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2019年05月21日 21:54:23来源:求医新闻

Google’s takeover of Motorola MobilityGoogle收购托罗拉移动部分Patently different截然不同The battle in the mobile industry takes an unexpected turn移动通信行业之争出现意外转折Aug 20th 2011 | from the print edition WHEN smartphones were still young and computing tablets not yet born, some analysts predicted that the market for mobile devices would sooner or later look much like that for personal computers (PCs): there would be a clear division of labour and intellectual property between makers of hardware and software; a dominant operating system would emerge; and Apple would again become a niche player.在智能手机初现江湖、平板电脑尚未问世之时,有些分析人士就预言移动通信设备市场迟早会变得和个人电脑PC市场一样:软硬件制造商之间分工明确,拥有各自的知识产权;有一个操作系统会一统江湖;而苹果将再次扮演只做特定群体买卖的角色。If proof is still needed, Google’s takeover of Motorola Mobility is the strongest sign yet that this will not come to pass, at least in the near future. On the contrary, the mobile-device industry will bear a closer resemblance to its other parent: the market for old-fashioned, voice-only handsets.不过至少在短期内,这一预言是不会成真了,假如你一定要我给个据,Google收购托罗拉就是最有力的明。相反,移动设备行业的市场状况倒是会与它的另一位生父更为相似,那就是:只有通话功能的老式手机。Start with intellectual property. In contrast with PC makers, firms in the telecoms industry have long fought over patents. If such disputes are even more common over today’s mobile devices (see article), it is because they are exceedingly complex and based on intellectual property from many different industries.先从知识产权说起。与PC制造商相比,电信企业对专利的争夺由来已久,而由于移动设备极其复杂,其知识产权来源于各行各业,知识产权纠纷在今时今日会变得更为普遍。Gaining control of Motorola’s big patent portfolio will provide Google with ammunition in the ongoing battle between mobile platforms. Android, Google’s operating system for smartphones and other devices, has taken the world by storm. Its global market share is approaching 50% (see chart). Yet Apple and Microsoft have found a way to slow down, and even benefit from Android’s advance: going after makers of smartphones running Android for patent infringements.将托罗拉庞大的专利网收入囊中,这为Google参与激战正酣的移动平台争夺战提供了弹药。Google开发的智能手机及移动设备操作系统安卓Android正席卷全球。其全球市场份额正接近50%(见下图)。不过苹果和微软找到了应对之策,这两家公司甚至还从安卓的发展中受益:状告安卓智能手机制造商专利侵权。201108/150886。

  • A new row about the IPCC 政府间气候变化专门委员会的新争吵A climate of conflict 气候之争The world’s climate experts must work harder to avoid conflicts of interest 全球的气候专家们必须要竭尽全力以避免利益之争Jun 23rd 2011 | from the print edition | International PANELS of experts assessing scientific investigations tend to be messy affairs, particularly when their customers are governments. People with expertise in one field, such as renewable energy, may have a bias towards it. Summaries of their work are the result of political negotiations. And findings are further boiled down in an attempt to win media coverage.那些评估科学考察的专家小组越发地变得复杂了,尤其是当他们的客户是政府时更是如此。在某个领域,如可再生能源方面拥有专业知识的人或许对此有偏见。他们的工作摘要是政治谈判的结果。这样的发现可以进一步归结为试图赢得媒体的报道。Much of this can be seen in a new “special report” on renewable energy by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which was released last week. Possible conflicts of interest, revealed by Steve McIntyre, a blogger, have led to another controversy about the panel—only 18 months after its embarrassment over an incorrect claim about the imminent demise of the Himalayas’ glaciers.从新的有关可再生能源的“特别报告”中就可以看到以上的大部分情况,该报告是在上周由政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC,以下简称气候委员会)发布的。一个叫史帝夫.麦因特(Steve McIntyre)的客透露,可能的利益纷争已经又引发了一场关于专家小组的争议——这距离上次关于喜马拉雅山冰川即将消失的错误言论仅有18个月的时间。201106/142330。
  • Afghan, Pakistani Representatives Hold Jirga on Taliban Conflict巴阿部落领袖及政府代表开始会谈A suspected U.S. missile strike has killed 20 people in Pakistan's Taliban-controlled tribal regions. The attack came hours before Pakistani and Afghan tribal leaders and government representatives began two days of talks about the Taliban insurgency in both countries. 被怀疑是美军发动的一次导弹袭击在塔利班控制的巴基斯坦部落地区造成20人死亡。袭击发生几个小时之后,巴基斯坦和阿富汗部落领袖以及政府代表开始就两国境内塔利班反叛武装问题展开为期两天的会谈。Residents of South Waziristan said the early morning missile strike hit the home of a Taliban commander outside the main town, Wana. Local residents reported some foreign militants were among the dead. 南瓦济里斯坦的居民说,清晨发射的导弹击中了主要城镇瓦纳郊外一名塔利班指挥官的房屋。据当地居民报告,死者当中包括几名外国激进分子。Since late August, more than 12 such missile strikes have hit targets mainly in the North and South Waziristan tribal agencies, which are considered key strongholds of Taliban factions that also operate in Afghanistan.  去年8月以来,这类导弹袭击共发生了12次以上,主要目标是南、北瓦济里斯坦的部落特区。据认为那些地区是同时也在阿富汗活动的塔利班派系的主要聚集地。During the same time, Pakistan's military has been engaged in heavy fighting in the Bajaur tribal agency, where the army claimed this week that more than 1,500 militants and 73 soldiers have been killed since the operation began.  与此同时,巴基斯坦军方在巴焦尔部落特区与激进分子展开了激烈战斗,军方这个星期说,这次行动开始以来,已经有1千5百多名激进分子被击毙,73名士兵阵亡。Despite the increase in U.S. missile strikes and the intensified efforts of the Pakistani military, there is also growing support for using negotiations and diplomacy to resolve the Taliban conflict.  尽管美军增加了导弹袭击频率,巴基斯坦军方也加大了行动力度,但也有更多的人持通过谈判和外交途径解决与塔利班的冲突。Last week Pakistan's parliament passed a resolution supporting peace talks as the government's top priority. This week, a group of Afghan tribal leaders, clerics and government officials arrived in Islamabad for talks with their Pakistani counterparts on the Taliban insurgency.  上星期,巴基斯坦议会通过决议,持政府将和谈作为优先重点。这星期,一些阿富汗部落领袖、神职人员和政府官员抵达伊斯兰堡,就塔利班反叛武装问题同巴基斯坦方面展开两天的会谈。At the start of the two-day meeting traditionally known as a jirga, Pakistan's foreign minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi said both countries acknowledge that the Taliban insurgency must be resolved through diplomacy.  会谈开始时,巴基斯坦外长库雷希说,两国都承认,必须通过外交途径解决塔利班反叛武装问题。"There is an increasing realization that the use of force alone cannot yield the desired results. For lasting success, negotiations and reconciliation must be an essential part of the process" Qureshi said. 他说:“人们越来越认识到,只靠武力不能取得预期的结果。为了持久的成功,必须使谈判和妥协成为这个进程的重要组成部分。”Since the last Pakistan-Afghanistan jirga held in Kabul more than a year ago, relations between the two countries have worsened and the Taliban insurgency has strengthened. Afghan officials have accused elements of Pakistan's intelligence and military institutions of helping insurgents plot attacks in Afghanistan. 自从巴基斯坦和阿富汗各方一年多以前举行上一次会谈以来,两国关系有所恶化,塔利班反叛活动有所加强。阿富汗官员指责巴基斯坦情报部门和军方机构中有人帮助反叛分子策划在阿富汗境内发动袭击。Despite the difficulties, officials in both countries say there is now more support for working together to negotiate an end to the conflict. Unlike last year, representatives from Pakistan's tribal agencies are attending the talks, citing the minor but hopeful progress that was made during the last round.  尽管存在这些困难,两国官员都表示,现在人们更加持展开合作,通过谈判结束冲突。与去年不同的是,巴基斯坦部落特区的代表现在也参加了会谈,表示自上一轮会谈以来取得了微小但有希望的进展。Some critics in Pakistan say the talks are meaningless unless U.S., NATO and Taliban representatives attend. But the leader of Afghanistan's delegation, former foreign minister Abdullah Abdullah, said searching for common ground at this stage is the best way forward.  巴基斯坦一些批评人士认为,除非美国、北约和塔利班的代表也出席,否则这些会谈毫无意义。但是阿富汗代表团团长、前外交部长阿卜杜拉说,在目前阶段,寻求共同立场是取得进展的最佳途径。"Through the decisions of the peace jirga and the discussions that we have here we will explore those opportunities further and hopefully what we decide here will help us to expedite the process of dialogue and reconciliation," Abdullah said. 他说:“通过和平会谈的决定以及我们在此展开的讨论,我们将进一步探索那些机会,但愿我们在这里做出的决定将帮助我们加快对话和妥协的进程。”The talks among 50 officials and tribal elders from both countries are expected to continue through Tuesday. 预计,这50名官员和部落长老的会谈将持续到星期二。200810/54264。
  • U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has arrived in Haiti, where he has come to express his support for victims of Tuesday's massive earthquake.联合国秘书长潘基文已抵达海地,他特地来到此地向星期二大地震的受难者表示持。Mr. Ban said he is going to Haiti with a "very heavy heart." "The damage, the destruction, the loss of life, are just overwhelming. Therefore, we need unprecedented international support to Haitian people," he said.潘基文说,他带着非常沉重的心情前往海地。潘基文说:“地震带来破坏、毁灭和生命的丧失。所以我们需要给予海地人民空前未有的国际持。”The U.N. chief spoke to reporters aboard his flight from New York. The plane carried several of his senior advisors as well as U.N. staff and aid supplies.这位联合国秘书长在从纽约起飞的飞机上向记者发表了谈话。这架飞机载有他的几名资深顾问、联合国工作人员以及救援物资。Mr. Ban says the ed Nations has three priorities now in Haiti.潘基文说,联合国目前在海地有三大当务之急。"First, to save lives - as many lives as possible. We are running against time. This is aly it the 4th day, but there is hope that we can and we may save some more lives," he said.潘基文说:“第一要挽救生命,抢救尽可能多的生命。我们要争分夺秒。这已经是第四天了,但是我们还有希望能够拯救或者可以拯救更多的生命。”The organization also hopes to provide urgently needed humanitarian assistance, including tents, water, medical supplies and other services. Mr. Ban said food distribution is improving and the U.N. is now feeding at least 40,000 people a day. 联合国还希望 提供急需的人道援,包括帐篷、水、医疗物资和其它各种务。潘基文说,食品分发工作正在改进,联合国目前每天至少供给四万人食品。201001/94898。
  • Wikileaks has received widesp attention for releasing classified U.S. government documents. But if you want to examine notes from White House meetings with foreign leaders, email from a Cabinet secretary, or look at photos taken by U.S. surveillance satellites… you can, thanks to the Freedom of Information Act, which grants access to declassified government records. Millions of those documents are available at the National Security Archive, a private research group in Washington.维基揭秘由于公布美国政府机密文件而受到广泛关注。不过,如果你想查阅白宫官员与外国领导人的会议纪要,阅读内阁部长的电子邮件或者观看美国监视卫星拍摄的照片,你完全可以。这要归功于美国的信息自由法。这部法律允许公众查阅美国政府解密的文件档案。位于华盛顿的一个私营研究团体国家安全档案馆专门提供了数百万份这类档案。Boxes filled with documents are stacked six shelves high in a storage room at the National Security Archive. These copies of government papers are only a small part of its collection, which also includes materials which can be viewed on the group’s website. The archive was started more than 25 years ago by a group of journalists and historians who used the Freedom of Information Act to get documents they needed for research. The act was passed by Congress in 1966 to make U.S. government agencies more accountable to the American public. However, some information is protected, including classified national defense or foreign policy materials, trade secrets and other confidential business information. 在国家安全档案馆的一个储藏室里,一箱箱装满文件的箱子被码放在六层架子上。这些政府文件的复印本只是档案馆馆藏的很小一部分。档案馆收藏的很多文件还可从网上查询。档案馆25年前由一群记者和历史学家创办。他们利用信息自由法来获取资料以供他们研究。信息自由法1966年由国会通过,目的是让美国政府机构能够更加对公众负责。但是,一些重要信息仍然不能对外公布,这包括机密国防和外交资料、商业机密和其它机密商业信息。Today, the archive collects materials on a variety of topics, analyzes the information and publishes books about what they've found.目前,国家安全档案馆收集各个种类的资料,对这些资料进行分析,然后出书介绍他们的发现。Director Tom Blanton says a retired spy even wrote part of his memoir using information from the archive. 据档案馆馆长汤姆.布兰顿介绍,甚至一名退役间谍的回忆录中部分内容都是利用档案馆提供的资料写成的。“So it’s an interesting hybrid of different functions, all meant to make the Freedom of Information Act idea come true in the toughest area, the most closed area of American government and that’s national security," said Blanton. 他说:“档案馆集很多功能于一身,目的是让信息自由法的作用在一些最困难、美国政府最封闭的领域中发挥出来。这就是国家安全。”Blanton says even when material is declassified, it can be difficult to get intelligence agencies to release sensitive information. 布兰顿说,即使有些文件已经解密,情报机构也不愿意把某些敏感内容公之于众。201105/134597。
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