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2019年11月20日 10:37:06    日报  参与评论()人

长春治不孕不育那家医院最好吉大医院妇科检查怎么样Two recent events have served to highlight the range of difficult questions raised by pharmaceuticals regulation. Last week, a man died in the French city of Rennes after a clinical trial of a painkiller went tragically wrong. In New York last month, Martin Shkreli, a former hedge fund manager, was arrested on securities fraud charges; Shkreli, who denies wrongdoing, won the sobriquet of “most hated man in America” after the company he controlled raised the price of the life-saving drug, Daraprim, from .50 a tablet to 0.最近发生的两件事突显了药品监管方面的多个难题。1月中旬,法国雷恩市(Rennes)一场止痛药临床试验不幸出错,致一名男子死亡。去年12月,纽约前对冲基金经理马丁史克雷利(Martin Shkreli)因涉嫌券欺诈被捕,不过他否认自己有违法行为。此前史克雷利执掌的公司将救命药达拉匹林(Daraprim)的售价从13.5美元一片抬高到750美元一片,令他荣获“全美最可恨的人”封号。Daraprim was developed in the 1950s and the patents expired a long time ago. The market, though, is small and Shkreli’s company had acquired the only US producer. Any other company that decided to sell the product would need to gain approval from the Food and Drug Administration, which would cost time and money. Anyone taking that path would face the risk that, when their product appeared, the incumbent might reduce their price in predatory competition, and this knowledge may deter prospective entrants.达拉匹林问世于上世纪50年代,专利早已过期。但达拉匹林市场很小,史克雷利的公司又收购了唯一的美国生产商。其他公司要想出售该产品,必须先获得美国食品和药物(FDA)的批准,这一过程需要投入大量时间和金钱。而且这样做企业还会面临一个风险,其产品一旦上市,市面上现有品牌或许会降价,展开掠夺性竞争,这一可能性会阻止潜在进入者。The pricing of Daraprim is a textbook example of the problematic economics of contestability — the way in which market outcomes are influenced not just by the number of competitors but by the potential for competition.达拉匹林定价事件是不完善的可竞争经济的经典案例,体现在市场结果不止受到竞争者数量的影响,也受潜在竞争的影响。Regulation that limits entry creates the possibility of price-gouging, but the death in Rennes is a reminder that the logic of requiring approval before drugs are put on sale is compelling. The value of careful regulatory scrutiny was demonstrated in the 1960s, when the FDA blocked US approval for thalidomide , the drug that led to the birth of thousands of babies with physical impairments in Britain and Germany.准入规定有可能会滋生漫天要价的行为,但雷恩的悲剧提醒了人们,药品需先经过批准再上市发售的逻辑强而有力。20世纪60年代,FDA没有批准沙利度胺(thalidomide)在美国发售,这种药物导致英国和德国数千名婴儿患先天性身体缺陷,这件事明了谨慎细致的监管审查的价值。The Rennes incident occurred during the first phase of a clinical trial in the standard (and costly) three-stage process for bringing a product to market. Plainly, this drug was put into testing prematurely and there will be pressure to further strengthen regulation. However, in the industry and outside, some aly justly criticise these approval processes for being too bureaucratic.药品上市前需经历标准的(且成本昂贵的)三阶段临床试验过程,雷恩事故发生在第一阶段。很显然,该药过早被投入临床试验,而且此事将带来加强监管的压力。但在行业内外,已经有人理直气壮地批评这些审批程序过于官僚。It is politically safer for a regulator to allow patients to die because a potentially life-saving drug has been held back than to allow patients to die because a dangerous drug has been released early.对于监管者来说,听凭病人因可能救命的药物推迟发售而死亡,比听凭病人因使用提前发售的危险药物而死亡,政治上要更安全。Such rigorous and costly testing creates market opportunities for people such as Shkreli and, industry complaints notwithstanding, enables the pharmaceuticals sector to report enviable returns on capital.正是这些严格且昂贵的临床试验为史克雷利这类人创造了市场机会,并帮助药品行业取得令人羡慕的资本回报率——虽然该行业对此仍抱怨不已。It is tempting to conclude that, where the state regulates products and market entry, it must also regulate prices. What, though, is a fair price for a drug? Prices should surely include acknowledgment of the value of an effective drug but it would be unconscionable to propose that beneficiaries of a life-saving product pay what it is worth to them. The Daraprim price rise dealt a fatal blow to any belief that the question could be resolved by appeal to the good sense and public spirit of the pharma industry.因此很容易得出这样的结论,既然国家控制了药品上市和市场准入,就必须对药物定价也进行控制。不过对于一种药品来说,怎样才算合理定价呢?药物价格当然应包括对一种有效药物价值的承认,但让某种救命药的受益者按照该药物对他们的价值付药价,这种提议也不合理。有一部分人相信定价问题可以通过呼吁制药行业表现出理智和公德心来加以解决,达拉匹林价格上涨对这种观念造成了致命打击。This is a problem with no right answer. Although much pharmaceuticals spending is directly or indirectly funded by government, state control of the industry in the Soviet Union produced very little innovation.这个问题没有正确。虽然很大一部分药品研发出直接或间接来自国家资助,但在前苏联,国家对制药行业的控制基本没产生创新。Perhaps we should make more use than we do (or once did) of prizes for discoveries of public benefit. Otherwise, a mix of devices used around the world — supervision of aggregate industry revenues, monopolistic purchasing negotiations and iness to undermine dominant positions when they are abused — seems the proper, pragmatic course.也许我们应该更多地对符合公共利益的发现进行奖励。另外,在全球使用组合手段——监督行业总收入,垄断性采购谈判,一旦发生滥用市场配地位的情况时削弱这种配地位——似乎是正确、务实的路线。The industry has to understand, as Shkreli did not, that its responsibilities are to a wider community than its own shareholders. The Rennes incident is a reminder of those responsibilities.药品行业必须认识到,自己负责的对象不止是股东,更是全社会。史克雷利就不明白这一点。雷恩事故是对这些责任的一次提醒。 /201602/426170德惠市人民医院妇科预约qq和妇科专家挂号 长春3分钟无痛人流

长春做人流到底要多少钱A toilet-goer had to be rushed to hospital in China after the bathroom started to crumble around him.一中国人上厕所时,厕所倒塌,他被紧急送往医院。The young boy 14 surnamed Li was reportedly using the public washroom at Huangshi city central China#39;s Hubei province at noon on February 17.据报道,2月17号,当时14岁的李姓小伙正在使用公厕,事发中国湖北省黄石市。Footage shows the teenager being pulled out of the rubble by rescue workers.图片显示,这个少年被救援人员从废墟中救出According to People#39;s Daily he didn#39;t sustain any major injuries and escaped with a slight bump to his head and arm.据人民日报,他除了头和胳膊受到轻微撞击,没有其他严重伤害。The posted by Pear indicated that the accident happened at midday so luckily workers could easily locate the boy by daylight.从梨视频可以看出,事故发生时是白天,所以救援人员很快就找到了这个小伙子。 /201702/494017长春五棵树经济开发区四维彩超多少钱 Chinese tourism authorities have launched the toughest crackdown on under-performing scenic spots or attractions.我国旅游管理部门对表现不佳的景点景区开展了最为严厉的整治行动。So far, 367 scenic spots have been delisted, downgraded or given a warning.目前已有367家景点受到摘牌、降级、警告等处理。Among the scenic spots disposed of, 255 were listed as national 4A-grade scenic areas.在被处理的景点中,255家为国家4A级景区。According to the National Tourism Administration, the main problems of these tourism spots lie in poor management, lack of facilities and services and insufficient protection of tourism resources.国家旅游局指出,这些景点的主要问题在于管理不到位、设施和务不足、旅游资源保护措施不到位。Scenic areas that have lost their 4A ranking have to make things right and then apply for the ranking afresh. The administration will appraise them to decide whether to issue the 4A-grade again.失去4A资质的景区须进行整改,然后重新申报等级。国家旅游局将对其进行评估以决定是否再次向其颁发4A等级。The administration is planning on formulating new management methods and standards for scenic spots across the country.目前,国家旅游局正计划为全国景点制定新的管理办法和标准。 /201612/483298长春人流好

长春人流手术大约多少钱 Hillary Clinton upstaged President Barack Obama with a surprise appearance at the end of his Democratic National Convention speech.在美国民主党代表大会上,希拉里·克林顿在美国总统巴拉克·奥巴马的演讲接近尾声之际突然现身,抢尽了风头。The president and his one-time rival turned friend shared a long hug and paraded around the stage at the end of the night while Obama#39;s 2008 campaign song, #39;Signed, Sealed, Delivered,#39; blared over a loudspeaker.奥巴马和他这位曾经的对手现在已成为好友,在(当晚)大会结束之际互相拥抱并环场一周,此时奥巴马08年的竞选歌曲《签署、密封、交付》在扬声器中高声响起。#39;America, you have vindicated that hope these past eight years. And now I’m y to pass the baton and do my part as a private citizen,#39; he said. This year, in this election, I’m asking you to join me – to reject cynicism, reject fear, to summon what’s best in us; to elect Hillary Clinton as the next President of the ed States, and show the world we still believe in the promise of this great nation.#39;“美国,这八年来你维护了人们的希望。现在,我要将接力棒传递下去,并做好一个美国公民应有的本分。”他如此说道,“今年,此次竞选中,我请求你们能够与我一起反对犬儒主义、抵制恐惧,去召唤我们中最出色的那个人,去选择希拉里·克林顿作为美国的下一任总统,并告诉全世界:我们仍旧相信我们伟大祖国的承诺。”#39;Hillary knows we can insist on a lawful and orderly immigration system while still seeing striving students and their toiling parents as loving families, not criminals or rapists.#39;.“希拉里明白,我们能够在坚持合法有序的移民制度的同时、见勤奋刻苦的学子和辛勤耕耘的父母组成美满家庭——没有不法之徒,也没有骇人色魔。”#39;She knows their dream is quintessentially American, and the American Dream is something no wall will ever contain.#39;“她明白他们的梦想是典型的美国梦,而美国梦是无边无际的。”#39;And no matter how daunting the odds; no matter how much people try to knock her down, she never, ever, quits.#39;“无论获胜的可能性有多微小,无论有多少人想要击垮她,她永远都不会放弃。”Obama also backed up Clinton#39;s #39;judgement#39; - which is evidenced by her selection of Tim Kaine to be her vice president, he said.奥巴马对于克林顿的“意见”也给予了持——将选择蒂姆·凯恩作为她的副总统。#39;Tim Kaine is as good a man, as humble and as committed a public servant as anybody that I know. I know his family. I love Anne. I love their kids. He will be a great vice president,#39; Obama said, vouching for the U.S. Senator.“和我认识的每一个人民公仆一样,蒂姆·凯恩是一个谦虚忠诚的好人。我和他家人也很熟悉。我爱安妮。我爱他们的孩子。他将会是一个出色的副总统。”奥巴马这样向美国参议院担保道。Returning to Clinton, Obama said: #39;Hillary has got her share of critics. She has been caricatured by the right and by some on the left. She has been accused of everything you can imagine - and some things that you cannot. But she knows that’s what happens when you’re under a microscope for 40 years.说回克林顿,奥巴马又说:“希拉里遭到过批评家的指责。她曾经被右翼和一些左翼分子画成漫画嘲讽过。她曾经被扣上了所有你们能想象的到的罪名——其中甚至有一些你们连想也想不到。但是她知道在显微镜下生活四十年意味着什么。”#39;She knows that sometimes during those 40 years she’s made mistakes - just like I have; just like we all do,#39; he said. #39;That’s what happens when we try.#39;“她知道在这40年里她曾犯过错——我也不例外,我们每个人都会犯错。”他说,“只要作出尝试,错误在所难免。”Obama said: #39;You’ve got to get in the arena with her, because democracy isn’t a spectator sport. America isn’t about “yes he will”, It’s about “yes we can”. And we’re going to carry Hillary to victory this fall, because that’s what the moment demands.#39;奥巴马说:“你一定要和她一起走上这个竞技场,因为民主不是观赏性的运动。在美国,不存在‘是的,他会’,而只有‘是的,我们可以’。这个秋天,让我们响应时代的需求,一起帮助希拉里赢得这次战役!”And after a short wind-up he moved on to praising Hillary Clinton, his 2008 rival and her level-headedness.短暂停顿过后,他又一次对他2008年的竞争对手——头脑清晰的希拉里·克林顿给予了赞许。#39;You know, nothing truly prepares you for the demands of the Oval Office. You can about it. You can study it. But until you’ve sat at that desk, you don’t know what it’s like to manage a global crisis, or send young people to war,#39;“没有什么能够帮你达到能够当上美国总统需求做准备,你们懂的。你们可以阅读相关书籍,也可以做有关研究。但是唯有真正坐在总统办公室的办公桌前,你们才能明白治理全球危机或是派兵应战是怎样一种感受。”Clinton is as prepared as she could possibly be, however, he said. #39;Hillary has been in the room; she’s been part of those decisions.#39;“而克林顿已经尽己所能做好了准备。”他说,“希拉里曾经就是这里的一员,参与了那些决策的制定。”#39;That’s the Hillary I know. That’s the Hillary I’ve come to admire. And that’s why I can say with confidence there has never been a man or a woman – not me, not Bill, nobody more qualified than Hillary Clinton to serve as President of the ed States of America.#39;“那就是我认识的希拉里,让我渐渐产生钦佩之情的希拉里。这也是为什么我能如此自信地说:没有任何一个人,包括我,包括比尔,能比希拉里·克林顿更适合当选美国总统。” /201608/457593乾安县顺产多少钱吉林省中妇保医院简介



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