保护这些有成百上千年历史的小洞窟,正需要这样细致入微的工作,沿着昔日的丝绸之路分布着五百多座洞窟,它们是穿越时间的艺术,是世界上最重要的佛教宝藏之一。There are statues and figurines and frescoes of Buddha with curly hair and sharp noses, a style common in ancient Central Asian art; Tibetan-style bodhisattvas with a thousand arms drawn in the time of Mongol rule; and disciples wearing Indian dhotis. Most of the caves with art were paid for by royal families seeking a place for private worship. The oldest one dates back 1,600 years.洞窟中的雕塑和壁画描绘的佛陀有卷曲的头发和笔挺的鼻子,这种形象在古代中亚艺术中比较常见;蒙古统治时期绘制的藏式千手观音;身着印度传统饰托蒂(dhotis)的佛教徒。大部分存有艺术创作的洞窟都是由当时的王族出资建造,作为私人的礼佛之地。最古老的洞窟可以追溯到1600年前。The caves marked the western frontier of Chinese empires and the eastern one of Central Asian kingdoms. Camel caravans crossed the Hexi Corridor here laden with spices, silks and scriptures, some of which were deposited in the famous library cave that drew the explorers Sir Aurel Stein and Paul Pelliot in the early 20th century. An entire school of scholarship called “Dunhuang Studies” has sprung up in the decades since, and the area has been designated a World Heritage Site by the ed Nations.这些洞窟曾处在历代中华帝国疆土和西方的中亚王国接壤的地方。当时穿梭于河西走廊的骆驼满载着香料、丝绸、经卷,有些经卷原先保存于著名的藏经洞里,正是这个洞窟吸引探险家奥雷尔·斯坦因爵士(Sir Aurel Stein)和保罗·伯希和(Paul Pelliot)在20世纪初来到敦煌。一大批被统称为“敦煌学”的学术研究在之后几十年陆续涌现。这个地区也被联合国列入世界遗产名录。But the modern era’s threats to the art have been legion: sandstorms, rainwater, local tomb raiders, plundering foreign archaeologists (Messrs. Stein and Pelliot among them), and White Russian soldiers who once lived in the grottoes.但到了近现代,这些艺术品却遭遇来自多方面的威胁:沙尘暴、雨水、当地盗墓者和前来捋掠的国外考古学家(包括斯坦因和伯希和),以及曾经住在这些洞窟里的白俄罗斯士兵。Scholars and preservationists now warn of an even greater looming threat: tourist hordes, even beyond the thousands of daily visitors who flood the area between May and October.如今,学者和文物保护者担心一个更为严重、日益突出的威胁:成群结队的游客,这远不止五月到十月间令这里人满为患的成千上万名游客。Officials in Gansu Province, which includes Dunhuang, and a company in Beijing have drawn up plans for a sprawling theme park connecting the caves with a separate area of sand dunes that aly exists as a tourist playground (think dune buggies and camel rides). The connecting strip of desert would be filled with faux temples, folk villages and souvenir stands.敦煌所在的甘肃省政府和一家北京公司已经在规划建设一个巨大的主题公园,将敦煌石窟和另一片沙丘连起来,那里已经是一个观光乐园(提供沙漠越野车和骆驼骑行之类的项目)。中间相连的狭长沙漠地带将会建起假寺庙、民俗村和纪念品商店。“We hope it won’t become reality,” said Fan Jinshi, 76, known as the “Daughter of Dunhuang,” who has worked at the academy since 1963 and directed it for 17 years, until March. “The Mogao Caves are irreplaceable and nonrenewable. Not only do the caves have to be respected, but the atmosphere around them must be protected, too. The atmosphere around them is part of their integrity.”“我希望它不要变成现实,”76岁的樊锦诗说到,她被称为“敦煌的女儿”,自1963年就开始在敦煌研究院工作,担任该院院长17年,直到今年三月退休。“莫高窟无可替代,一旦破坏也不可恢复。我们不仅要保护洞窟本身,还要保护其周边环境。周边环境也是这个整体的一部分。”He Shuzhong, founder of the Beijing Cultural Heritage Protection Center, a nonprofit preservation group, expressed his concerns in an essay in the March issue of World Heritage Magazine, a publication of the Chinese Foreign Ministry.非盈利保护机构北京文化遗产保护中心发起人何戍中今年三月在中国外交部主管的《世界遗产》杂志发表了一篇文章,也表达了这方面的担忧。“For 20 years, the city has never stopped trying to exploit the caves for money,” Mr. He said in an interview. “The plan would destroy the environment of the caves.”“过去20年,这个城市一直在利用洞窟敛财,”何戍中在一次接受采访时说到。“这个项目会毁掉洞窟的环境。”The plan, requested by Gansu officials, was completed last October by the Boya Strategy Consultation Group, a Beijing-based company that develops commercial tourism sites across China. The proposal has circulated among Gansu officials and the Dunhuang Research Academy, but it has not been publicly released.应甘肃省官员的要求,在全国参与多个商业旅游景区开发的雅方略咨询集团已经在去年十月完成了这个项目的策划。这份策划书已经在甘肃官员手上和敦煌研究院里传阅,但还没有对外公布。In the plan, Boya designers list various shortcomings in the area around the Mogao Caves, including a lack of hotels, live entertainment, large shopping areas and bus parking lots, according to a copy obtained by The New York Times.《纽约时报》获得的一份策划书复印件显示,雅公司在其中列举了在莫高窟周边建景区的各种弊端,包括缺少配套酒店、设施、大型购物区和大巴停车场。The plan proposes building a trailer park and campground complete with a drive-in movie theater, a vineyard and wine cellar, and a “Silk Road Village” between the caves and the sand dunes with hotels, shopping malls, museums, performance halls, restaurants, bars and movie theaters.策划书建议在周边建立旅行拖车公园、带汽车影院的露营地、一个葡萄园和酒窖,以及在沙丘和洞窟之间建一个有配套酒店、购物中心、物馆、表演场所、餐厅、酒吧和影院的“丝绸之路村”。Its authors give generous estimates of potential income. By 2017, it says, the main tourism zone will attract more than 2.13 million tourists a year, with revenue of 496 million renminbi, or million. By 2020, the revenue will grow to 3 million.据策划者估算,这个商业项目的潜在收入将非常可观。策划书中写道,2017年主旅游区每年将会吸引213万游客,创造4.96亿人民币(或8000万美元)的营收。至2020年,收入将增至1.23亿美元。“The concept of the tourism zone was suggested by the provincial government after it established a tourism industry leading group,” said Dou Wenzhang, a Peking University business scholar who founded Boya. “The goal is to establish 20 of these zones across Gansu Province.”“这个旅游区的概念是省政府在成立了一个旅游产业领导小组之后提出的,目标是在甘肃省内建起20个这样的景区,”雅方略创始人、北京大学经济学者窦文章说到。Jiang Jianhong, director of daily operations at the Dunhuang City Tourism Bureau, said, “There is no timeline as to when construction will start on the tourism zone.” He added, “Protection of the caves is of the highest importance.”敦煌市旅游局姜建宏表示,“对于何时开始建设这个旅游区,我们还没有具体的时间表。”他还说,“洞窟的保护是最重要的。”Perhaps most worrying to the Dunhuang Research Academy, the plan calls for the creation of a provincial government commission to oversee tourism, potentially stripping the academy of some or all of its authority. Mr. Dou argued that the academy would retain much of its power and that its rules on tourism would be respected.最让敦煌研究院担心的恐怕是,该计划需要省政府建立专门委员会来监督旅游业发展,这可能会部分削弱或完全剥夺研究院的权力。窦文章认为政府会保留研究院的很多权力,他们对景区旅游的管理权也会得到尊重。In the eyes of Ms. Fan and her colleagues, the imperatives of preservation must be placed well above tourism. Aly, the number of tourists generates anxiety at the academy. After 1979, when the caves were opened to the public, 10,000 to 20,000 people visited annually. In recent years, the crowds have sometimes reached that number in a single day in the peak season, with a total of 810,000 last year.在樊锦诗和她的同事看来,文物保护的重要性一定要高于旅游开发。单是大量游客到来已经让他们倍感焦虑。1979年敦煌莫高窟对外开放后,每年有一两万人到访。最近几年,旅游旺季一天的游客人数就能达到这个量,去年的游客总数已经达到81万。Ms. Fan and her colleagues worked for years on a plan to control tourism that is just now taking effect. The academy built a new visitors’ center about 10 miles north of the caves. People park there and are required to watch two 20-minute films about the caves before taking shuttle buses to the site. There, guides lead groups of 25 people in tours of one to two hours through about eight caves, with a limit of 6,000 visitors a day.樊锦诗和同事们为一项控制游客数量的计划努力了多年,最近刚刚开始实施。研究院在洞窟北面10英里(约合16公里)处新建了一座游客中心。游客在那里换乘班车前往景区之前,需要观看两段时长20分钟的有关洞窟的影像资料。景区日接待游客总量控制在6000人内,旅游向导每次带25人入窟,一两小时内观看完八个洞窟。One of the films, in 3-D, is projected on the inside of a dome that brings the viewer into six caves, including one with an 85-foot-high sitting Buddha.其中一段是3D影像,在一个穹顶结构墙面上放映,可以让游客立体观看六座洞窟内的景象,其中一个洞窟里有一座高达85英尺(约合26米)的坐佛像。“The point is to have people look at the art but without going into the caves,” Ms. Fan said. “This is the first place in all of China to experiment with this method.”“这样做的目的是让游客不必进入洞窟就可以观赏洞窟艺术,”樊锦诗说到。“这里是全中国第一个尝试用这种方法的地方。”About 80 percent of the caves are less than 85 square feet and cannot accommodate many visitors, yet 1,187 people bought tickets for the tour one recent day.80%的洞窟面积不到85平英尺(约合8平方米),无法容纳太多游客,而最近一天就有1187人购买了门票。Their mere presence can be harmful, raising the temperature and levels of carbon dioxide and humidity. Sensors in the caves send ings to the academy’s control rooms. If those exceed recommended levels, the academy temporarily closes the cave.这些人哪怕什么也不做,只是出现在洞窟里,也会带来危害,他们会增加窟内温度、二氧化碳浓度和湿度。窟内安装的感应器会向研究院的控制室发送检测数据。如果数据超过了一定范围,研究院就会暂时关闭洞窟。“If there are too many tourists, the aly existing conditions will worsen,” Ms. Fan said. “If you develop just the tourism industry and sacrifice cultural relics protection, the profit will run out quickly.”“游客数量过多,情况会比现在的更糟,”樊锦诗说到。“如果只追求旅游开发,而牺牲文物保护,这种利润很快就会耗尽。” /201506/381520。

The chubby, inert pet dog has become a familiar household sight in richer countries. And yet there lies a possible boon to the out-of-shape among us. A recent study suggests that being told one’s pet is dangerously overweight might provide the impetus that gets an owner moving.胖乎乎、慢吞吞的宠物已经成为富裕国家常见的家庭景象。但是对我们中间身材走样的人来说,这可能是一种福利。最近的一项研究表明,告诉主人他/她的宠物太胖、存在健康风险,可能会给他/她提供锻炼动力。It might seem that having a pet dog would result in considerable physical activity, and that’s true, broadly speaking. A 2013 review of studies related to dog ownership concluded that as a group, dog owners spend almost an hour more per week walking than people without dogs. Even so, a survey from 2008 conducted in Australia found that nearly a quarter of all dog owners reported never walking their pets. This population of dog owners, studies show, actually engage in less physical activity each week than people without a dog.养个宠物似乎会增加很多运动量。一般来说的确是这样的。2013年与养相关的研究表明,总体来说,养的人每周比不养的人几乎多走一个小时。即便如此,2008年澳大利亚的一项调查发现,将近1/4的主人说他们几乎从不遛。研究表明,这部分养的人每周的运动量实际上比不养的人还少。A majority of dog owners, of course, are deeply attached to their pets, whether they walk them or not. That bond prompted a group of scientists, veterinarians and physicians at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, in Bethesda, Md., and other institutions to consider whether people might be willing to undertake ahealth-and-fitness regimen targeted at their dog, even if they had little enthusiasm for such a program for themselves.当然,不管遛不遛,大部分主人都非常喜爱自己的宠物。这种情感联系促使马里兰州贝塞斯达健康科学统一务大学(Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences)等机构的一群科学家、兽医和医生们开始考虑人们是否愿意采取针对小的健康健身生活方式——尽管他们对针对自己的这种项目没什么兴趣。The researchers recruited 32 dog owners who visited a veterinary clinic in Maryland. Their dogs varied widely in age, breed and size, but all were overweight or obese and, by and large, sedentary. So, too, were most of their owners (although the only criterion for their participation was that their dogs be rotund). Half the volunteers were told by a veterinarian to watch their dog’s nutrition and monitor its health. The rest were told that their dog was overweight and needed more exercise. These owners were given specific exercise prescriptions, which generally advised walking the dog for at least 30 minutes every day.研究者们在马里兰州的一个兽医诊所征募了32名主人。他们的在年龄、品种和体型上各不相同,但都超重或过度肥胖,并且总的来说坐得太多。它们的主人大多也是这样(虽然唯一的参与标准是他们的超重)。兽医让其中一半志愿者关注的营养,留意它们的健康状况;对另一半志愿者说他们的超重,需要更多锻炼——兽医给这些主人提供了具体的锻炼计划,总的来说是建议每天至少遛30分钟。Three months later, the volunteers and their dogs were re-evaluated. Both owners and pets in the dog-walking group had lost weight. But more interesting, those who hadbeen told only that their pets were worryingly heavy also began exercising their pets and themselves. They reported walking far more often than they did before theygot health warnings for their dogs, and both they and their pets were thinner.三个月后,研究者重新评估志愿者和他们的。遛那组的主人和宠物们都瘦了一些。不过更有意思的是,那些仅被告知宠物胖得令人担忧的主人们也开始和宠物们一起运动了。他们说,与被警告存在健康隐患前相比,他们走路要频繁得多,他们和宠物都瘦了一些。The upshot, says Capt. Mark B. Stephens M.D., a professor of family medicine at Uniformed Services University and a co-author of the study — it was published in September in the journal Anthrozoamp;ouml;s — is that “love and concern for a dog can be a powerful motivation for exercise.” Which is not to say, he adds, that people should adopt a dog as a kind of fitness device. Unlike a tmill, Marley cannot be abandoned in the basement when you tire of working out. On the other hand, no device will ever be so happy to see you lace up your walking shoes.这项研究9月份发表在《人与动物》(Anthrozoamp;ouml;s)杂志上。美国军队卫生务大学(Uniformed Services University)的医学士、家庭医学教授马克·B·斯蒂芬斯上尉(Mark B.Stephens)是这项研究的合著者。他说,重点在于,“对的热爱和关心可以成为强大的锻炼动力。”他补充说,这并不是说,人们应该把养作为一种健身手段。你不能在厌倦锻炼时把小马利(Marley)像跑步机一样丢到地下室里。不过,从另一方面讲,没有哪个健身器材会在看见你穿上步行鞋后如此高兴。 /201501/351908。

1. “How are you still single? You’re so great。”  “你怎么还单身着!你人这么好。”  2. “It’ll happen when you least expect it。”  “爱情将会发生在你最不经意的时候。”  3. “Don’t you ever get lonely?”  “你从没有感到过孤单吗?”  4. “Aren’t you worried you won’t be able to have kids?”  “你没担心过你可能不会有孩子吗?”  5. “Are you seeing anyone?”  “你现在有交往的对象吗?”  6. “You should try online dating. My friend met their husband/wife that way。”  “你该试试网恋。我有一个朋友就是那么遇到自己的丈夫/妻子的。”  7. “They don’t deserve you。”  “他们配不上你。”  8. “You are such a catch。”  “你条件这么好!”  9. “Don’t worry, you’ll find someone someday。”  “不要担心,你总有一天会找到对的那个人的。”  10. “He’s just not y for a serious commitment yet。”  “他只是还没准备好对你做出认真承诺而已。”  11. “One day when you’re married, you’ll wish you were single。”  “等有一天结婚了,你会希望你还是单身的。”  12. “There are plenty of fish in the sea。”  “天涯何处无芳草。”  13. “You’re just too picky。”  “你只是太挑剔了!”  14. “Just don’t turn into some crazy cat lady。”  “千万不要变成一个爱猫狂啊,大。”  15. “She probably just lost your number。”  “她可能只是把你的号码弄丢了。”  16. At a wedding: “You better get out there, they’re doing the bouquet toss。”  在婚礼上:“你最好离开这儿,他们要抛捧花了。”  17. “You’re just too busy right now。”  “你现在只是太忙了。”  18. “You have to love yourself before you can love someone else。”  “你必须首先爱自己,再去爱别人。”  19. In reference to your best friend: “Have you guys ever thought of dating?”  “你们没想过在一起约会吗?”(指你与你的好朋友)  20. “I can’t wait to meet your future spouse, they are going to be amazing。”  “我等不及想见你未来的另一半了,他们一定让人惊讶。”  21. “We’ll all be laughing about this someday。”  “以后我们想到这个都会笑死的。”  22. “You should let me set you up, I know the perfect person for you。”  “你应该让我帮你撮合,我知道哪样的人最适合你。”  23. “Don’t give up, it’ll happen。”  “不要放弃,爱情总会出现的。”  24. “You don’t need anyone。” DAMN RIGHT!“  你不需要任何人!” 太对了! /201502/359599。

Poking fun at fat people should be treated as seriously as racism and sexism, researchers have said。研究人员表示,取笑肥胖人士的现象应像种族歧视和性别歧视一样被严肃处理。Obesity expert Dr Sarah Jackson said that the law should protect against weight discrimination, in the same way at it prohibits singling out people based on their age, gender or race。肥胖专家莎拉#8226;杰克逊士表示,法律应当禁止肥胖歧视,正如法律禁止年龄、性别及种族歧视一样。Dr Jackson, of University College London, spoke out after conducting two studies into the physical and psychological effects of fattism。就职于伦敦大学学院的杰克逊士在进行了两项关于‘肥胖歧视’对于生理和心理影响的研究后,发表了上述看法。Her latest study, of more than 5,000 British adults found that those who were made to feel ashamed of their size suffered more symptoms of depression。在她的最新研究中,通过对5000多名英国成年人的调查研究,她发现越是那些羞愧于自己体型的人被抑郁症折磨得越厉害。They also had a lower quality of life than those who didn’t feel victimised。同时,这些人的生活质量也远低于那些不受肥胖歧视困扰的人。Examples of fattism included being treated disrespectfully, including being the butt of jokes, receiving poorer services in shops, restaurants, hospitals and doctors’ surgeries, being threatened and being assumed to be stupid。肥胖歧视的表现包括:被无礼对待;被取笑;在商店、餐厅、医院以及医生治疗时得不到良好务;被威胁;被认为是愚蠢的象征。She previously showed shaming fat people into losing weight is counterproductive。而她之前的研究显示通过嘲笑来促使肥胖人士减肥会适得其反。Far from shocking people into slimming, it actually leads to them piling on the pounds。别人的嘲笑不仅不会使他们变瘦,事实上还会导致他们体重增加。It is thought fattism drives those who are aly sensitive about their weight to comfort eat. Fear of ridicule may also mean they avoid exercise。研究认为,肥胖歧视使得那些本已经对自身体重十分敏感的人自暴自弃,大吃特吃。而且,出于对被嘲笑的恐惧,这些肥胖人士还会拒绝运动。With two-thirds of British women overweight or obese, jibes, taunts and simple thoughtlessness could be having a huge effect on the nation’s mental and psychological health。而在英国有三分之二的女性都存在超重或者肥胖问题,嘲弄、辱骂以及轻率对待肥胖人士就有可能对整个国家的精神和心理健康状况产生重大影响。Dr Sarah Jackson, the lead author of both studies, said that people may believe that weight discrimination is socially acceptable because unlike ageism, sexism and racism, it is not covered by law。两项研究的第一作者莎拉#8226;杰克逊士表示:“不像年龄、性别、种族歧视,肥胖歧视不受法律管制,于是人们就可能认为体重歧视是被社会接受的。She said: ‘In the ed Kingdom, the Equality Act 2010 legally protects individuals from discrimination on the basis of age, sex, race, disability, religion or beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, pregnancy, or gender reassignment; making it clear that discriminatory behaviour of this nature is not to be accepted。“在英国,通过颁布《2010平等法案》,每个人都可以免受因年龄、性别、种族、残疾、宗教信仰、性取向、婚姻状况、怀、变性这些不同自然选择带来的歧视。‘However, our results indicate that discriminatory experiences contribute to poorer psychological wellbeing in individuals with obesity, but there are currently no laws prohibiting weight discrimination。“然而,我们的研究结果显示:尽管肥胖人士饱受因被歧视带来的心理问题困扰,但是现行法律中没有哪部法律禁止体重歧视。‘This might send the message to people that weight discrimination is socially acceptable。“这就可能给人们传达这样一个讯息:体重歧视是被社会接受认可的。‘If weight was a protected category it might help to reduce the prevalence of weight-related discrimination and thereby improve quality of life and wellbeing for a significant proportion of obese individuals.’“如果体重属于法律保护的一个范畴,就有可能降低肥胖歧视的发生率,因此就有利于更多肥胖人士享受健康生活,提高其生活质量。” /201504/369103。

I admit: I was startled last week when I saw the first photos of Michelle Obama debarking in Japan at the beginning of her five-day Asian tour to promote the “Let Girls Learn” education campaign.上周,米歇尔·奥巴马(Michelle Obama)到达日本,开始为期五天的亚洲之行,推广“让女孩学习”(Let Girls Learn)教育计划。我承认:看到她到日本的第一波照片时,我惊呆了。Not because I don’t think it’s a terrific initiative; I do. I have two daughters, and think the more that can be done to make girls feel empowered by their academic experiences, the better.不是因为我觉得这个计划不好,我觉得它好极了。我有两个女儿,在让女孩通过学习获得力量方面,我认为做得越多越好。And not because I don’t think the first lady should be emphasizing the partnership with Japan and Cambodia. The visits are laudable.也不是因为我认为第一夫人不应该加强与日本和柬埔寨的合作。我认为她的访问值得称赞。But because of her dress: a citrine-colored, small-waisted, full-skirted print Kenzo. The dress, on first glance, telegraphed a very 1950s femininity. It seemed like such a nonpower choice in which to deliver a message about empowerment that it took me aback — even on vacation, surfing the news in a desultory fashion.是因为她的裙子:高田贤三(Kenzo)的柠檬黄收腰宽摆印花连衣裙。乍看上去,这条裙子传达出浓重的20世纪50年代女性气质。她选择这样一条没有力量的裙子去传递关于获取权力的信息,尽管当时我正在度假,只是随便看看新闻而已,这张图片还是让我惊呆了。Especially because the Kenzo dress was followed by a bright orange-red Altuzarra blazer and skirt, bedecked in blooms; which was followed by a stylized leaf print Dries Van Noten coat over a striped T-shirt and black pants; which was followed by a carnation-print Carolina Herrera frock; which was followed by an even brighter geometric Alice amp; Olivia shell and matching skirt; which was followed by a v-neck, silky, swirling-skirted, color block Roksanda Ilincic dress — the last image of Mrs O. before she boarded her plane home.更有甚者,在高田贤三连衣裙之后,她又穿了鲜艳的橙红色奥图扎拉(Altuzarra)上衣和半身裙,上面印着盛开鲜花的图案;之后是德赖斯·范诺顿(Dries Van Noten)的艺术化叶子图案印花外衣,里面是条纹T恤和黑裤子;之后是卡罗琳娜·海莱娜(Carolina Herrera)康乃馨印花连衣裙;之后是更为鲜艳的爱丽丝amp;奥利维亚(Alice amp; Olivia)几何图案套裙;她登机回国前的最后一个造型是罗克桑达·伊林契奇(Roksanda Ilincic)V领丝质宽摆色块连衣裙。However much you may want to dismiss sartorial stereotype, it’s inarguable that such styles spark an almost Pavlovian response in the lizard brain: They bring to mind the decades when gender roles were codified and distinct, when women’s sphere was the home, and their game plan didn’t necessarily included higher education.不管你多不愿理会装款式给人留下的刻板印象,无庸争辩,她这些造型就算在蜥蜴的头脑中也会唤起条件反射般的反应。它们让人想起性别角色严格鲜明的年代,女人的活动空间就在家里,她们的人生计划中不一定包括高等教育。As a woman, and one who spends a lot of time thinking about the messages women’s clothes send about their identity, I found the apparent clothes/context disjunction to be jarring. Even for a first lady who is known for her affection for a print and a dress, even in countries where color and nature are celebrated.我是一个女人,同时也花很多时间思考女性着装所传达的身份信息,我觉得奥巴马夫人的装与环境的不协调非常刺眼——即便第一夫人以偏爱印花和连衣裙闻名,即便是在那些热爱色和自然的国家。Shouldn’t she have worn a sharp-shouldered suit to talk about achievement? What about a red sheath dress, as often favored by Sheryl (“Lean In”) Sandberg? As long as we are embracing fashion clichés, wouldn’t those be more appropriate?她难道不应该穿着肩部笔挺的西去讨论如何达成目标吗?或者穿上《向前一步》(Lean In)的作者,谢莉尔·桑德伯格(Sheryl Sandberg)常穿的红色紧身连衣裙?既然我们都理解时装中的那些陈规,那么那些衣难道不是更合适吗?Which was when I began to wonder if there wasn’t, perhaps, something else going on. And I don’t mean the “she wears what she wants” piffle.这时,我开始想,也许还有其他原因。我指的不是“她只是穿她想穿的衣”这样的废话。After all, given that pretty much every image disseminated during the five days of the Asia visit was captioned “Mrs. Obama on her ‘Let Girls Learn’ trip” (or some variation thereon), the association between what the first lady was wearing and what she was there to discuss was unavoidable. Especially because she was the first sitting first lady to visit Cambodia; especially because there was no other through line; no other linking factor between the garments.毕竟,在这五天的亚洲访问中,几乎每张照片都配以“奥巴马夫人的‘让女孩学习’之行”之类的图注,所以人们难免会讨论第一夫人的着装与她的议题之间的联系。尤其是,她是首位访问柬埔寨的在任美国第一夫人;这些装没有其他贯彻始终的主题;它们之间没有其他联系。They were not all by female designers, for example, as may have been expected on a trip conceived to promote female achievement and the places sticking with school can get you.例如,它们并非都出自女设计师之手。要知道,她的亚洲之行意在倡导女性成就,提倡接受教育能让女人得到更多东西,所以人们难免会有这样的期望。They were not all by American designers, as has been traditional for American first ladies before Mrs. Obama, who saw their role as promoting local industry.它们并非都出自美国设计师之手,这是奥巴马夫人之前的美国第一夫人的传统做法,她们把推广美国本地品牌视为己任。And they were not by Asian designers, an occasional form of sartorial diplomacy employed by traveling politicians trying to make nice with the countries they visit. Nor were they all aly seen, shopped-her-closet numbers. What they were (full skirts, belts, neat tops and all) was mostly — well, girlie.它们也并非都出自亚洲设计师之手。政治家们想与访问国交好时,偶尔会采取这种装外交策略。它们也不是奥巴马夫人之前穿过的衣。这些宽摆裙、腰带、小巧精致的上衣大都是,呃,都是少女风格。Very. Almost “Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt” girlie. You know, the Tina Fey-produced Netflix series that is having a fashion moment because of its unironic embrace of bright colors and … well, girlie clothes.强烈的少女风格。几乎是《我本坚强》(Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt)里的那种少女风格。《我本坚强》是蒂娜·菲(Tina Fey)制作的Netflix电视剧,因其对鲜艳色和少女风格装不带讽刺的钟爱,如今已成为一股时尚潮流。Which may actually have been the point.这可能是真正的原因所在。We live in the era of the Merkelization of female political dress, which has seen women like Ms. Merkel, the German chancellor, and Hillary Rodham Clinton adopt what is effectively the male uniform in softer, brighter colors to remove the topic from the conversation. (It’s a pantsuit. It’s a beige/orange/teal pantsuit. Enough said.) Another way to explain the strategy is “bore them into talking about the issues.”我们生活在一个女性政治装默克尔化的时代。德国总理默克尔(Merkel)和希拉里·罗德姆·克林顿(Hillary Rodham Clinton)等女人选择穿着颜色更柔和、鲜艳的男性化装,避免让装成为一个话题(她穿的是裤套装。米黄色/橙色/蓝绿色裤套装。不用多说了)。这种策略的另一个用意在于“让他们觉得无趣,所以只能谈正事”。There’s nothing wrong with it (men do it, too), and it prevents a situation like the one that arose a few years ago when the French housing minister Cécile Duflot wore a floral dress to speak in Parliament, and was met by catcalls and whistles, which then spawned a whole debate about her dress and the reaction to her dress, and entirely overshadowed whatever it was they had been debating at the time. But what does it say about the visual identity of role models?这样做没什么错(男人们也这么做),它能避免下面这种情况:几年前,法国住房部长塞茜尔·迪弗洛(Cécile Duflot)身穿印花连衣裙在议会上讲话,观众以嘘声和口哨回应,随后出现了关于她的连衣裙以及对她连衣裙反应的大讨论,完全盖过了当时他们辩论的任何议题。但是关于榜样人物的视觉形象,人们是怎么说的来着?In choosing to meet young women in clothes that, perhaps, make her look like them — or how they may want to look if they didn’t have to wear school uniforms — Mrs. Obama was implying: You can dress like a girl and dream about getting a Ph.D. (or a law degree, if we are being picayune), too.奥巴马夫人在与年轻女孩见面时,选择身穿跟她们相似的装——或者她们不用穿校时可能想穿的装——这样或许是为了表明:你可以穿得像个女孩,同时梦想获得士学位(或者狭隘地说,法律学位)。As one San Francisco blog wrote about the “Kimmy Schmidt” fashions: “By putting Kimmy in florals and bright colors, the stylists for ‘Unbreakable’ prove that feminine outfits can represent strength as much as they represents whimsicality. Home girl may be wearing flowers but you know she can kick butt.”就像旧金山的一个客对《我本坚强》的时装风格做出的评价:“《我本坚强》的造型师们让基米(Kimmy)穿上印花装或者色鲜艳的装,是想明,女性化的装既能体现随心所欲,也能体现力量。居家女孩也许穿着印花装,但是你知道她们也很强悍”。How do you erase a stereotype? You confront it, and force others to confront their own preconceptions about it, and then you own it. And in doing so you denude it of its power.如何摆脱刻板印象?办法就是面对它,迫使其他人直面自己对此的看法,然后你就掌握了主动权。这样它就没意义了。Think of it as a twist on Gloria Steinem’s wake-up call to 40: That is what a successful, well-educated woman looks like. Carnations, acacia blossoms, full skirts and all. It’s probably about time we learned.把这当做格洛丽亚·斯泰纳姆(Gloria Steinem)对40岁女人警告的另一种理解吧:成功的、受过良好教育的女人就该是那样。康乃馨、金合欢花、宽摆裙什么的。我们或许早该学习了。 /201503/367037。

Dieters have long sworn that grapefruit helps them lose weight。长期以来节食者们一直信誓旦旦地宣称葡萄柚有助减肥。 Now, scientists are beginning to believe them。如今科学家们也开始相信他们的论断。A study has found that drinking grapefruit juice when eating fatty food lowers the amount of weight put on by up to a fifth。一项研究表明食用油脂食物时饮用西柚汁最多可以减少五分之一的增重。The research also suggested that grapefruit could be as good as prescription drugs at keeping blood sugar levels under control – a key part of managing diabetes。该研究还指出,在维持血糖处于正常水平方面,葡萄柚可与处方药媲美,而这正是控制糖尿病病发的关键。The experiments were conducted on mice – but researchers say the results justify studies on humans. Professor Joseph Napoli, of the University of California, Berkeley, said: ‘We see all sorts of scams about nutrition. But these results, based on controlled experiments, warrant further study of the potential health-promoting properties of grapefruit juice.’虽然试验对象为老鼠,但研究人员表示结果仍适用于人群。加州大学伯克利分校的约瑟夫·那不勒斯教授说:“我们看过形形色色有关营养品的骗局。但这些控制试验的试验结果已经向我们明,我们有必要对西柚汁提高人体健康方面的潜力作进一步的研究。”The Grapefruit Diet, also called the Hollywood Diet, dates back to the 1930s and has a host of celebrity fans including singer Kylie Minogue. It involves having grapefruit or grapefruit juice with every meal while cutting back on calories。葡萄柚减脂法也称好莱坞减脂法,最早可追溯到20世纪40年代,受到歌手凯莉·米洛等众多好莱坞明星的热烈追捧。那时人们便开始通过每餐食用葡萄柚或饮用西柚汁减低卡路里。The researchers found that when the mice were fed fatty food for three months, those given grapefruit juice to drink gained up to 18 per cent less weight than those given water。研究人员发现同样食用了三个月油脂食物的老鼠,与只喝水的老鼠相比,喝过西柚汁的老鼠的增重仅为前者的82%。They also had lower blood sugar and insulin levels – despite eating the same number of calories and doing the same amount of exercise as the mice who drank water. In fact, grapefruit juice was as good at controlling insulin as the widely used diabetes drug metformin, the journal PLOS ONE reports。不仅如此,后者的血糖指数和胰岛素指标也相对较低,尽管其卡路里摄入量和运动量与前者没什么区别。据科学公共图书杂志报道,实际上,西柚汁在控制胰岛素方面的作用也不亚于广泛使用的糖尿病药物二甲双胍。However, the fruit juice only had an effect on weight when the animals ate fatty food.The researchers said they did not know how grapefruit stops the pounds from piling on。但实验中只有在老鼠食用油脂食物时饮用西柚汁才对减肥有效。研究人员表示他们也不知道为什么葡萄柚能够阻止脂肪的形成。The British Dietetic Association said the fruit now needs to be thoroughly tested in humans to see if it could help with weight loss and stem the rise of obesity and diabetes。英国饮食健康协会声称,还需在人体上进行大量试验,以判断葡萄柚是否真的有助于减肥,是否真的能够阻止肥胖和糖尿病的产生。Spokesman Mariette Abrahams, a dietician, said until then it is too early for people to try grapefruit diets. ‘Grapefruit should be part of a healthy balanced diet, but it shouldn’t be the focus of the diet,’ she said。反对此做法的代表饮食专家玛丽埃塔·亚伯拉罕曾表示,至少在当时,把食用西柚当作减脂良方还为时过早。“ 食用葡萄柚可以作为健康均衡饮食的一部分,但不能成为节食菜单的主要部分,”玛丽埃塔说道。 /201507/386123。

Butcher and Lawyer肉商与律师A dog ran into a butcher and grabbed a roast off the counter.有一只,跑进一家肉店把一块烤肉从台子上抢走。Fortunately,the butcher recognized the dog as belonging to a neighbor of his.很幸运地,肉商辨认出’这只是属于他邻居的。The neighbor happened to be a lawyer.这位邻居碰巧又是一位律师。Incensed at the theft,the butcher called up his neighter and said,这起窃盗激怒了这位肉商。于是他就打电话给他的邻居说:;Hey,if your dog stole a rasat from my butcher shop,would you be liable for the coast of the meat?;“喂,如果你的儿从我的肉店偷走了一块烤肉,你会为这块肉的损失费用负责任吗?”The lawyer replied,;Of course,how much was the roast?;这名律师回答说:“当然会呀,这块烤肉多少钱呢?”;.;Afew days later the butcher received a check in the mail for .“八元。”几天后,这位肉商收到一封邮件,里面有一张八元的票。Attached to it was an invoice that :这张票却附上了一张发票,上面写着:Legal Consultation Service:0.“法律咨询务 :一百五十元。” /201504/368403。