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时间:2019年10月18日 13:19:28

WHEN Jesus Maria Aguirre saw his coffee bushes wither away, he knew that he had lost the sole source of income for his family. “We would go to collect coffee and would come back with our baskets nearly empty, ” says the Colombian grower, recalling the pernicious effects of the “coffee rust” fungus, or roya.当赫苏斯·玛利亚·阿吉雷看到了他的咖啡树日渐枯萎时,他意识到,这下他的家庭失去了唯一的收入来源。“我们去田里采咖啡豆,结果只能篮子空空地回来。”这位哥伦比亚的种植者在回想起这种咖啡锈病真菌,或被称为“罗亚”所带来的恶性影响时这样说到。The fungus stunts the growth of the fruit of arabica coffee plants. It infected about 40% of Colombia#39;s crop between 2008 and 2012. Production plunged from a high of 12.6m 60kg bags a year in 2007 to just 7.7m bags in 2012. As supply from Colombia shrank, international buyers turned to growers elsewhere.这种真菌阻滞了阿拉比卡豆咖啡树果实的生长。在2008年至2012年间,它已经使哥伦比亚40%的作物受到了感染,产量因此由2007年的峰值1260万袋60公斤的咖啡豆暴跌至2012年的仅770万袋。随着哥伦比亚的咖啡供应量的萎缩,国际上的咖啡买家开始向其它咖啡生产地寻求供应。What Mr Aguirre went through then is now the lot of farmers throughout Central America, the Dominican Republic, southern Mexico and Jamaica. Production there fell by 30% between 2011 and 2013 because of roya, reckons the International Coffee Organisation. USAID thinks it has caused billion of economic damage in Latin America since 2012. This time Colombians are the ones taking advantage.当时阿吉雷先生所遭受的窘境现在已经席卷了中美洲、多米尼加、南墨西哥以及牙买加。据国际咖啡组织估计,由于受“罗亚”影响,这些地区的咖啡产量在2011年至2013年间已下跌了30%。美国国际开发署认为,自从2012年起,这种锈病已经导致了拉丁美洲范围内高达10亿美元的经济损失。不过这次,哥伦比亚的种植户却可以置身事外甚至因此获利。On his farm on the slopes of the country#39;s central mountain range, Mr Aguirre today presides over 1.5 hectares (4 acres) of healthy bushes plump with red berries. For yields to recover, he had to yank up fungus-prone bushes and plant a new variety that promised to fight off the blight. He was one of thousands of farmers who joined in a countrywide scheme run by the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation, which represents more than 500, 000 independent growers. By June 2014 more than 3 billion bushes had been replanted.现如今,在阿吉雷先生位于哥伦比亚中部山脉山坡上的农场里,他照料着超过1.5公顷的种满红色果实的健康的咖啡树。当初为了使产量恢复,他不得不剔除了易感真菌的植株并且种植了一种据信可抗枯萎的新品种。阿吉雷先生是全国范围种植计划的数千参与者之一,这个计划是由哥伦比亚咖啡种植者联合会运作的,这个联合会代表了超过50万的独立种植户。截至2014年6月,这种新植株已重新种植了超过30亿棵。Three-quarters of them were replaced with a roya-resistant variety known as Castillo, which had been developed in the labs of Cenicafé, the coffee federation#39;s research arm, after 13 years of selective breeding. Lindsey Bolger, head coffee buyer for Keurig Green Mountain, a roaster in the ed States, said the industry was “on pins and needles” about whether the Castillo would work. It has. Colombia produced 11.5m bags in the 12 months to June 2014, up by 31% on the previous 12-month period, according to the coffee federation. Buyers are coming back.这些咖啡树中的四分之三被一种被称为“卡斯蒂罗”的 “抗罗亚”品种替代,此品种是由哥伦比亚国家咖啡研究中心实验室经过13年精心选育开发出来的。林塞·尔捷,美国绿山咖啡烘焙公司的首席采购,在谈及“卡斯蒂罗”能否担任恢复产量重任时,形容咖啡产业对此是“如坐针毡”。事实上,“卡斯蒂罗”做到了。据咖啡联合会数据,截至2014年6月的12个月内,哥伦比亚出产了1150万袋咖啡豆,比上个同期的产量增长了31%。采购商们又把目光开始投回哥伦比亚。Fernando Gast, Cenicafé#39;s director, says seeds of the Castillo coffee plants have been sent to Mexico, El Salvador and Costa Rica for evaluation. But he warns that Colombia#39;s success story is not directly transferable to Central America. The Castillo variety was created for Colombia#39;s needs and may not adapt to Central America#39;s soil and climate, he says.费尔南多·加斯特,哥伦比亚国家咖啡研究中心实验室主任,表示“卡斯蒂罗”的种子已被送往墨西哥、萨尔瓦多以及哥斯达黎加进行进一步评估。但是他也警告说,哥伦比亚的产业复苏经验并不可被中美洲地区直接套用。“卡斯蒂罗”品种是为了满足哥伦比亚的需求而研发生产的,所以可能并不适合在中美洲的土壤及气候环境条件下种植。Cenicafé#39;s 89 researchers cannot rest easy, either. They are working on a project to map the coffee genome. That should help them develop new varieties that will not only resist roya, which is continuously evolving, but will also be less susceptible to erratic weather. The search for a stronger brew is never over.实验室的89位研究人员们也还不能高枕无忧。他们现在正在进行一个绘制咖啡树基因谱的项目,这将有助他们培育新的变种,这种变种不仅能抵抗“罗亚”及其以后可能出现的其它变种,还能更不易受到不稳定天候影响的新品种植株。对于更优良品种的研究总会一直进行下去。 /201408/321596

Many people have benefited from Bill Gates’ generosity over the years, but the billionaire philanthropist truly got to play St. Nick this week when he became one lucky Reddit user’s Secret Santa, as part of the annual Redditgifts holiday exchange.多年来,很多人因为比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)的慷慨而受益,但在本周,当这位亿万富豪慈善家参加了社交新闻网站Reddit组织的礼物交换活动,成为其一名幸运用户的神秘圣诞老人时,他真得充当了一次圣诞老人。In a post titled “Spoiler alert: Bill Gates did not get you, because he got me, ” a Reddit user named Rachel revealed that Gates had been her mystery gift giver, writing “I want to start by giving a HUGE THANK YOU to Mr. Bill Gates for an amazing gift and secret santa experience. Bill—you ROCK (can I call you Bill?! I feel like we’re friends now!).”在一篇题为“注意:比尔·盖茨没有找你,是因为他找到我了”的帖子中,一位名叫蕾切尔的Reddit用户透露,盖茨是她神秘的礼物派送者,并写道,“首先,我非常感谢比尔·盖茨先生给我带来这么棒的礼物和神秘圣诞老人的经历。比尔——你好厉害(我能喊你比尔吗?!我想我们现在是朋友吧!)。”She goes on to describe Gates’ gift—which could have come from a particularly thoughtful uncle—of a stuffed cow, along with a donation in her name to the non-profit Heifer International她继续形容盖茨的这份礼物——本该是来自一位特别体贴的叔叔——填充奶牛玩偶,和以她的名义向非盈利组织国际小母牛组织(Heifer International)捐赠一头小牛(该组织贫困地区的家庭免费提供家畜)。该礼物中还包括一本《国家地理:一生必游的500经典路线》(National Geographic Journeys of a Lifetime)。Gates exposed his identity in a note explaining the donation, and included a picture of himself (above) holding the stuffed bovine and the note as confirmation. For anyone thinking this was a cheap gift from the country’s wealthiest man, the donation of one heifer to a family in need rings in at 0—well above the gift ceiling of your standard Secret Santa.盖茨在一张解释这份圣诞礼物的便签中表明了自己的身份,并包括一张他拿着礼物和卡片的照片作为明。有些人会认为,美国首富的这份礼物太廉价了,但是要知道,向一个贫困家庭捐赠一头小母牛相当于500美元——这可比你最昂贵的圣诞礼物都值钱多了。Reddit Gifts is an annual gift exchange started in 2009 to connect “Redditors” around the world. Users enter their home address and information such as likes and dislikes, and Reddit matches gifters and recipients at random. After participants receive a gift, they’re encouraged to return to Reddit and post a public thank you.Reddit Gifts是一年一度的礼物交换活动,始于2009年,旨在将全球的“Redditors”联系起来。用户们输入他们的家庭住址和个人喜好,Reddit会随机对礼物赠送者和接收人进行配对,并鼓励他们在收到礼物之后回到网站发一封公开的感谢信。Rachel says in her post that it wasn’t until she saw the photo of Gates that she knew who had sent her loot, but she had an inkling it was somebody special when she received a notification email that said her gift was being overnighted and weighed in at 7 pounds.蕾切尔在她的帖子中写道,直到她看到盖茨的照片,她才知道送她礼物的神秘人是谁。但她事前她收到过一封通知邮件,告诉她有一份7磅重的礼物正连夜送达,因此她隐隐感觉到今年的圣诞老人会是个特别的人物。Gates has become an enthusiastic Reddit user over the past year, participating in an Ask Me Anything th in the spring and posting thoughts and questions periodically, such as “How much of the Earth are humans consuming?”, using the handle “thisisbillgates.”在过去一年,盖茨已经成为Reddit热情的用户,他不仅在今年春天参与该网站组织的“Ask Me Anything”问答活动,还定期以我是“我是比尔·盖茨”的句柄发表想法和问题,诸如,“地球有多少正在被人类消耗着?”A Gates spokesman told GeekWire he joined the gift exchange in part to raise awareness for Heifer International.盖茨的一位发言人告诉GeekWire说,他参与礼物交换活动,在某种程度上是为了提高对国际小母牛组织的意识。Gates hasn’t posted a response to Rachel’s public thank you just yet, but whoever drew the name “Bill Gates” from Reddit’s virtual hat better come up with something extra thoughtful for the man who truly has everything.盖茨尚未对蕾切尔的公开感谢做出回复,不过,无论是谁在Reddit的抽签游戏中抽中“比尔·盖茨”的名字,都想不到一个真正拥有一切的人会想得这么周到。 /201401/271585

Most women know that the right haircut and colour can take years off your appearance, but few spend time worrying about how their parting is ageing their face.大多数女性都知道,正确的发型和发色能让自己显得年轻,但是很少有人会关心往哪个方向分头发会让她们的脸显老。However, according to celebrity hair-stylist Andrew Barton, the wrong parting can make us look years older – dragging down features – while the right parting can be almost as rejuvenating as a visit to a plastic surgeon.不过,明星发型师安德鲁·巴顿表示,如果头发分错了方向,会让我们看起来老好几岁——因为会起到把脸部往下拉的效果。如果分对了方向,却可以像整容手术一般让你重焕青春。Here, with the help of Pascal Lombardo, chief stylist at Andrew Barton#39;s London salon, I try five different partings to see if they make me look older or younger – with staggering results.在安德鲁·巴顿的帮助下,我尝试了5种不同的分发方向,来看看它们究竟会使我看起来显老还是显得年轻,结果让人惊愕。 /201406/304642


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