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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月21日 12:35:53
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Science and technology科学技术Invasive species入侵物种Boom and bust繁衍与湮灭Invasive Argentine ants may be less persistent than once feared入侵性阿根廷蚂蚁可能没有想象的那么可怕Ready for take-off随时准备离开DESPITE their name, Argentine ants are a well-travelled lot.如果不顾它们的恶名,阿根廷蚂蚁可以说是很好的旅行家。Human commerce has allowed them to hitch rides from their homeland to every continent on the planet, with the exception of Antarctica.人类的商业活动将它们带到了世界各大洲,南极洲除外。And when they arrive, they often thrive.并且当它们到达时,它们就会繁衍。At least 15 countries now host colonies, which frequently prosper at the expense of native species.目前,至少15个国家受到外来物种的入侵,这种入侵是以牺牲本土物种为代价的。This flexibility, combined with an aggressive temperament, makes them one of the worlds best-known and most-hated invasive species.这种侵略性及适应性使得它们成为世界上最著名同时也是最令人深恶痛绝的入侵物种。Yet, as any general knows, establishing a beachhead is not the same thing as conducting a successful, long-term occupation.但是,众所周知,建立一个滩头阵地不同于成功地进行一次长期占领。Argentine-ant colonies sometimes collapse suddenly, and with no obvious explanation.阿根廷蚂蚁的入侵有时突然毫无缘由地停止。In a paper just published in Biology Letters, a group of researchers at Victoria University of Wellington, in New Zealand,在最近发表在《生物书简》上的一篇文章中,新西兰惠灵顿维多利亚大学的一组研究人员,led by Meghan Cooling and Phil Lester,由梅根?库灵和菲尔?莱斯特领导,describe their attempts to study such disappearances systematically.描述了他们对这种系统性消失的研究。The researchers examined 150 sites across the country where Argentine-ant nests had been recorded.研究者们考察了全国范围内150个已经被记录下来的阿根廷蚂蚁据点。At 40% of them they found that the ants had vanished.他们发现其中的40%已经消失,At many of the other sites, ant numbers were much reduced,而在其他的据点,蚂蚁数量减少,with areas that once sported dozens of nests over hundreds of hectares reduced to just one or two colonies covering much smaller tracts of land.原来几百公顷的面积上有几十个蚁巢,而现在一片小面积土地上只有一两个聚居群。And with the invaders gone, native ants seemed to be re-establishing themselves,随着侵略者离开,本土蚂蚁似乎在重建自己的种群,suggesting that the Argentine ants impact on biodiversity had been transient, rather than permanent.这表明阿根廷蚂蚁对生物多样性的影响只是暂时的。A statistical analysis of the data yielded an estimate for the likely survival time of a typical colony of between 12.9 and 15.3 years,数据统计分析估测了一个典型的聚居群可能的生存时间。and suggested that warm and dry conditions were more favourable for survival than cold, wet ones.该分析也表明,比起寒冷潮湿的条件,温暖干燥的环境更有利于生存。Exactly what caused the collapses is still not clear, although the researchers suspect that unfamiliar diseases may have played a role.尽管研究者们怀疑不熟悉的疾病可能起到了一定作用,但导致阿根廷蚂蚁消失的确切原因尚不清楚。y is not strength团结不是力量It is a plausible theory.这种理论可信。Because they grew from a small number of founder colonies,因为它们是从很小的群体发展起来的,or possibly even a single one,New Zealands Argentine ants are genetically similar to one another.新西兰的阿根廷蚂蚁之间的基因非常相似。That may be one reason for their success: ant researchers hypothesise that, being so closely related,这也许是它们成功的原因之一:蚂蚁研究者假定,the individual insects are unable to distinguish their nest mates from members of other colonies,关系紧密的个体昆虫不能够把同巢穴的同伴同其它聚居区的成员区分开来,which causes ants from different nests to co-operate as if they were kin,这导致来自不同巢穴的蚂蚁就像亲戚一样相互合作。and has led students of the field to speak not of hundreds of individual infestations, but of a single, country-spanning super-colony.这使得这一领域的学者不再谈及成百的个体侵扰,而是谈及单一的、跨越全国的超级群体。But a shallow gene pool can be a weakness, too.但是,一个浅薄的基因库也可能是一个弱点。If one nest proves susceptible to some environmental factor,如果一个巢穴容易受到某些环境因素的影响,be it disease, predation, or even a cold snap or wet spell,不管是疾病、掠食,亦或是寒流、潮湿期,then it is likely that all the other colonies will share that vulnerability.那么极可能其他的聚居群也有着同样的弱点。Now that they have documented the extent of the collapse the next step,库灵表示,他们现在已经记载了蚁群消失的范围,says Ms Cooling, is to test the hypothesis of genetic vulnerability and try to work out precisely what causes the sudden reversals of formicine fortune she has seen.下一步是验基因脆弱性这一假设,并努力找出导致蚁群突然转变的确切原因。And it is not just ecologists who will be waiting for the results.而等待这一结果的不止是生态学家。New Zealands government had reckoned it might have to spend NZm a year keeping the newcomers under control.新西兰政府估计,每年可能会花掉NZm用于控制新物种的入侵。If Mother Nature can do the job instead, then it would represent a tidy saving for the countrys exchequer.如果自然母亲能够完成这项工作,那将会为国库省下一大笔资金。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/244905

  

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  Business商业报道Religious investigation services宗教审查务The Lords outsourced work上帝的外包工作The Vatican introduces price controls on the saint-verifying business罗马教廷在圣徒核查领域引入价格控制机制IF YOU came across an essay titled The Cost of Sainthood you might assume it was a homily on the self-sacrificing life of some heroic person.如果你偶然看到一篇文章题为《圣徒的代价》,你可能以为这是一篇关于某个英雄人物自我牺牲的道德说教。But it turns out that sainthood has a cost in a more literal sense—and it has been rising.但是事实上,作为圣徒还有一个实际意义上的花费,而且这个花费在不断增加。When Cardinal John OConnor ofNew Yorkstarted a campaign for the canonisation of Dorothy Day, an activist who toiled among the citys poor, some said this was a bad use of church funds.多罗西·戴是一名挣扎在纽约贫苦人群中的激进主义分子。纽约主教约翰·欧·康纳为其的圣徒册封仪式发起活动,而有人说这一行为滥用了教派基金。He retorted that the expense was not excessive: an initiative to canonise a Haitian-born New Yorker called Pierre Toussaint, aly well advanced, had cost less than ,000主教反驳道,此项花费并非多度:为一名出生在海地的纽约人皮埃尔·图森特发起的册封倡议已经花费超过4000美元,而这一活动进展非常顺利。But that was in the late 1990s. These days a successful canonisation campaign launched inAmericatypically costs around 0,000, and can go far higher, says the Catholic News Service, an agency editorially independent of the church.独立于教会的编辑代理机构《天主教新闻通讯社》称,但是那是在二十世纪九十年代末期。现在在美国,一项成功的圣徒册封活动大致需要花费25万美元甚至更高。The procedures for having somebody recognised as a saint are elaborate and bureaucratic.让某人受封成为圣徒的程序复杂精细而又庄严肃穆。They require an exchange of documents and expertise over many years between the persons home region and theVatican.需要主教奔赴候选人的家乡,调查相关文献,并将资料送到教会,获得相关专家的意见。All sorts of experts may be called in, including doctors, who are asked to comment on the two miraculous cures which are a prerequisite for full sainthood.这一过程将历时多年。各类专家将会被召集,其中也包括医生,他们将会对两种疑难杂症的治愈过程进行评价,因为这是完全成为圣徒的首要条件之一。And a key role is played by an expert, often a Rome-based canon lawyer, known as a postulator, who mediates between the candidates fan base and theVatican, and helps prepare a case for sainthood.另外,专家也将发挥重要作用。这个专家通常是一个来自于罗马的寺院律师,被叫做列圣申请官。To the dismay of Dan Brown fans, the role of devils advocate, who argued against a prospective sainthood, was abolished in 1983.他将会在候选人的持者基地和罗马教会之间进行调停,并协助候选人的受封仪式。令丹·布朗的追随者沮丧的是,扮演与候选圣徒唱反调的魔鬼辩护人的角色在1983年被取缔。The whole business will come under scrutiny this year, with two recentish popes—John XXIII and John Paul II—due to be proclaimed saints in April.今年,圣徒册封仪式将会在准教皇约翰二十三世和约翰·保罗二世两位的仔细审查下进行。This helps explain why, in a speech to postulators this month, Cardinal Angelo Amato, who oversees the Vaticans sainthood department, disclosed that it had introduced a reference tariff—in effect, price regulation—for the costs incurred in promoting a possible saint.这两位将会在今年四月正式宣誓上任。这也就是为什么本月掌管罗马教廷圣徒机构的主教安格鲁·阿玛托在致列圣申请官的讲话中提到的,他们将会针对提名一个圣徒候选人所产生的相关费用引进一项举荐关税。 这项关税实际上是一种价格规章。The department will also continue to ensure that candidates from poor countries, whose backers are less able to pay for elaborate verification services, get a fair hearing.这个机构也会继续确保来自贫穷国家的人们有机会成为候选人。这些人们的持者无力付详尽审查务的费用或举行一个公平的听会。Even that policy has its detractors.但这个政策仍然有反对的声音。Bill Briggs, author of a book on canonisation, has argued that the investigation system introduced by John Paul II, since it is less adversarial than before, was a marketing coup: it facilitated a wave of new saints in emerging markets, helping to recruit new souls to Catholicism.比尔·布里格斯写了一本关于圣徒册封仪式的著作。在书中,他驳斥由教皇约翰·保罗二世引入的候选人调查制度是一个营销诡计,因为该制度不像以往那样具有反抗意识。它催生了新兴市场里一批新圣徒的诞生,为天主教注入了新鲜的血液。But sainthood is never just a matter of money.但是成为圣徒决不是只关乎金钱。Some see the canonisation of two popes—a Polish conservative and an Italian reformer—as a way to reconcile traditionalists and radicals.有人认为两位教皇的册封,是传统主义者和激进分子相互妥协的一种方式。And Meaghan OKeefe of the University of California,Davissees the promotion of Dorothy Day as a move by male bishops to neutralise the countrys left-leaning nuns.加州大学戴维斯分校的米根·欧·基夫认为男性主教对多罗西·戴的提名,旨在寻求国家重心的平均分配,而不是过度倾向于关注修道院。Politics comes into the picture, as well as Mammon.政治问题以及财富收入也成为成为需要考虑的相关因素。 /201402/275346

  Finance and Economics;Japanese banks in Asia; Lending a hand;财经;亚洲日本;伸出援手;Japans biggest banks help pick up the slack from retreating Europeans;日本大型捡起了欧洲人撂下的担子;There are two, potentially overlapping, ways in which Asias export-driven economies could suffer from the euro crisis. One is from the slowdown in trade to Europe. The other is the drying up of finance, from trade credit to syndicated loans, extended by euro-zone banks. On neither score is Asia as vulnerable as it was after the collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008, argued Iwan Azis of the Asian Development Bank, at The Economists Bellwether conference in Tokyo on May 16th. One of the reasons is that Japans mega-banks have lumbered off their home territory to pick up some of the slack left by the departing Europeans (see chart).欧元危机可能给亚洲的出口导向型经济带来两方面的影响(有可能是相互交叉的):一方面是对欧贸易额减少,另一方面是资金不足,这是欧元区延长了贸易信贷和银团贷款的期限导致的。5月16日,在东京举办的经济学家领导人会谈中,亚洲发展的lwan Azis认为,尽管如此,亚洲经济却再也不会像2008年雷曼兄弟垮台之后那般脆弱。其中一个原因是,日本的大型逐渐跨越本国领域,捡起了打退堂鼓的欧洲人撂下的一些担子。This is good news not just for Asias exporters. It also shows a rare stroke of boldness by Japans big three, Mitsubishi UFJ Group (MUFG), Sumitomo Mitsui, and Mizuho. After pulling back from lending to Asia following the 1998 financial crisis, and then suffering more than a decade of deleveraging by their deflation-sapped customers at home, they can almost smell the predicament of their European peers. Ken Takamiya of Nomura Securities says that in Australia, for instance, the mega-banks lending has recently overtaken that of BNP Paribas and Société Générale, two retreating French banks. It is the same story elsewhere in Asia, he thinks.这不仅仅对亚洲输出国来说是好事,同时,也是日本业三巨头——三菱日联金融集团(MUFG)、三井住友、瑞穗少有的一次大胆出击。自1998年金融危机之时三巨头停止像亚洲放贷,之后又连续遭受十几年通货紧缩国民减债的困境,他们几乎可以嗅到如今的欧洲同行的窘迫。野村券的Ken takamiya表示,譬如在澳大利亚,日本大型的贷款近期已经超过了呈下滑趋势的两家法国——法国巴黎和法国兴业。他认为,在亚洲其他地区也是如此。Some of the banks trumpeted their ability to buy discarded European assets abroad, as well as making fresh loans in Asia, when they released reports on May 15th showing a sharp increase in profits last fiscal year. These profits largely reflected the sale of big helpings of Japanese government bonds, but foreign activities help. Mr Takamiya says returns on overseas assets at MUFGs biggest bank generate about 2.5%, versus less than 1.5% at home.这些大型中,有些在5月15日的报告中展示其在上一财政年度收益剧增,并吹嘘自己购买废弃欧洲资产及在亚洲发放新鲜贷款的能力。这些收益极大地反映出日本政府公债的重要作用,但外事活动也的确有所帮助。Takamiya先生指出,三菱集团最大的拥有的海外资产产生的收益占总收益的2.5%,相比之下,国内资产的收益只有1.5%。There are, however, some impediments to growing further in Asia, and especially to catching up with Western competitors such as HS and Citigroup. Firstly, although the mega-banks have huge deposits—MUFG has the second-biggest stash in the world—they lack matching-currency funding to make non-yen loans, and are thinking only gingerly about sping branch networks across Asia, analysts say.然而,日本大型在亚洲的发展道路会遭遇一些阻碍,尤其是想要赶上其西方竞争对手(如汇丰和花旗集团)。首先,据有关人士分析,虽然这些大型有巨额的存款——MUFG储蓄量为世界第二,但他们缺少货币配对基金来提供非日元贷款;而且对于在亚洲扩展分网络一事,他们表现得小心翼翼。Secondly, their ambitions to be more innovative are modest for now. Rival bankers snort that Japans lending is “pure balance-sheet”, meaning they make large syndicated and project-finance loans that are often long-term and low-margin. They lack the more sophisticated and lucrative cash-management, foreign-exchange and other services of Western peers.其次,他们革新的雄心壮志仍旧是不温不火。作为其对手的业人士嗤之以鼻地表示,日本贷款是“纯粹的资产负债表”,即他们虽然提供大量银团贷款和项目融资贷款,却经常是长期性且低利润的。他们缺少了西方同行拥有的那些更为复杂、更能赢利的现金管理、外汇交易及其他务。Business at home is so lacklustre, however, that they may have little choice but to place bigger bets abroad. And even if prospects for growth in Japan did improve—GDP rose by 1% in the first quarter, beating expectations—the banks would still benefit from diversifying. So exposed are they to Japanese government bonds that Masaaki Shirakawa, the governor of the Bank of Japan, has said the big banks could suffer losses of up to ¥3.5 trillion (.5 billion) if yields rose by an admittedly lofty one percentage point. That would more than wipe out their combined profit last year.但是,国内市场太过乏味,日本大型不得不向国外市场押下更大的赌注。尽管日本国内经济增长前景的确有所改善——第一季度的GDP上涨1%,超出预期;但多元化经营仍旧会给他们带来诸多利益。日本政府公债对这些的影响过大,日本理事Masaaki Shirakawa表示,如果利率真的上涨了1%,这些大型将会遭受价值3.5亿日元的巨额损失。这比他们去年利润的总和还要多。 /201304/236755Treachery was repaid by treachery, as he was double-crossed by his supposed allies.背叛被背叛偿还,因为他被自己的盟友出卖。But a mystery still remains. 但仍然有个未解之谜。Why was Tsparang entired abandoned?为什么Tsparang最终被遗弃?From the top of citadel, you can still see the imprints left by the ancient aqueduct, following the contours of the hill. 从城堡的顶端,你仍然可以看到古代留下的痕迹,山的轮廓。Even the legend Tsering Gyalpo speaks of has a basis in science. 甚至传说Tsering Gyalpo也谈到有关的科学依据。Guge is in the shadow of three of the worlds largest mountain ranges, the Himalayas, the Karakorum and the Kunlun.三座世界上最大的山脉,喜马拉雅山脉、喀喇昆仑和昆仑中,其中便有古格的身影。201402/277841

  Business商业报道BlackBerry黑莓Only thorns只有荆棘光环For a fallen star of the smartphone industry, things go from bad to worse智能手机行业一个明星的倒下,每况愈下THE signs do not look good.形势不妙。On November 4th, six weeks after BlackBerry said that its biggest shareholder, Fairfax Financial, wanted to take the ailing Canadian smartphone-maker private for 4.7 billion in cash, the sale was called off.11月4日,黑莓表示在其最大股东费尔法克斯金融想趁疲弱的加拿大智能手机市场套现4.7亿美元现金的六周后,这个出售计划取消了。BlackBerry instead declared that it would raise 1 billion in debt, convertible into 16% of its shares.黑莓用16%的可转换股份取代发行10亿美元的债务。Fairfax, a Toronto holding company that focuses on insurance but owns 10% of BlackBerry, is taking a quarter of the issue. Barbara Stymiest, who chairs BlackBerrys board, called this a significant vote of confidence in BlackBerry and its future.费尔法克斯是多伦多一家控股公司,在这次交易中占了四分之一,其主要从事保险业务,拥有10%的黑莓股份。黑莓的董事会主席芭芭拉Stymiest把这项交易称为对黑莓和其未来的一个重大的信任投票。The stockmarket called it a flop the share price, aly a fraction of what it once was, fell by 16%.股市把它称为翻牌:股价同比下降了16%,已经跌倒只有以前的一小部分了。Thus BlackBerry ended a review of strategic alternatives with no visible alternative strategy—and no chief executive.没有明显的替代策略也没有首席执行官,因此黑莓结束了重新审视战略选择。Thorsten Heins, its boss since January 2012, was unseated.自2012年1月,老板索斯藤海因斯被剥夺了权利。He brought a much-delayed operating system, BlackBerry 10, to market, but this will not make much difference.他为市场带来了已经被拖延很久的黑莓10操作系统,但这却没有太大不同。Although lots of people still carry BlackBerrys, not many of those devices are new.虽然很多人仍然在使用黑莓手机并不多,但是用新机的不多。BlackBerrys have not only been squished by Apples iPhone and by Android devices; they are also being outsold by phones with Microsofts Windows.黑莓不仅被苹果的iPhone挤压和而且还有Android设备的竞争,他们还在出售搭载windows 操作系统的手机。In its latest quarter BlackBerry lost 965m, mostly because of a write-down of unsold phones.在最新的季度黑莓亏损9.65亿美元,主要是因为手机积压。Last month it made its BBM instant-message service available as an iPhone and Android app.上个月,它推出了BBM即时消息务为iPhone和Android提供应用程序。Mr Heins has a temporary replacement John Chen, the former head of Sybase, a software company that he knocked back into shape before selling it to, of Germany,in 2010.海因斯先生被临时撤换为赛贝斯的前负责人陈约翰,在2010年出售给德国之前他将SAP这家软件公司扭亏为盈。Once a permanent chief executive is found , Mr Chen will stay as executive chairman.一旦一个永久性的首席执行官被发现,陈先生将出任执行董事长。It is not yet clear whether his background in software is a clue to BlackBerrys future.目前尚不清楚他的软件方面的背景对黑莓是不是一个有利的因素。He seems keen to keep selling handsets.他似乎热衷于手机的销售。Roberta Cozza of Gartner, a research firm, thinks BlackBerry should become a niche player, focusing on applications and services for companies to which secure communication is especially important.咨询公司Gartner的罗伯塔·科扎认为黑莓应该成为一个合适的运动员,把重点放在对企业特别重要的应用和务上。I dont think their priority should be hardware at all, Ms Cozza says.科扎女士说:我不认为他们的当务之急是把心思放在硬件上。Mr Chen told Reuters that at Sybase he had seen the same movie before. Canadians also know the story.陈先生告诉路透社说,在赛贝斯之前看到了同样的电影。The version they saw involved Nortel Networks, a telecoms-equipment company that was heading for oblivion when Research In Motion (as BlackBerry used to be called) was on the rise.加拿大人也知道这个故事。他们说的是北电网络,在Research In Motion公司上升时被遗忘的一家通信设备公司。Nortel too was a high-tech source of national pride.北电也是一个让国家自豪的高科技公司。It also brought in a turnaround specialist when its fortunes darkened.它在前景黯淡时还转亏为盈。Alas, the ending was unhappy it went bankrupt in , albeit bequeathing a pile of patents worth billions.唉,结局不太好:它在年破产,虽然遗赠一堆价值数十亿美元的专利。The demise of Nortel hit the Canadian psyche very hard and the same thing would happen if BlackBerry failed, says Don Drummond, a former senior civil servant.前高级公务员唐·德拉蒙德说 北电的消亡给加拿大带来很大的心理冲击,如果黑莓失败就会发生同样的事情。It is no comfort that others in the cruelly Darwinian smartphone business have also begun to look like wounded gazelles.其他公司在这残酷的达尔文式的智能手机业务上也开始看起来像受伤的羚羊一样不舒适。On November 5th Taiwans HTC reported its first quarterly loss.11月5日台湾的宏达披露了第一季度的亏损。It added that sales in the first ten months of 2013, at NT175.5 billion, were down by 29% from a year earlier and by 57% from 2011, when HTC was briefly the biggest seller of smartphones in America.补充了2013前10个月的销售业NT1755亿,同比下降29%,与2011年比下降57%,那时HTC是美国最大的智能手机卖家。HTC has made mistakes, but its chief problem has been having Samsung, with its scale and marketing clout, as a competitor in Android phones. HTC曾经犯过错误,但其主要问题是三星的规模和市场影响力,Android手机的竞争对手。A third national phone champion, Nokia of Finland, has sold its device division to Microsoft.销售量排第三的芬兰诺基亚将其设备部门出售给微软。The other two are battling on alone, HTC apparently out of choice—its chairwoman says it is not for sale—but BlackBerry out of necessity.其他两个则在单独作战,其董事长说HTC是出于自己的选择不打算出售,但对黑莓来说是必要的。Its shareholders will be praying that Mr Chen can direct a sequel to Sybase, not Nortel.它的股东只能祈祷,陈先生可以再续赛贝斯而不是北电。 /201312/266851

  Ceasefire in Gaza加沙停火A war without winners没有赢家的战争Sadly, the end of the fighting is unlikely to mark the beginning of the peace很遗憾,战斗结束并不就意味着和平到来THE chances are that the latest of more than half a dozen ceasefires inGazawill hold—at least for a month or so, while the sides talk. The pause may even guide the Gazans and the Israelis to a more lasting accommodation. Yet the skies have fallen silent out of exhaustion and the futility of fighting on, rather than because the conflict has reached a resolution. Barring an unlikely change of heart—on both sides—war will probably begin all over again, sooner or later.加沙已经停火许多次了,在各方都在谈判时,最近的一次停火很可能维持下去,至少能维持一个月左右。这次停火也许能让加沙人和以色列人走向更持续的和解。然而,天空之所以静下来,不是因为冲突已经解决,而是因为大家精疲力竭,战斗徒劳无用。双方的心意都不大可能改变,战争很可能会再次开始,这是迟早的事。More than 2,100 people have died in the tiny enclave, most of them civilians and many of them children. At least 230,000 of Gazas 1.8m people have been displaced, says the UN. The likelihood that this war just sets up the next renders their suffering even more tragic. Hospitals, schools and the main electricity plant may take years to rebuild, only to be smashed yet again. The sole glimmer is that this bleak picture may concentrate minds to seek the distant prospect of two states—Israeland Palestine—living side by side in peace (see article).在加沙这块狭小的飞地上,已经有超过2100人丧生,大多数是平民,许多是还是孩子。联合国称,加沙180万居民中,至少有23万失去家园,背井离乡。战争再次爆发的可能,使他们原来就痛苦生活,变得更加悲惨。医院,学校,主要发电厂也许要花数年才能重建,而重建后又可能再次被毁。唯一的希望在于,这苍凉黯淡的图景,能让大家专注起来,寻求两个国家和平共处的遥远前景。No one has emerged from the battle stronger. On the Israeli side, Binyamin Netanyahu, the prime minister, says that he has clobbered Hamas, the hardline Islamists who run the strip, and won this latest round by stopping the firing of rockets atIsraeland by unearthing the cross-border tunnels intended to enable raiding parties to seize or murder Israelis.没人从争斗中变强。就以色列而言,本雅明·内塔尼亚胡总理说他已痛击了哈马斯,阻止了他们朝以色列发射火箭,破坏了让哈马斯突击队能绑架和杀害以色列人的隧道,因此赢了这一轮。If so, he has paid a heavy price. War has weakened an aly slowing economy. He is under attack at home from even more hawkish rivals within his coalition, who argue that he could have destroyed Hamas completely—though that would entail heavy casualties and a ruinous occupation, orGaza quite possibly falling into the hands of another Islamist group. Worse, each timeIsrael bombsGaza, its reputation ebbs in the rest of the world, where the media carry images of suffering children and smashed streets. EvenIsraels vital American allies have shown rare irritation.如果真是这样,他的代价也不菲。战争削弱了本就不振的经济。内塔尼亚胡在国内备受抨击,甚至是他党内更加强硬的对手都在抨击他,批评他没有彻底消灭哈马斯,虽然要做到这一点必然得付出巨大伤亡,占领的也只是一片焦土,而且加沙很可能会落到另一个伊斯兰组织手中。更糟糕的是,每次以色列轰炸加沙,它的国家声誉就会严重受损,痛苦的孩子和破碎的街道的图片充斥在各大媒体。即使是以色列的铁杆盟友美国,也罕见的显示出不耐烦。Meanwhile, Hamas is stuck up a cul-de-sac. It has claimed victory—because it is still standing. And it is true that its grip onGaza, which was weakening before the fighting, still looks secure. But its main policy of sterile resistance toIsraelleads nowhere and comes at the expense of the lives and prosperity of ordinary Gazans. Palestinians should query the common sense, let alone the morality, of Hamas firing its fairly useless rockets randomly intoIsraelif the result is destruction forGazaon such a scale.同时,哈马斯也被困在死巷当中。哈马斯声称已经获得了胜利—因为它依然存在。确实,哈马斯对加沙的控制看起来依然稳固,而在开战之前,哈马斯对加沙的控制力似乎是在减弱。但哈马斯坚决对抗以色列的主要政策没有前途,而且会以牺牲普通加沙人的生活和繁荣为代价。哈马斯胡乱朝以色列发射火箭,根本没什么用处,其后果是对加沙如此大规模的破坏,巴勒斯坦人应该问问,这么做究竟有没有常识,更不要说合不合乎道义。Crumb of comfort些许安慰Can anything good be salvaged from the rubble? This war has been bad even for the people who stayed out of it.Israels moderates have not gained noticeably from Mr Netanyahus travails. Mahmoud Abbas, leader of the more moderate Palestinians, is painted by his own people as an Israeli stooge, sapping his strength as a negotiating partner. But at least he still presides over a unity government that is committed to peace and is still—remarkably enough—backed by Hamas. He could press Hamas to disarm in exchange for a programme to rebuildGaza, with a neutral force overseeing the process. Or how about another crack at good-faith talks about two states? The ground has been dug over so often, including byAmericain the past, that progress could in theory be rapid.能从瓦砾中挖出什么有用的东西吗?这场战争,即使是对置身事外的人而言,都已经够糟糕的了。以色列温和派没能从内塔尼亚胡的行动中得到什么。巴勒斯坦温和派领导人穆罕默德·阿巴斯,则被自己人说成是以色列的傀儡,削弱了他作为谈判人的实力。但是,至少,阿巴斯领导着一个致力于和平的联合政府,而且跟不可思议地拥有哈马斯的持。阿巴斯可以对哈马斯施压,要他们放弃武力,以换取对加沙的重建计划,重建进程将由中立力量监督。或者,干脆再推动两国的诚意谈判怎么样?谈判的基础早就有了,而且之前也有过很多次努力,包括美国在过去所做的许多工作,理论上说,谈判进程可以进行得很快。It is not the ideas of well-meaning outsiders that are lacking, but the iness ofIsraeland Hamas to strive for peace. Sadly, even with a ceasefire, that prospect still looks very distant.身在局外,但用意良好的人并不少,但以色列和哈马斯走向和平的意愿却不足。遗憾的是,即使实现了停火,和平的前景依旧渺茫。 /201409/325604。

  Business商业报道German weapons firms德国武器公司No farewell to arms不和武器说再见Political pressure and bribery allegations are unlikely to hurt Germanys exporters of military equipment.看起来政治压力和受贿指控都不会影响德国的军事装备出口公司。SINCE the second world war, Germany has rarely sent soldiers to combat zones.自二战以来,德国几乎不曾向战争地区派兵。But it exports a lot of weapons: more than Britain, France or any other country besides America and Russia.然而它却出口了大量武器:超过英国、法国以及除美国、俄罗斯之外的所有其他国家。Some German makers of military gear are part of civilian industrial giants, such as Airbus Group, and ThyssenKrupp, a steelmaker.德国的武器制造商中有些隶属于私有的工业巨头,比如空客集团,还有钢铁制造商蒂森克虏伯集团。But the biggest German company known mainly for weapons, Rheinmetall, is just 26th in the world league of arms-exporting firms.然而,即使是德国著名的以武器业务为主的公司中最大的莱茵金属公司,在世界武器出口公司中也仅仅排在26位。And Krauss Maffei Wegmann, which makes the Leopard 2 tank, is 54th.而制造出豹2坦克的Krauss Maffei Wegmann则位居54位。Germans are, in general, proud of their export prowess.总的来说,德国对自己的出口实力感到骄傲。But although foreign sales of weaponry bring in almost 1 billion a year, they are a delicate subject, and lately beset by bad press.但是尽管武器外贸带来了将近10亿欧元一年的利润,这是一项非常微妙的行业,并且近日承受的巨大压力。Several German firms are accused of bribery in Greece.数家德国公司被指控在希腊行贿。A former defence official there has said that of 8m in bribes he took, 3.2m came from German firms, including Wegmann and Rheinmetall.希腊一位前国防部官员曾说,在他被行贿的800万欧元中有320万来自于德国公司,其中包括Wegman和莱茵金属公司。On January 3rd KMWs alleged middleman was detained after a court hearing.在1月3日,一位宣称的KMW中间人在庭审后被拘留。The firm itself denies any bribery.该公司自己否认有行贿行为。Atlas, a maker of naval weapons owned jointly by Airbus and ThyssenKrupp, is under fire too.空客集团和蒂森克虏伯共有的海军武器制造商Atlas也正受到打击。A former representative in Athens has reportedly admitted to bribery; the company says it is investigating the matter.一位前雅典代表在报道中承认行贿;该公司则表示其正在进行调查。On another front, the industry faces criticism over the countries it sells to—most recently over a deal to sell Leopard 2s to Saudi Arabia.另一方面,该产业因其售卖武器的对象而受到批评—最近是因为向沙特阿拉伯卖出豹2。Arms sales to anywhere other than NATO and NATO-equivalent countries are in principle forbidden.向北约以及北约等同国家以外的国家和地区销售武器从原则上说是禁止的。But the Federal Security Council, headed by Chancellor Angela Merkel, can approve exceptions when foreign policy dictates, as long as they do not harm human rights.但是由总理安吉拉默克尔领导的联邦安全局可以在外交政策需要时批准一些特殊情况,只要他们对于人权没有损害。Peace campaigners fear that the exceptions are becoming less exceptional.和平活动者们担心这些些特殊情况正变得越来越不特殊。NATO countries budgets are being squeezed, so Germanys armsmakers are looking farther abroad.北约国家正紧缩财政,因而德国武器制造商们只能将目光转向了远方的国家。Rheinmetall, for example, has a target of 50% of exports outside Europe by 2015.比如,莱茵金属基团计划在2015年前将欧洲以外地区的出口比重提高到50%。Asia is a growing target: Singapore recently signed a 1.6 billion deal for ThyssenKrupp submarines.亚洲是一个快速成长的目标:新加坡最近签署了一份价值16亿欧元的合同用于购买蒂森克虏伯潜艇。German small arms are also popular. Heckler amp; Kochs G3 rifle is the worlds most popular after the Russian AK-47.德国的小型武器同样很受欢迎。赫克勒-科赫G3步的受欢迎程度仅次于俄国的AK47。Germany was a leader in pushing the UN to restrict the flow of small arms to war-torn countries.德国是推动联合国限制对战争频繁地区的小型武器出售的领导者之一。But such weapons leak across borders nonetheless.尽管如此,此类武器依然会进入这些地区。This is why Helmut Schmidt, a former chancellor, in December urged Germany to restrict arms exports, calling gun deaths a slow-motion Hiroshima and Nagasaki.这也是为何前总理赫尔穆特施密特在12月督促德国限制武器出口,他称引发死亡如同慢性的广岛和长崎原子弹爆炸。His fellow Social Democrat, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, promised to restrict sales if his party made it into government after last Septembers elections.他的社会民主党同僚,弗兰克沃尔特施泰因迈尔曾承诺如果去年9月选举后其党派成功执政,就会限制武器出口。It did: Mr Steinmeier is now foreign minister, and sits on the Federal Security Council.这一条件已经实现:施泰因迈尔现在是外交部长,并任职于联邦安全委员会。But Germanys arms exports are probably in little danger, since they have the same reputation for reliability as its cars and other industrial goods.但是德国的武器出口看似并无危险,因为它的武器产品在可靠性方面有着和汽车及其他工业产品一样的好名声。Even Pieter Wezeman of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a critic of weapons sales, compares a Heckler amp; Koch gun to a high-quality Leica camera.甚至斯特哥尔和平研究所的Pieter Wezeman,一位武器销售的批评者,也将赫克勒-科赫比作质量优异的徕卡相机。Though German soldiers mostly stay clear of combat zones, German weapons are battle-tested; Leopard tanks in the former Yugoslavia and Afghanistan, for example.虽然德国士兵不曾踏足战争区域,德国的武器可是经过实战检验的;豹型坦克就曾现身前南斯拉夫和阿富汗。Moreover, there are ways to lessen the controversy of selling things used to wage war.此外,还有许多方法来减少战争武器销售的争议性。For example, making guns for a fighter jet assembled elsewhere is less visible than selling a German-made tank.比如,为在其他地区组装的战斗机制造同直接卖出德国制造的坦克相比要不显眼许多。Military transport, logistics, surveillance and protective equipment together account for five times as much of German defence firms output as weapons and ammunition—and are less likely to be blamed for civilian casualties.军事运输设备、后勤物资、监视和防护设备总计是德国国防公司武器和军火出口额的5倍,而且这些生意不会受到引发平民死亡的谴责。Stephan Boehm, an analyst at Commerzbank, sees such non-lethal materiel as a bright spot for German exporters.德国商业的分析师Stephan Boehm将这些非致密材料看做是德国出口的闪光点。The flagging fortunes of Rheinmetall, in particular, should be restored by strong sales of the armoured transporters it produces in a joint venture with MAN, a lorry-maker.需要指出的是,莱茵金属公司的巨大财富中不少就源自于它和货车制造商MAN联合制造的装甲运输车辆的良好销量业绩。Critics say the government is too willing to let arms firms export to dodgy regimes.不少批评认为政府太想要将武器公司出口到过于冒险的区域。The Federation of German Security amp; Defence Industries argues that strong exports are crucial to sp the development costs of the equipment Germany needs to defend itself.德国安全和国防工业联合会争辩说繁荣的武器出口对于分担德国发展国防设备的花费至关重要。This would be less of a problem, the lobby group admits, if Europes fragmented defence industry were consolidated; it says the government should not have vetoed a proposal last year to merge EADS with BAE Systems of Britain.游说者们也承认,如果欧洲散乱的国防工业能得到统一的话,这个问题就会小很多;他们还提到,政府不应在去年否决EADS和英国的BAE System合并的提议。Weapons account for less than 1% of Germanys exports.武器出口在德国总出口中所占比重不足1%。But it is a 1% that it, like other countries, is loth to give up.但是如同其他国家一样,德国无法割舍这1%。 /201401/273294

  Science and technology科学技术Dealing with asteroid strikes应对小行星撞击A close shave近地掠过After a hit and a near miss minds are focusing on the risks from space rocks在一次撞击和一次近距离擦肩而过后,人们开始关注来自外太空岩石的威胁One close shave with an asteroid is cause for excitement.一次小行星近地掠过是一种刺激,Two on the same day is scary.同一天发生两次就是惊险了。On February 15th planet Earth experienced exactly that, as a hunk of itinerant space rock passed by extremely close.在2月15日,行星地球正经历了这样的惊险:一块流动的大块头太空岩石在咫尺的距离掠过地球,While another exploded spectacularly in the skies above Russia.而另一块则十分壮观得在俄国上空爆炸。The first asteroid, called 2012 DA14, had been known to astronomers for around a year.第一颗小行星名为2012 DA14,天文学家在大约一年前发现。They had calculated that there was no risk of collision. But the 30-metre, 190,000-tonne rock came close: 27,700Km above the surface, inside the orbit of some satellites.他们计算出小行星的轨道,并无撞击危险。但这枚直径30米、重达190000吨的石块离得是那么近:距地表27,700千米,处于一些卫星轨道内。It was the nearest ever recorded for an asteroid that size.对这种大小的小行星,这是有记录以来距离最近的一次。The second came quite literally out of a clear blue sky, appearing without warning and then disintergrating about 30 seconds later over Chelyabinsk.第二颗在一片晴空万里中毫无警告得出现了,约30秒后在车里雅宾斯克市上空解体了。According to NASA, the 10,000-tonne meteor released about 500 kilotonnes of energy when it broke apart, equivalent to the yield of a largish nuclear bomb.来自NASA的数据显示,这颗10000吨重的陨石在肢解时释放了大约500吨质量的能量,相当于一颗大型核弹的爆炸当量。Only the height of the detonation-dozens of kilometers up–kept the fatality count at zero, although more than 1,000 people were injured as windows were blown out of buildings.好在爆炸发生在数十公里的高空,未有人员死亡。虽然有超过1000人受伤,但只是被震碎的建筑物玻璃伤到。This double whammy has focused minds on the threat from asteroids, something that astronomers have long known is real but which tends to be treated with giggles whenever it is brought outside the lab.这次双重晦气已引起人们对小行星威胁的关注。长久以来天文学家们就清楚这种实实在在的威胁,但一旦在实验室外提起就会引来哄堂大笑。Some politicians have nevertheless taken action.不过还是有些政客们采取了行动。In 1998 Americas Congress ordered NASA to begin cataloguing the very largest, planet killer asteroids-defined as those more than a kilometer across.美国国会在1998年下令NASA将那些大型的行星杀手级别的小行星编入目录,直径超过1公里的都归入其中。The agency reckons it has accounted for more than 90% of them.NASA认为超过90%的这类小行星都已记录在案。But as the impact from such a beast would be catastrophic, the few undiscovered rocks still represent a threat.但是由于这种怪兽可能带来灾难性的撞击,少部分未被发现的此类岩石仍然是个威胁。Deep impact深度撞击These days, a mix of national organizations and universities run an alphabet soup of detectors.目前,一群来自不同国家组织和大学的研究人员开始了初步的探测。But the field is still a bit of backwater, and budgets are tight.但是该领域仍是一潭死水,预算很紧张。John Tonry, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii, is building an asteroid-hunting telescope called ATLAS with m from NASA.John Tonry, 一位来自夏威夷大学的天文学家,正在建造一个名为ATLAS的小行星搜索望远镜,NASA提供了500万美元的经费。Dr Tonry cannot afford to hire a proper telescope engineer, and is having to design the device himself.士Tonry负担不起一个正式的望远镜工程师,必须亲自设计这台望远镜。ATLAS is intended to spot mid-sized city killers like 2012 DA14.ATLAS望远镜的目的是为了辨认出类似2012 DA14这样中等大小的城市杀手。Astronomers reckon the risk from these is at least as great as that from the biggest ones because there are many more of them.天文学家估测这类小行星的威胁绝不在那些更大的小行星的威胁之下,因为数量实在太多。Exactly how many more, though, is hard to say because, being small, they are hard to see.不过至于准确数量却很难说,因为他们实在太小难以被发现。ATLAS should be able to spot a rock on a collision course a few days before it hits, giving time to organize a hasty evacuation.ATLAS应该可以提前数天发现一块沿着撞击轨道运行的岩石,争取足够的时间组织快速疏散。Of course, rather than evacuating the impact zone, it would be better if there were some way to deal with a threatening asteroid more directly, by nudging it into a different orbit.当然,比起疏散撞击区域,找到一个更直接应对小行星威胁的方法会更好,比如把小行星推入不同轨道。Asteroid deflection suffers from a even greater giggle factor than asteroid detection, but several ideas have been proposed. One popular method is to use nuclear weapons.让小行星偏向的想法比小行星探测更会招致哄笑,但已经有人提出了一些主意。Detonating a nuke near an asteroids surface could boil away some of the rock and-by Newtons third law of motion-impart a shove in the other direction.一个通俗的方法是使用核武器。在小行星表面附近引爆一枚核弹可以蒸发掉一些岩石质量。根据牛顿第三运动定律,还会在其他方向产生作用力。Done early enough, this would shift the objects orbit sufficiently to stop it hitting Earth.如果爆炸时间足够提前,这足已改变小行星的轨道,防止与地球的撞击。(当然这毫无意义,只是纯粹在卖弄学问罢了。Alternatively, simply ramming the offending rock might provide enough force to provoke a suitable reaction and change in orbit.作为另一种选择,针对来犯岩石的很普通的撞击,也许能产生足够的作用力引发反作用力,进而改变轨道。The European Space Agency plans to launch, in 2015, a spacecraft called Don Quijote that will test the feasibility of doing this.欧洲航天机构计划在2015年发射名为堂吉诃德的太空船,以测试这种方法的可行性。Other ideas are more elegant: painting the rock white, for instance, will alter the way it interacts with sunlight, nudging it into a new orbit.其他的主意要优雅得多:比如把岩石表面涂成白色,这样将改变太阳光对其的作用力,也就改变了运行轨道。Or rocket motors might be strapped to it, to propel it in a desirable direction. Or a large spacecraft could orbit around it, where its gravity would alter the asteroids orbit around the sun.或者在岩石上捆绑一个火箭发动机,将其推向一个想要的方向。再或者发射一个大型太空船绕其运行,太空船的引力将会改变小行星绕太阳运转的轨道。The trouble is that many of these ideas rely on having plenty of warning. Even small asteroids are big, as 2012 DA14 shows.问题在于,这里面的很多主意都依赖于充足的预警时间,即使是处理如2012 DA14般的小块头小行星。That means shifting them at short notice is going to be difficult.这就意味着,在很短的预知时间下,将很难改变他们的轨道。When Americans National Research Council studied the problem in 2010, it came to the conclusion that even nuclear weapons would require warnings times measured in years or decades.当美国国家研究委员会在2010年研究这个问题时,得出一个结论:即使是使用核武器也需要数年甚至数十年的预警时间。Evacuation, it said, was the only feasible option for dealing with little warning. Others are more optimistic.委员会同时提到,在面对那些很难被辨认出而不期而至的小行星时,疏散是唯一可行的办法。The day before the explosion over Russia researchers at the University of California, Santa Barbara, proposed putting into orbit a solar-powered laser that could use its beam to vaporize the surface of an incoming asteroid and thus knock it off course, even at a few days notice.其他人要乐观一些。就在俄国上空的爆炸发生前一天,来自圣巴巴拉加利福尼亚大学的研究人员提出一个把太阳能激光器发射到小行星轨道的方案,使用激光蒸发掉小行星表面的物质。这样即使只有数天的预警时间,也能使其偏离轨道。Bet your life?用你的生命做赌注?Hard-nosed economists might wonder whether spending money on asteroid research-either for detection or deflection-is really worth it.精明实务的经济学家也许会怀疑在小行星研究上投资是否物有所值,不管是小行星探测或是轨道偏移。After all, for all their drama asteroid strikes are rare, and there are plenty of other threats to worry about.毕竟,小行星撞击是个非常戏剧性且罕见的,而我们还有众多其他的威胁需要担忧。But the relative lack of information makes the true risk difficult to calculate.但是由于信息的相对匮乏,真正的风险难以评估。An asteroid strike is an event with a low probability, but a high death toll when it does happen.小行星撞击是低概率事件,但是一旦发生,就意味着大量的死亡。That, as Dr Tonry points out, does funny things to risk calculations.士Tonry指出,这让计算风险变得有些奇异。Our best guess is that you can expect maybe 100 people a year to die from asteroid strikes, he says.他说,我们最好的估算是,每年大约会有100人死于小行星撞击,Of course, what that really means is that you might see 100,000 death every thousand years, or 100m every million.当然,实际上这意味着每隔数千年发生一次10万人的死亡,或者每百万年发生一次1亿人的死亡。After dodging two potential catastrophes in one day, the world may decide it is better to be safe than sorry.在一天之内躲过了两次可能的灾难之后,我们的世界也许会决定,安全总比遗憾好。 /201312/269271

  Science and technology科学技术How dung beetles navigate蜣螂如何导航Stars in their eyes眼里有星辰An insect that steers by the Milky Way观天识途的昆虫THE number of animals that navigate by the stars is small.靠观察星辰行走的动物不多。Only some birds, a few seals and, of course, humans have the ability.仅仅有某些鸟类、海豹,当然人也有这个本事。It had been assumed that other creatures that might do this would need reasonably well-developed brains.过去人们设想其他具备这种能力的生物很可能拥有发达的大脑。That notion has now been proved wrong as the celestial-navigation club welcomes its latest member: the humble dung beetle.现在这种见解被推翻了,因为天文导航俱乐部迎来了自己最新的成员—不起眼的蜣螂。Life in the world of dung beetles is fiercely competitive.蜣螂在这个世界上过着你争我夺的生活。After rolling up a ball of highly nutritious dung, the beetle must race off with it or risk having the ball stolen by other beetles.蜣螂必须把自己团好的极富营养的粪球搬走,否则劳动成果会被其他的蜣螂偷走。Strength is important, but so too is the route taken.力量很重要,运输路线也不能轻视。The ideal tactic on the open plains where many dung beetles live is to move in a straight line.很多生活在广阔平原上的蜣螂采用走直路的理想策略。This is easy enough during the day, but at night—when the beetles are most active—it is more challenging.这在白天不难办到,然而晚上才是蜣螂最活跃的时间,此时走直路对它们来说就是挑战了。Previous work has shown that dung beetles can make use of the moon to help them navigate, yet some still set a straight course on moonless nights.以前人们发现蜣螂利用月亮导航,如果晚上没有月亮,也有蜣螂走直路。To find out how, a team working in South Africa led by Eric Warrant and Marie Dacke, of Lund University in Sweden, designed an intriguing experiment.为了找到蜣螂夜里能走直路的原因,Eric Warrant和Marie Dacke领导的瑞典隆德大学工作团在南非设计了一个有意思的试验。They made caps for 19 dung beetles.他们给19只蜣螂做了帽子。Ten wore caps made of cardboard to prevent them seeing the sky and, as a control, nine wore caps made of transparent plastic.10只蜣螂戴着薄纸板做的帽子,这样他们就看不到天空了。作为对比,其他9只蜣螂戴上了透明塑料制成的帽子。The beetles and their dung balls were then released in the centre of a circular arena made of flattened sand and enclosed by a featureless circular wall.这些蜣螂和它们的粪球都被放在了一个平铺着沙子圆形场地的中央,场地的围墙也没有什么特别之处。As the beetles rolled away under a moonless night sky they were filmed by infra-red cameras.在没有月亮的晚上,红外线摄影机记录蜣螂搬运粪球的活动。The team found that the beetles prevented from seeing the sky by their caps had path lengths that averaged 476.7cm, much longer than the average of 143.4cm travelled by the beetles wearing clear hats.试验人员发现被帽子遮挡了天空的蜣螂平均行走476.7cm,远远超出戴着透明帽子的蜣螂的平均路程143.4cm。As the beetles might have used other overhead landmarks, like trees,因为蜣螂可能使用位于高处的其他地标。a second arena was built with a high black wall and a small, dry moat around it.第二个场地是黑色高墙围起来的,This time the beetles—minus their hats—were timed to see how long it took them to roll their balls from the centre to the point where they could be heard falling into the moat.附近有一条干涸的壕沟—这次蜣螂没有戴帽子—实验人员要看看他们从场地中央滚粪球到跌入壕沟能用时多久。Under a full moon the beetles took an average of 21.4 seconds to reach the moat.满月之夜蜣螂抵达壕沟平均耗时21.4秒。On a moonless, starry night, their speed was somewhat reduced, but not significantly so.在繁星满天的无月之夜,它们的速度有所下降,但降得不多。However, under overcast conditions, when neither moonlight nor the stars were visible, the beetles took an average of 117.4 seconds.如果晚上阴天,看不到星星和月亮,蜣螂抵达目的地要平均耗时117.4秒。Curious as to what it was in the sky that the beetles were using to navigate, the team moved their arena inside the Johannesburg planetarium and reran their experiments.因为试验人员急于了解蜣螂到底利用天上的什么物体导航,他们到约翰内斯堡天文馆做室内实验。As they report in Current Biology, the beetles presented with a full starlit sky, including the Milky Way or just the Milky Way, took statistically the same amount of time to exit the arena.他们在《当代生物学》杂志上统计了蜣螂在繁星满天的夜空下走出场地用的时间在统计学上是相同的,Under a sky full of dim stars they were only a little slower.天上的星光不亮,它们要稍微慢一点。This, speculates Dr Warrant, is because they were still able to spot the cluster that forms the Milky Way.通过试验Warrant,士推测,这是因为蜣螂还能认出系形成的星团。When allowed to see only the 18 brightest stars or immersed in total darkness, the beetles took more than twice as long to exit the arena.如果暗夜里只有18颗最亮的星星,蜣螂离开场地的时间要高出两倍以上。The team now wonders how many other animals might be able to use the glowing strip of light created by the Milky Way to guide them.这个团队的工作人员现在想知道到底有多少动物可以利用系形成的发光带活动。 /201310/261132

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