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2019年09月15日 14:52:37    日报  参与评论()人

江苏省淮安市第二人民医院泌尿外科淮安中山门诊医生The Yinhe Supercomputer“”巨型计算机On November 21, 1981, “Yinhe I”supercomputer, with a performance of 100 million Flops, was successfully developed by National University of Defense Technology and got by state verification in Changsha. Yinhe I was at that time the fastest and most powerful computer. Its birth filled in the gap in domestic supercomputer research and marked China entering the rank of international research of supercomputer. China had become the third country in the world which could develop large-scale computer after the US and Japan.1983年11月21日,由中国人民解放军国防科技大学研制成功的中国第 一台亿次巨型计算机——“-I”计算机在长沙通过国家鉴定。“-I”巨型计算机是当时运行速度最快、功能最强的计算机,它的诞生,填补了国内巨型计算机研制的空白,标志着我国进入世界巨型计算机研制的行列。我国成为继美国和日本之后第三个能研制巨型机的国家。It was then used in the detection of oil and coal mines. Besides, it was also used for the satellite route analysis. At that time, only a few developed c:ountnes could develop supercomputer. The success of Yinhe brought Chinese computer industry into a very fast development. After Yinhe one , the Yinhe Two and Yinhe Three came out in 1992 and 1993 respectively.“-I”计算机很快被用于石油和煤炭勘测,此外,也用在卫星运行路线的分析。在当时,只有少数几个发达国家掌握这项技术。此后,中国在巨型计算机研究领域不断进步,先后又两次取得重大突破:国防科技大学研制成功的“.Ⅱ”十亿次和“一Ⅲ”百亿次巨型计算机,分别于1992年和1997年通过国家鉴定。In 1997, the large-scale computer “Galaxy-III”that could calculate 13 billion times in one second was developed in the University of National Defense Science and Technology. Galaxy series largescale computers developed by the University of National Defense Science and Technology have displayed its prowess fully in the weather forecasting, which not only enabled our country to rank among few countries that could make mid-term numerical weather forecast, but also remarkably improved the capability of forecasting serious natural calamities and yield enormous economic and social efficiencies.1997,由国防科技大学计算机研究所研制的“一Ⅲ”百亿次巨型计算机系统,在北京通过了国家技术鉴定。我国在设计研制巨型计算机的过程中,坚持研制生产与开发应用相结合,把“好用”、“实用”作为国产巨型机走向市场的生命线。比如,在首台巨型机研制时,就与国家气象部门探讨气象领域对巨型机的需求,突破了向量化并行算法等一系列关键技术,开发出了我国第一个全面向量化的大型应用软件——“高分辨率中期预报模式高效软件系统”,使国产“”巨型机完成24小时天气预报的运行时间由过去的10700秒缩短为3900秒,一年就可为国家节省机时费300多万元。使我国成为世界上少数几个能发布5—7天中期数值天气预报的国家之一。如今,“”系列巨型机广泛应用于天气预报、空气动力实验、工程物理、石油勘探、地震数据处理等领域.产生了巨大的经济效益和社会效益。 /201602/422142淮安四院治疗腋臭狐臭多少钱 Welcome, customers, to this column. I write articles and you subscribe to the FT and tell me how wrong I am (to be fair, some of your are kinder). Now, let us imagine you this piece, or other FT content, for free on Facebook or Google. It is a far sweeter deal, right? You get something for nothing and Big Data can bask in its own beneficence. Apply that to any amount of diverse content. Rarely in the history of human knowledge have so few offered so much to so many for nothing.各位看官,欢迎你们阅读我的专栏。我的任务是写文章,而你们的任务是订阅英国《金融时报》,以及指摘我的文字(公平来说,有部分读者还是很仁慈的)。现在,假设你们是在Facebook或谷歌(Google)上免费看到这篇文章或英国《金融时报》的其他文章。这是笔非常划算的交易,对吧?你免费享受内容,而大数据也可享受行善之乐。这可以发生在任何数量的各种不同内容上。在人类认知史上,鲜有如此少的内容提供者向如此多的人免费提供如此海量信息的情况。That, at least, is the story most of us have downloaded. In the rare cases where an entity — such as the European Commission, which is probing Google’s alleged abuse of its dominant position — raises objections, the obloquy is instant. Google, the US government and others accuse Brussels of thinly veiled protectionism.至少,上述情形是我们大多数人都曾免费下载、读到过的故事。只在极少数情况下,才会有实体对此提出异议,比如欧盟委员会(European Commission)正在调查谷歌涉嫌滥用市场主导地位,结果立即遭到谩骂。谷歌、美国政府以及其他一些人纷纷指责布鲁塞尔方面几乎不加掩饰的保护主义。If Europe could innovate like the US, perhaps it would spend less time trying to bring others down. There is a reason Google’s motto is “Don’t be evil”. It invests in ways of bringing ever more knowledge to humankind.如果欧洲的创新力能像美国一样,或许会少花点时间去给别人使绊。谷歌的座右铭“不作恶”(Don’t be evil)并非说说而已。在为人类带来更多知识方面,谷歌进行了投入。Peter Thiel, a co-founder of PayPal, describes Google as a benign monopoly. If it encountered real competition, its research and development budget would vanish — and with it the self-driving car, wearable computers, “loon balloons” beaming cellular data from the stratosphere and so on. We should appreciate the upside to its dominance. Google’s monopoly returns enable it to fund the equivalent of ATamp;T’s legendary Bell Labs, or Xerox Park, which made so many breakthroughs. Besides, the data industry’s barriers to entry are low. The disrupters can be disrupted.贝宝(PayPal)联合创始人彼得#8226;蒂尔(Peter Thiel)将谷歌描述为一家善良的垄断企业。如果它遇到真正的挑战,它的研发预算,连同它的无人驾驶汽车、可穿戴计算机,以及从平流层发射无线数据的“Loon”热气球等科技创新都会化为泡影。我们应该认识到其市场主导地位的有利一面。正是有了垄断收益,谷歌才能资助不亚于美国电报电话公司(ATamp;T)传奇的贝尔实验室(Bell Labs)或施乐帕克研究中心(Xerox Park)的实验室,这些实验室做出的突破创新数不胜数。而且,数字行业的进入门槛很低,破坏者本身也可能遭到破坏。But there are other sides to this story. The first is that Google’s chief complainants are US companies. This is not a transatlantic spat. It just so happens that Brussels has a tougher competition regime.但此事还有其他方面。首先,投诉谷歌的主要是美国企业。这不是一场跨大西洋的口水仗,欧盟委员会之所以会展开调查,只是刚好这里的竞争制度比较严格而已。Yelp, Microsoft, Expedia and others have complained both to Brussels and Washington’s Federal Trade Commission about Google’s alleged anti-competitive practices. Indeed, in a 2012 report, the FTC’s own staff recommended action on three counts against Google for conduct that had resulted in “real harm to consumers and to innovation”. Google had been presenting content “scraped” from other sites as its own. It had also been privileging its own commercial sites in search results — a clear conflict of interest. However, the FTC’s commissioners rejected their staff’s conclusions. It might have been different had the probe been carried out by the Department of Justice, as was the case with Microsoft, which was penalised on both sides of the Atlantic more than a decade ago.Yelp、微软(Microsoft)、Expedia等企业向欧盟委员会和美国联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission,简称FTC)都提出过投诉,指称谷歌涉嫌反竞争行为。事实上,在2012年的一份报告中,FTC内部工作人员建议对谷歌的三项罪名采取行动,因为其行为已经“对消费者和创新造成真正伤害”。谷歌此前一直将从其他网站“搜刮”的内容作为自己的内容呈现。它还在搜索结果中优先呈现自己的商业网站,这明显存在利益冲突。然而,FTC委员否定了工作人员的结论。如果调查是由美国司法部(Department of Justice)进行的,情况可能会不同,十多年前微软就接受了美国司法部的调查,并在大西洋两岸都受到了处罚。Not even Goldman Sachs can match Google’s lobbying clout nowadays. When the report was leaked to the Wall Street Journal in March, Google cajoled the FTC into distancing itself from its own conclusions.就连高盛(Goldman Sachs)也比不上谷歌现今的游说影响力。当FTC对谷歌的调查报告在3月份被泄露给《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal),谷歌劝诱FTC放弃了自己的结论。The idea that US regulators had in fact agreed with their EU counterparts was too dangerous. Johanna Shelton, Google’s chief lobbyist, has visited the White House more than 100 times . Eric Schmidt, Google’s chairman, is closer to President Barack Obama than any other business leader. Google even has its own “data diplomacy” outfit, Google Ideas, which is headed by a former state department official. It combines data initiatives against autocracies with business acumen to open up new markets. What is good for Google is good for America — and the world.认为美国监管部门实际上已经与欧盟监管部门达成一致的想法太过危险。谷歌首席游说官约翰娜#8226;谢尔顿(Johanna Shelton)已经前往白宫逾100次。谷歌董事长埃里克#8226;施密特(Eric Schmidt)与美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)的关系,比任何其他商业领袖都要紧密。谷歌甚至拥有自己的“数据外交”部门——由美国国务院前官员领导的Google Ideas。它把针对专制主义的数据计划与商业敏锐性结合起来,打开新的市场。对谷歌有益的东西,对美国乃至整个世界都是有益的。But there are hidden costs. Ponder how Google and Facebook, are interacting with you. In exchange for free social networking, emails, s, search, satellite maps and now telephone calls, they are building your profile in ever more granular detail.但是,这其中还有隐性成本。仔细考虑下谷歌和Facebook是如何与你互动的。它们以免费的社交网络、电邮、视频、搜索、卫星地图、以及眼下的免费电话作为交换,正在以更加细致入微的细节来建立你的个人信息。Without really digesting it, we have made a Faustian bargain. They give us free computing power — beyond our wildest imagination — and we reveal ever more about ourselves. The more Google knows about you, the better it teases out preferences you never realised you had.未经真正地细细品味,我们已经做了一笔浮士德式的交易。它们给了我们免费的计算能力——超出了我们最疯狂的想象——而我们则更多地暴露自己。谷歌越了解你,它就能越好地梳理出甚至连你自己都从未意识到的偏好。It is an asymmetric exchange. Big Data has our profiles but few of us know how extensive that is. It is the information equivalent of Walmart. The big box retailer drove countless Mom and Pop stores to the wall by acquiring ever more pricing leverage. The job losses went deep, and some of the victims were customers. The model is self-cannibalising.这是一笔不对等的交换。大数据拥有我们的信息,而我们几乎没人知道其信息量有多广。它是信息界的沃尔玛(Walmart)。这家巨型零售商通过获取越来越大的定价能力,迫使不计其数的夫妻店陷入困境。失业情况加深,一些受害者也是沃尔玛的顾客。这是自我蚕食型的模式。Apply the Walmart example to the data industry. We now receive most of our content for free (like Asterix against the Romans, the FT, among others, is holding out). Producers of content are suffering.把沃尔玛的例子应用在数据行业。我们如今获取的绝大多数内容都是免费的(而英国《金融时报》就像对抗罗马人的高卢传奇英雄阿斯泰里斯(Asterix)一样,一直坚持绝不妥协)。而内容的生产者则承受着痛苦。By the end of this decade, most of the world’s books will have been uploaded to Google’s online library. The company’s sway over our culture and knowledge will be unprecedented. Should we charge Big Data for our personal data? Jeff Hammerbacher, former head of data at Facebook, said: “The best minds of my generation are thinking about how to make people click ads.” In a parallel universe, they might be figuring out something more noteworthy. But what they do brings us untold benefits. Evil does not come into it.在本世纪的第二个10年结束时,世界上的大多数书籍都将已上传至谷歌的在线图书馆中。该公司对我们的文化与知识的控制将会达到前所未有的水平。我们应该为个人数据向大数据收费吗?Facebook前数据主管杰夫#8226;哈默巴赫尔(Jeff Hammerbacher)称:“我这代人中头脑最为出色的人都在考虑如何让人们点击广告。”在另一个平行宇宙中,他们也许正在考虑更有意义的事。但是,他们所做的事带给了我们数不清的好处。这里面并不涉及邪恶。We should nevertheless embrace the bargain with open eyes. We are not Big Data’s customers but its product. As long as we grasp that we users are also being used, let the harvest continue.话虽如此,我们还是应该睁大眼睛来接受这笔交易。我们并非大数据的客户,而是其产品。只要我们清楚我们用户也在被利用着,就让大数据对我们的“收割”继续下去吧。 /201506/378300I hate the new Apple Watch. Hate what it will do to conversation, to the pace of the day, to my friends, to myself. I hate that it will enable the things that aly make life so incremental, now-based and hyper-connected. That, and make things far worse.我讨厌新上市的苹果手表。讨厌它将会对交谈、生活的节奏、我的朋友以及我自己产生的影响。我讨厌它会提升那些已经让生活变得如此繁琐、急功近利和超级互联的东西的效用。除此之外,除了以上这些,它还会让情况变得糟糕许多。This has nothing to do with Apple. We can still be friends. I’m writing on a MacBook Air, my constant companion since I kissed off my hometown Microsoft-programmed clunker for the sleek and far less needy Mac some time ago. I’m closer to my iPhone 6 than to some of my siblings — you never call, you never text, you never share, not a selfie in six months.这与苹果公司无关。我们还是可以做朋友的。我正在一台MacBook Air上写下这些文字。自从一段时间以前我淘汰了家乡生产的那台微软系统的旧电脑,换成这台漂亮且远不会那么需要照顾的Mac之后,它一直是我的好伙伴。我与iPhone 6的关系比我与一些兄弟的关系还亲密——从来不给他们打电话、发短信,或是分享东西,六个月里连张自拍都没有。No, my animus for Apple’s smartwatch — excuse me, wearable technology — is for what it will do to us. Things are too complicated as it is. At dinner with friends, or in a meeting that I’m supposed to care about, when can I look at my phone? Who’s phone-ignore worthy, and who’s not? At what point is looking down rude? And how long into a conversation till all sides get to call a truce and take a screen dive?不,我对苹果智能手表的厌恶——不好意思,应该是可穿戴设备——在于它会对我们产生何种影响。生活已经够复杂的了。在与朋友吃饭时,或是在我应该重视的一个会议上,我什么时候可以看手机?谁重要到让我不看手机,谁没那么重要?什么时候看手机是不礼貌的?交谈进行了多长时间之后,各方才可以休息一下,看一眼手机屏幕?I say this as an information obsessive. I wish I could say recovering information obsessive. Like most of us, I’m in need of digital detox, not a fresh hit. Those restroom breaks at restaurants were not about bladder relief. God knows how many times I’ve sneaked away from the table just to peek at a football score, a “Daily Show” clip, a text, a photo or email, my Amazon book number. What a miserable wretch. But it could be worse: I have a friend who texts while skiing.我认为这是一种信息强迫症。我希望我能说这种信息强迫症可以恢复。就像我们中多数人一样,我需要戒除网瘾,不是来一剂让我更上瘾的东西。我们在吃饭时去洗手间根本不是因为人有三急。天知道我有多少次从餐桌上偷偷溜出来只是去为了看一眼球赛的比分、《每日秀》(Daily Show)的片段、一条短信、一张照片或电子邮件,还有我的亚马逊图书订单。多可悲啊。但情况还可以更糟:我有一个朋友一边滑雪一边发短信。Apple says its smartwatch, which it rolled out at one of its Dear Leader-like events in San Francisco this week, will make interactions between human and screen less complicated, and less rude. Instead of reaching into pocket or purse in front of someone, the user will just glance at the wrist. In fact, Apple calls the new feature in which the watch is touched to access the Internet a “glance.”苹果本周在旧金山一场致敬伟大领袖似的活动中发布了这款手表。苹果说,它的智能手表将让人与屏幕的互动不那么复杂,不那么不礼貌。用户不需要在他人面前把手伸进口袋或包包,只需扫一眼手腕就行了。实际上,苹果把碰一下手表就接入互联网的新功能就叫做“Glance”(瞥一眼)。Just a glance, nothing rude there. Oh, really? Remember how off-putting it was when George Bush the elder checked his watch during a question period from the audience in a presidential debate? It may have cost him the election in 1992.只是扫一眼,这可没有什么不礼貌的。噢,是吗?还记得乔治·布什(George Bush)在总统辩论中接受观众提问时看手表的动作是多么让人恼火吗?这可能就是他输掉1992年大选的原因。People check their phones about 150 times a day. Now, imagine how many glances they’ll take with all the information in the world on their wrists. Imagine how many people will attempt to drive while glancing, to walk while glancing, to talk while glancing, to make love while glancing.人们一天看手机约150次。现在,想象一下,当全世界的信息都在手腕上展示的时候,人们会扫上多少眼。想象有多少人会试图在开车时扫一眼,在走路时扫一眼,在聊天时扫一眼,在做爱时扫一眼。To the complaints that our smartphone addiction has produced a world where nobody talks much anymore, nobody listens and nobody s, you can add a new one with the smartwatch: nobody makes eye contact.一些人抱怨,手机引发的上瘾让这个世界变成了没人长时间讲话、没人倾听,没人阅读的地方。有了智能手表之后,这些抱怨中可以加上一条:没人进行目光接触。Tim Cook, the Apple C.E.O., seems like a decent and likable guy — no tech overlord in a Darth Vader suit. But his presentation of the new watch on Monday creeped me out, and offered a road map to a world I’m not sure I want to join.苹果CEO蒂姆·库克(Tim Cook)似乎是一个讨人喜欢的正派人——不是一个穿着达斯·维达(Darth Vader)式装的科技魔头。但他周一展示的新手表把我吓坏了,而它给世界提供的方向,我也不确定是否想要加入。“The Apple Watch is the most personal device we have ever created,” he said. “It’s not just with you, it’s on you.” Ewwww. It sounds like a digital dog collar, complete with an anti-flea component. From here on out, there is no down time, and no excuses for reality escapes. You are connected, 24/7.“苹果手表是我们推出的最私密的设备,”他说。“你不只是带着它,而且是戴着它。”咦哟。这听起来就像是一个数码项圈,加上一个防跳蚤的零部件。从此以后,再没有放松的时间,再没有逃离现实的借口。你永远都在线,一周七天,一天24小时。Cook tried to humanize Apple’s latest culture-disrupter. You can talk to your wrist — it’s a phone! You can check your heartbeat — it’s a doctor! And if you don’t adequately exercise during the week, your watch will remind you of your failure — it’s a nag!库克试图让苹果颠覆文化的最新产品人性化。你可以对着手腕说话——它是电话!你可以检查心跳——它是医生!而且如果你在一周当中没有进行足够的锻炼,你的表会提醒你——它还唠唠叨叨的。He seemed most rapt in describing how much closer together the Apple Watch will bring us all. “You can tap your watch and get your friends’ attention,” he said. Ah, there’s a rich relationship. I can think of a number of places once considered off-limits for cellphone intrusions — the classroom, the dinner table, the bathtub — where the watch can interrupt. And who’s to know: it’s only a glance.他似乎尤其注重描述Apple Watch能在多大程度上让我们所有人变得更亲密。“轻轻敲一下手表,就能引起朋友的注意,”他说。啊,这联系可真密切。我能想到很多曾经被认为不受手机干扰的地方:教室、餐桌和浴缸。但现在,在这些地方进行的活动手表都可以打断。毕竟谁知道呢:只用瞥一眼。There is some evidence that heavy smartphone use makes you dumber. The theory is that a having the world at the other end of a mobile search makes for lazy minds, while people who depend less on their devices develop more analytical skills.一些据表明,大量使用智能手机会让人变得更笨。相关理论认为,用移动搜索了解世界会使大脑变得懒惰,而不那么依赖设备的人,会形成更多分析技能。Add to this concerns about privacy: that the watch is a tracking device, which sends all your personal information to a central database — a corporate control center that aly knows far too much about the preferences and habits of smartphone users.除此之外,还有对隐私的担忧:这款手表是一台追踪设备,会将你所有的个人信息发送给一个中央数据库。那是一个商用控制中心,已经掌握了太多有关智能手机用户的偏好和习惯的信息。It’s encouraging that smartwatches, thus far, have not sold very well. This could be because many of them look like those fluorescent wrist bands that people have to wear at all-inclusive resorts in order to line up at the buffet table. Or perhaps people are repulsed, as I am, by this most intimate of invasions.鼓舞人心的是,迄今为止智能手表卖得并不是非常好。这可能是因为,许多智能手表看上去像那种发亮的腕带。在全包式度假胜地,人们为了等自助餐的位子,不得不戴那些腕带。也或许人们和我一样,厌恶这种最亲密的入侵。Backlash is inevitable. A few days ago, Patrick Pichette, Google’s chief financial officer, announced that he was retiring because he wanted to spend more time offline. He had this epiphany, he wrote, while watching the sunrise from Mount Kilimanjaro with his wife — an experience Apple has yet to be able to meld to a wristwatch.遭到强烈反对是不可避免的。几年前,谷歌(Google)首席财务官帕特里克·皮切特(Patrick Pichette)宣布他将退休,因为他希望有更多的线下时间。他写道,他是和妻子在乞力马扎罗山看日出时产生这一顿悟的。目前,苹果还无法把这种经历融入手表中。 /201503/364787淮安中山医院联系电话

淮安区治疗前列腺疾病多少钱淮安市妇幼保健医院治疗男性不育多少钱 For lifeless chemical compounds to organize themselves into something alive, scientists generally agree, three sets of things must be present:科学家基本公认,无生命的化学物质自行组合形成生命,需要具备三个前提条件: Standing water and an energy source. 静态水和能量来源。 Five basic elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus and nitrogen. 五种基本元素:碳、氧、氢、磷和氮。 And time, lots of time. 还有时间,漫长的时间。In its search for environments where life might have started on Mars, the Curiosity rover has found the standing water, the energy and the key elements with the right atomic charges. As a result, scientists have concluded that at least some of the planet must have been habitable long ago.在寻找火星上适宜生命的环境的过程中,“好奇号”火星探测车找到了静态水、能源和原子电量正好合适的基本元素。据此,科学家得出结论,火星上至少有些地方在很久以前是适宜生命存在的。But the period when all conditions were right was counted in hundreds to thousands of years, a very small opening by origin-of-life standards.但在火星历史上,所有这些条件都具备的时间跨度大约是几百到几千年,而以生命起源的标准衡量,那实在不过是转瞬之间。That has now changed. John P. Grotzinger of Caltech, the project scientist for the mission, reported at a news conference on Monday that the rover’s yearlong trek to Mount Sharp provided strong new evidence that Gale Crater had large lakes, rivers and deltas, on and off, for millions to tens of millions of years. The geology shows that even when the surface water dried up, plenty of water would have remained underground, he said.不过,现在有了新发现。负责“好奇号”火星项目的加州理工科学家约翰·P·格罗青格(John P. Grotzinger)周一(12月8日——译注)在新闻发布会上宣布,“好奇号”向着夏普峰历时一年的跋涉发现了有力的新据,明盖尔环形山曾有大型湖泊、河流和三角洲,而且这些地貌断断续续存在的时间有数百万到数千万年之间。他说,已知的火星地理特征说明,即使是在地表水干涸的时候,也有地下水存在。Moreover, the team concluded, numerous deltalike and lakelike formations detected by orbiting satellites are almost certainly the dried remains of substantial ancient lakes and deltas. None of this proves that life existed on the planet, but the case for an early Mars that was ripe and y for life has grown stronger.此外,科学家团队还得出结论,环绕火星的卫星发现大量类三角洲或类湖泊地貌,几乎可以肯定就是古代湖泊和三角洲干涸之后的遗迹。这些均不能明火星上曾有生命,但早期火星适宜生命存在的可能性极大地增强了。“As a science team, Mars is looking very attractive to us as a habitable planet,” Dr. Grotzinger said in an interview. “Not just sections of Gale Crater and not just a handful of locations, but at different times around the globe.”“对于我们科学团队来说,火星作为一个生命宜居行星,显得十分诱人,”格罗青格说。“不仅是在盖尔环形山,也不仅是有限几个地点,而是在不同历史时期遍布火星各处。”And John M. Grunsfeld, a former astronaut who is NASA’s associate administrator for science, said that after almost 28 months on Mars, Curiosity has given scientists insight into how and where to look for clues of ancient life. “We don’t know if life ever started on Mars, but if it did, we now have a better chance of discovering it” on future missions, he said.美国国家航空航天局(NASA)科学副总监、前宇航员约翰·M·格伦斯菲尔德(John M. Grunsfeld)也说,“好奇号”在火星的近28个月让科学家学到很多东西,知道该怎样寻找古代生命的线索,以及到哪里去找。“我们不知道火星上是否曾有生命起源,但如果有的话,我们[在今后探索任务中]发现它的机会更大了,”他说。Another missing piece of the story has been the inability to detect organic compounds — the carbon-based building blocks of life.探索生命起源的过程中另一个缺失的环节是一直没有找到有机化合物——构成生命的碳基元件。That too may soon change. Last spring, several Curiosity team members reported the detection of some simple organics that appeared to be Martian. The findings were not definitive, but NASA has scheduled a news conference Dec. 14 at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union with “new information” about the search for organics. “Our original interpretation — that there was a good chance the organics we were seeing are Martian — hasn’t changed,” said Daniel P. Glavin of the Goddard Spaceflight Center, an author of the earlier paper. “This interpretation will be expanded on at A.G.U.”这一点也可能很快会有突破。今年春季,“好奇号”的几位科学家报告发现了可能是火星上的某些简单有机物。这个发现没有遽下结论,但航天局已经安排了12月14日在美国地球物理学会(American Geophysical Union)年会上召开新闻发布会,发布关于探索火星有机物的“新消息”。那篇论文的作者之一、戈达德航天中心(Goddard Spaceflight Center)的丹尼尔·P·格莱文(Daniel P. Glavin)说:“我们最初的解读——很可能我们发现的就是火星有机物——并没有改变。在U年会上我们会进一步介绍。”Curiosity does not carry life-detection instruments, in large part because there is no consensus on what such an instrument might be. A finding of life based on what at first appeared to be metabolic activity, detected during the Viking missions of 1977, was so controversial that NASA ultimately rejected it. So scientists have been using a variety of tools — from geology and other earth sciences, organic and mineral chemistry, atmospheric measurements and sophisticated cameras — to determine whether life could have arisen and survived in Gale Crater and other locations with similar characteristics.“好奇号”没有搭载生命探测设备,主要是因为究竟该用什么样的设备,科学家没有达成共识。1977年“海盗号”探测器报告发现了生命迹象,基于的是一开始被认为是代谢行为的现象。但那次发现争议很大,航天局最终做出了否定判断。因此,科学家开始用各种工具——包括地质学等地球科学的工具、有机和无机化学、大气探测以及精密摄像机等等——去判断盖尔环形山和其他类似地点是否曾经有生命出现并存活。Another member of the Curiosity team, Roger Summons of M.I.T., says that findings from that rover and previous missions suggest that early Mars may have been quite similar to early Earth.“好奇号”团队的另一名成员、麻省理工的罗杰·萨曼斯(Roger Summons)说,“好奇号”和历史上其他的火星探索显示,早期火星或许和早期地球十分相近。For the first billion years, he said, both planets had stable environments that could support life for substantial periods, and both still share the same chemistry and processes for altering rocks. There is a general scientific consensus that life began on Earth some 3.8 billion years ago, and Dr. Summons said it was clear that the same could have happened on Mars. Or as Dr. Grunsfeld put it, “What I get excited about is imagining a Mars 3.5 to 4 billion years ago, a planet with a thick atmosphere, maybe a blue sky with puffy clouds and mountains and lakes and rivers.”他说,最初的10亿年,两个星球都有稳定的环境,允许生命在相当长的时间里存在。直到今天,地球和火星仍然有相同的化学构成以及促使岩石发生转变的地质过程。科学界基本同意,生命在地球上开始于大约38亿年前。萨曼斯称,很明显同样的事情可能也发生在火星上。或者像格伦斯菲尔德说的那样:“让我激动的是想像一个35到40亿年前的火星,一个包裹在厚厚的大气层中的星球,可能有蓝天白云,有山脉、湖泊和河流。”Many similarities disappeared after Mars, a much smaller planet, lost much of its protective atmosphere by the end of its first billion years. So searching for possible Martian life involves digging deep below the surface or detecting microbial remains billions of years old. Identifying ancient microbial life has proved extremely difficult and controversial on Earth, and the challenge on Mars is considerably greater.在它基本度过第一个10亿年的时候,火星这颗小得多的行星丧失了大部分保护它的大气层,于是很多相似性也消失了。因此,搜寻火星生命就需要深深地挖掘地表下岩层,或者探测几十亿年前的微生物遗迹。在地球上辨识古代微生物极其困难,而且也难令所有人信;在火星上,这种挑战就更大了。For that reason, scientists have long called for a mission to bring rock and soil samples back to Earth for sophisticated analysis. The Mars mission scheduled for 2020 would begin the effort by experimenting with methods to select, lift and store promising samples.因此,科学家一直呼吁把火星岩石和土壤样本带回地球做深入分析。2020年开始的火星计划将开始尝试挑选、提取和储存有希望的样本。But there are no Mars samples now — except those that arrive as long-traveling meteorites — so astrobiologists have to conduct their search for life using other methods and teasing out hidden evidence.但是目前还没有火星样本——除了长途飞行来到地球的陨石——因此,宇宙生物学家只能用其他方法进行寻找生命的工作,梳理出隐藏的线索。The search for water on Mars, for instance, goes back decades and many missions. But scientists were never certain that the carved canyons and deltas were results of water running long ago, or perhaps lava or frozen carbon dioxide. Because of Curiosity, there is now a wide consensus that early Mars had much water.比如,寻找火星水的工作在几十年前的火星计划中就开始了。但科学家一直不能肯定,那些大峡谷和三角洲究竟是古代河流冲刷形成的,还是熔岩或冻结的二氧化碳造成的。多亏了“好奇号”,现在科学家普遍同意,早期火星上有很多水。This conclusion has been difficult to square with climate models, which point to a colder early Mars with a thin atmosphere that could not have supported large bodies of standing water, or rivers that ran for millions of years. But faced with mounting evidence of longstanding water and consequently warmer conditions, the climate scientists have gravitated toward two interwoven explanations — both with implications for early life.这个结论一度很难在火星气候模型中说得通。火星气候模型显示,早期火星冰冷,大气稀薄,不持大量静态水的存在,不可能有流淌了几百万年的河流。但面对越来越多的关于持续存在的水源和由此导致的温暖环境的据,气候学家开始倾向于两种互相交叉的解释——两种解释都意味着可能有早期生命存在。The first is that frequent volcanoes and meteorite impacts heated the planet substantially; volcanoes also emit gases known to synthesize into organic compounds. The second is that to explain the substantial water cycle required to keep many Martian lakes filled and rivers flowing, the planet needed a substantial ocean in its northern half. Large swaths of Mars north of its equator are one to three miles lower than the so-called southern highlands, and scientists have proposed that an ocean may have filled and molded the vast depression. Others disagree on several grounds, including that no remnant shoreline has been detected.第一种解释是,频繁的火山活动和陨石撞击让星球大幅升温;火山也会释放出气体,能合成有机化合物。第二个解释是,火星要维持水循环,让火星湖泊和河流成为可能,那么在北半球就应该有一大片海洋。火星赤道以北的大片区域比通称的南方高地要低一到三英里。科学家提出假设,北半球可能有古代海洋,塑造了广袤的低地。也有人不同意,基于好几条理由,包括没有探测到海岸线的遗迹。“We don’t have hard evidence of a northern ocean, but our models require that much water to explain what the geologists have now confirmed,” said Michael A. Mischna of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, another Curiosity team member. “What Curiosity has done is to bring together atmospheric and climate information with the findings of the geologists and geochemists, and created a broad and consistent story of a very wet early Mars.”“我们没有发现北半球海洋的确凿据,但我们的模型要求有一大片水体,这样才能解释目前地质学家已经实的结论,”“好奇号”团队成员、喷气推进实验室(Jet Propulsion Laboratory)的迈克尔·A·米什纳(Michael A. Mischna)说。“好奇号的工作就是将大气与气候信息,和地质学家与地质化学家的发现整合起来,构建一个大跨度、可以自圆其说的理论,描述一个非常湿润的早期火星。”While the evidence for water has become increasingly clear, the question of organic compounds is in flux. Such chemicals fall onto Mars all the time in interstellar dust and meteorites, as they do onto Earth. Yet none have been definitively detected.关于水的据已经越来越清楚了,但有关有机化合物的疑问还有一大堆。这类物质不断以星际尘埃和陨石的形式落到火星上,就像落在地球上一样,但目前还从来没有被确凿地发现。But on this mission, team members knew to look for a salt called perchlorate that has been demonstrated on Earth to destroy or transform organics in the presence of heat. Substantial amounts of perchlorate were found in Gale Crater, suggesting that if early Mars had organic chemicals and they survived eons of radiation bombardment, they are long since gone or they will remain very difficult to detect with current techniques.不过在这次火星探索中,科学家知道应该寻找一种叫做高氯酸盐的无机物。在地球上,高氯酸盐被明可以在高温下破坏有机物,或者促使有机物转化。在盖尔环形山上发现了大量高氯酸盐。这意味着,如果早期火星存在有机物,而且它们没有被持续的宇宙辐射消灭,那么它们现在也早就不存在了,或者用现有的技术很难发现。The Sample Analysis at Mars instrument is designed to identify relatively simple organics that burn off as gases in its oven. But it also carries nine cups with a solvent that can alter more complex molecules (like amino acids and nucleic acids) in ways that protect their signature.火星样本分析设备是用来识别相对简单的有机物的。这些有机物将在它的烤炉内作为气体燃尽。但它也带有九个杯子,盛着一种溶剂,可以转化更复杂的分子(比如氨基酸和核酸)同时保护它们的化学特征。This “wet chemistry” has been awaiting the finding of a sample rich in organics. A further problem is that one of its cups leaked, causing enormous headaches and making team leaders wary.这种“湿化学”技术一直还在等待富含有机物的样本被发现。另一个问题是设备的其中一只杯子发生了泄漏,制造了大麻烦,让团队负责人不放心。But Dr. Glavin, a member of the team, hopes the spilled solvent will itself be used to test previously collected Martian samples, making it the first wet-chemistry experiment ever on another planet.但团队成员格莱文希望,溢洒的溶剂可以被用来测试之前采集的火星样本,那将是外星球进行的第一次湿化学试验。Clearly, the search for life on Mars — past or present — will be neither straightforward nor swift.很显然,寻找火星生命——无论是古代生命还是现今的生命——不会是一帆风顺,也不可能马上成功。 /201412/348795淮安中山可以刷社保卡吗

涟水县看妇科好不好Gym designers have rid locker rooms of the gnarly shower curtains, trading them in for sexy glass escape pods. They have made bathroom stalls ever more private. Comfy couch corners, Wi-Fi and lockers with built-in locks have gone from swank options to standard issue.健身房设计师已经摒弃用粗糙浴帘隔开的更衣室,代之以性感的玻璃隔间。他们把浴室隔间也做得更私密。以前,舒适的沙发、WiFi和带有内置锁的储物柜是奢侈的可选项,现在这些都是标配。“Everyone wants to get upgraded now,” said Rudy Fabiano, an architect who estimates he has designed about 500 gyms in the last 25 years.建筑师鲁迪·法比亚诺(Rudy Fabiano)称自己在过去25年里大约设计了500家健身房。他说:“现在所有人都想升级。”But gyms are still unable to provide the one thing younger men in particular seem to really want: a way for them to shower and change without actually being nude.但是,健身房依然不能提供年轻人真正想要的一样东西:不必裸体示人就能沐浴更衣。Each day, thousands upon thousands of men in locker rooms nationwide struggle to put on their underwear while still covered chastely in shower towels, like horrible breathless arthropods molting into something tender-skinned. They writhe, still moist, into fresh clothes.每天,美国各地成千上万的男人在更衣室里难为情地裹着浴巾,费力穿上内裤,就像可怕的气喘吁吁的节肢动物在蜕变成软体动物。身上还没干透就得扭动着穿上干净衣。“In the last 20 years, maybe 25 years, there’s a huge cultural shift in people that ultimately affects gyms,” said Bryan Dunkelberger, a founding principal of S3 Design, which has worked for clients like Equinox and the Sports Club/ LA.S3设计公司(S3 Design)曾务过Equinox和Sports Club/ LA等客户。该公司的主要创始人布赖恩·邓克尔伯格(Bryan Dunkelberger)说:“在过去20年或25年里,文化的重大变迁最终影响了健身房。”“Old-timers, guys that are 60-plus, have no problem with a gang shower and whatever,” Mr. Dunkelberger said. “The Gen X-ers are a little bit more sensitive to what they’re spending and what they’re expecting. And the millennials, these are the special children. They expect all the amenities. They grew up in families that had Y.M.C.A. or country club memberships. They expect certain things. Privacy, they expect.”邓克尔伯格说:“60多岁的老年人对大家一起淋浴什么的没有意见。X世代对自己的花费和期待更敏感一些。而千禧一代是一群特殊的孩子。他们期望拥有各种设施。他们的父母是基督教青年会或乡村俱乐部会员。他们期待某些东西,比如私密。”Your gym wants you to have gym buds, with whom you buy expensive carb-infested juices on site and with whom you swap tips about trainers and teachers (but with whom you definitely don’t swap spit). And now your gym wants you to feel a little more at ease in that most sensitive space: the men’s locker room.健身房希望你拥有健身伙伴,你们可以一起在健身房购买昂贵的高碳水化合物的果汁,交换关于教练和老师的看法(但是你肯定不会和他交换唾液)。现在,健身房想让你在最敏感的空间感觉更自在:男更衣室。Showering after gym class in high school became virtually extinct in the ’90s. And if Manhattan’s high-end gyms weren’t riddled with ab-laden models or Europeans (or both), there would be few heterosexuals under 40 who have spent any naked time with other men.高中上完体育课后沐浴的做法在20世纪90年代已经基本消失。若不是曼哈顿的高级健身房里挤满腹肌明显的模特或欧洲人(或欧洲模特),又有几个40岁以下的异性恋男士和其他男人有过裸体相见。“It’s funny, they’re more socially open with everything — Facebook, social media — yet more private in their personal space,” said Kevin Kavanaugh, the president of David Barton Gym.戴维·巴顿健身房(David Barton Gym)总裁凯文·卡瓦诺(Kevin Kavanaugh)说:“很有意思,他们在所有事情上都更开放,比如在Facebook等社交媒体上,但是却要求更私密的个人空间。”Not long after the invention of the idea of personal space in 1959 came a classic ’70s study gamely titled “Personal Space Invasions in the Lavatory.” In it, researchers spied upon urinals to see how long it took for men to begin emptying their bladders.1959年,个人空间这个概念出现。在那不久之后的70年代,出现了一个经典研究,名字很有趣:《厕所里的个人空间侵犯》(Personal Space Invasions in the Lavatory)。研究者们在男用小便器上安装了一个探测器,追踪男人们在多长时间之后开始清空膀胱。It takes, we learned, almost twice as long when there is a man at a urinal next to you, and about half as long as when someone is one urinal away, compared to going it alone.研究结果是,与独自撒尿相比,旁边小便器有人的话,开始撒尿的时间要延后一倍,隔一个小便器有人的话,时间会缩短一半。Closeness breeds anxiety; penis-related closeness can be overwhelming.社交距离的缩小让人紧张;与生殖器有关的社交距离缩小可能让人难以承受。“Someone standing next to you at the subway station fully clothed is less close than someone standing next to you naked at a gym,” Mr. Dunkelberger said.邓克尔伯格说:“健身房里裸体站在你旁边的人比地铁站里穿着衣站在你旁边的人更让你觉得挨得近。”“Privacy and space is kind of where it’s at,” Mr. Fabiano said.法比亚诺说:“私密和空间取决于地点。”Gyms, like black holes, resonate at a frequency. There is the chartreuse and violet and space-black thrum of David Barton Gym, and the clean white with candy red accents of New York Sports Club — a red wholly different from the sensual deep red ping of Barry’s Bootcamp. The blistering white and yellow of a SoulCycle burns the hottest.健身房和黑洞一样,是在某个频率上震动。戴维·巴顿健身房是橄榄绿、紫罗兰色和太空黑的合奏;纽约运动俱乐部(New York Sports Club)是干净的白色搭配糖果红色,那种红色与巴里训练营(Barry’s Bootcamp)魅惑的深红色全然不同。SoulCycle健身房醒目的白色和黄色最为性感。Our budget-conscious friend Blink Fitness has a funny soft blue that I can’t even hear. Crunch has the palette of those awesome Indian comic books. The wheat and marble of Equinox is like “Mussolini does the Hamptons.”注重成本的Blink Fitness健身房用的是一种我从没听说过的有趣的淡蓝色。Crunch健身房的色调像是印第安漫画书的精搭配。Equinox健身房的小麦色和大理石色就像“墨索里尼来到了纽约汉普顿海滨”。Mr. Dunkelberger believes that women pick a gym based on whether it is clean and safe. Only then do they imagine themselves in the environment. Men choose a gym more abstractly, less sensibly, more ineptly.邓克尔伯格认为,女人挑选健身房的标准是干净安全。只有满足这两个条件,女人们才能想象自己在其中的情景。男人挑选健身房的标准则更抽象,不明智,更糊涂。Now, more than ever before, they choose tastefulness. In almost every high-end locker room there is a wet door, leading to a dank troll cave. This is the steam room. But at the Equinox abutting the High Line, the men’s steam room instead intrudes: It is a glass box that presents itself as a wall dividing the sink area and shower area.现在,他们比以往任何时候都更注重品味。几乎所有的高档更衣室都设有一块湿地板,通向潮湿的洞穴——蒸汽室。但是在高线(High Line)附近的Equinox健身房,男用蒸汽室是突出来的:它是一个玻璃房,把盥洗区和淋浴区分隔开。From three sides, fleshy moving colors are visible inside. It is reminiscent of the absurd smoking chamber of Rome’s Fiumicino airport. It is a thirst trap as drawn by Michel Foucault and executed by Olafur Eliasson. It’s great.你能从三面看到移动的人影。它让人想起了罗马菲乌米奇诺机场(Fiumicino)荒唐的吸烟室。它就像米歇尔·福柯(Michel Foucault)设想、奥拉维尔·埃利亚松(Olafur Eliasson)制作的饥渴陷阱。棒极了。The Equinox on East 61st Street, two David Barton locations and the Setai Club on Wall Street have lately partnered with Glam amp; Go, a blowout bar that starts at for 15-minute dry-hair blowouts.东61街上的Equinox健身房、戴维·巴顿的两家分店以及华尔街的Setai Club健身房最近和Glam amp; Go吹发店合作——花费25美元可以获得15分钟吹干头发的务(这是起步价)。At the David Barton Gym on Astor Place, Glam amp; Go was installed inside the women’s locker room. “Our men are saying: ‘Hey, what about me? I can’t go in the ladies room to get it,’” Mr. Kavanaugh said. “So we’re talking about how to put it in gender-neutral areas.”在阿斯特广场(Astor Place)的戴维·巴顿健身房,Glam amp; Go是设在女士更衣室里的。卡瓦诺说:“男顾客们在问:‘嘿,我怎么办?我又不能去女更衣室吹头发’。所以我们在考虑把它搬到公用区域。”For the conceivable future, the all-gender blowout bar looks to be the only moderately intimate gym location where men and women are likely to mix. For a city now seemingly mostly composed of subsidized young people from posh liberal arts schools who all dormed and often showered together, it’s queer, and a little sad, to see that desires for privacy and gender segregation are still entrenched in design.在可以想见的未来,全性别吹发室可能是健身房里唯一一个男女共处的中度亲密的地方。纽约市现在似乎主要由上流文科院校里受资助的年轻人组成,他们都住宿舍,经常一起沐浴,所以,看到对私密和性别隔离的渴望仍深深存在于设计之中,让人觉得奇怪而悲哀。“We had an attempt at a coed sauna, thinking it would work well,” Mr. Kavanaugh said. “But it didn’t. I was surprised at the amount of puritanical behavior around mixing the sexes. I guess it goes to wanting more privacy.”卡瓦诺说:“我们曾设立过一个男女共用的桑拿房,以为它会很受欢迎,但其实不然。我很奇怪,男女共处时,很多人会感到拘谨。我猜是因为人们希望拥有更多私密空间。”“If there was a man in there, women wouldn’t go in,” he said. “If there was a woman in there, men wouldn’t go in. It became very strange. I’m surprised at how less enlightened we are about crossing and mixing genders.”他说:“如果里面有个男人,女人们不会进去。如果里面有个女人,男人们不会进去。这很奇怪。我不明白为什么我们在男女共用方面这么不开化。”Gym designers have waged a long battle to make the locker room not sad, not alienating and not a place that smells like butts. They treat urban loneliness and personal shame as a product problem — with a product solution. And their success means that the gym is now both everyone’s extra bathroom and extra living room.长期以来,健身房设计师们在努力让更衣室不再悲哀,不再疏远,不再是一个闻起来臭烘烘的地方。他们认为城市的孤独感和个人羞耻感是产品问题,能够通过改进产品得到解决。他们的成功意味着,如今健身房是大家的另一个卫生间和另一个起居室。The other day I visited the new Equinox Brookfield Place, where the men’s executive locker room is reached by iris scan. The perfection of all possible lighting has been achieved at the very manly locker sinks, and I spent quite some time staring lovingly at myself there. I’ve never looked better.有一天,我去参观布鲁克菲尔德广场(Brookfield Place)新开的Equinox健身房,那里的高级男更衣室要通过虹膜扫描才能进入。盥洗区很有男人味,灯光效果极佳,我长时间含情脉脉地注视着镜子中的自己,觉得自己从没这么美过。Gym capitalism works. I don’t think I’m lonely anymore.健身房资本主义起作用了。我不再觉得自己是孤独的。 /201512/415985 Hundreds of Russians plug away at keyboards, sping pro-Kremlin propaganda on social media sites and masterminding online hoaxes every day. They work in what have come to be known as “troll farms”, named after the derogatory nickname used for people who sp hate on the internet.数以百计的俄罗斯人每天不停地敲击键盘,在社交媒体上传播亲克里姆林宫的宣传言论,策划一个又一个网络骗局。他们在所谓的“巨魔农场”(troll farm)工作,这个带有贬义的名称源于那些在网络上散播仇恨的人的绰号。Adrian Chen, who visited a troll farm called the Internet Research Agency while reporting for The New York Times, believes that the Russians might be the most organised trolls.在为《纽约时报》(New York Times)报道期间,Adrian Chen探访过一个美其名曰“互联网研究机构”(Internet Research Agency)的巨魔农场,他相信那里的俄罗斯人可能是最有组织的“巨魔”。However, they are not unique — social media is being used to distort political debate around the world.然而,他们并不是唯一这样做的人——在世界各地,社交媒体都被用于扭曲政治辩论。In Russia, Mr Chen says, internet users may not be convinced by the comments left by trolls on internet sites. But trolling works by sowing seeds of distrust in online conversations. It pours cold water on social media’s promise to bring people together for frank discussion.Chen表示,在俄罗斯,互联网用户可能不会听信“巨魔”在网站上留下的。但这种行为靠的是在网络对话中播下不信任的种子。人们原本希望社交媒体能让人们在一起坦诚讨论,但“巨魔”行为给这一希望泼了一盆冷水。“This more insidious effect is to make the internet an unreliable source of information and to undermine the democratic nature of the internet. That is to the government’s advantage,” he says.“更阴险的影响是让互联网沦为不可靠的信息源,削弱互联网的民主本质。这对政府是有利的,”他说。Troll farms in Mexico and India work in a similar way, Mr Chen adds, and the same principle applied in “GamerGate”, an organised online harassment campaign against women in the game industry, which erupted in 2014. “You can easily flood the internet with this garbage to try to drown out your opponents,” he says.Chen补充道,墨西哥和印度的巨魔农场也是以类似方式运作的,同样的道理也适用于“GamerGate”事件。这起在线骚扰视频游戏业女性从业者的有组织事件发生在2014年。“你可以轻易用这种垃圾淹没互联网,试图盖过你的对手,”他说。China also runs its own propaganda armies and monitors what people post online to see how public opinion is changing. Meanwhile Isis supporters have become expert in creating anonymous accounts that are used to sp propaganda and recruit potential terrorists. As soon as companies such as Facebook and Twitter shut these down, new ones appear.中国也有自己的宣传大军,并对人们在网络上发表的言论进行监视,以查看民意变化。同时,“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国”(ISIS)的持者成为了创建匿名账户的专家,这些账户被用来传播ISIS宣传内容和招募潜在恐怖分子。一旦Facebook和Twitter等公司关闭这些账户,就会有新的账户出现。When social media sites first emerged, they appeared to give everybody the ability to broadcast their views, suggesting that a wider range of voices would be heard than in the mainstream media.当社交媒体网站首次出现时,它们似乎赋予了每个人畅所欲言的能力,暗示人们会听到比主流媒体更广泛的声音。However, a system that allows people to comment anonymously, and which makes it easy to retweet and share messages, is vulnerable to manipulation, particularly by organised groups with money and personnel — especially as the mainstream media seem willing to amplify their message.然而,一个允许人们匿名、并且可以方便地转发和分享消息的系统很容易遭到操纵,尤其是受到拥有财力人力的有组织集团的操纵——特别是在主流媒体似乎愿意放大他们的声音的情况下。Politicians have built large followings on social networks, thrilled to be able to reach voters directly. US President Barack Obama has more than 68m followers on Twitter, while the Indian prime minister Narendra Modi has more than 17m.政治人士在社交媒体上有大批关注者,他们为能够直接接触选民而感到兴奋。美国总统巴拉克攠巴马(Barack Obama)在Twitter上有逾6800万关注者,而印度总理纳伦德拉莫迪(Narendra Modi)拥有逾1700万关注者。But political debates that engage citizens are still rare, argues Professor Christian Fuchs, the director of the University of Westminster’s communication and media research institute. He points to Mr Obama’s use of his political account to promote a competition for a cruise to Alaska last month.但威斯敏斯特大学(University of Westminster)传播和媒体研究院院长克里斯蒂安富克斯(Christian Fuchs)认为,真正吸引公民参与的政治辩论依然很少见。他举例子指出,上月奥巴马利用他的Twitter政治账户宣传一场竞赛,奖品是乘邮轮旅游阿拉斯加。“Such populism 2.0 reduces the political public sphere to submit-and-win contests, political spectacles and personality politics dominated by leadership figures,” he says. “What is today largely missing are politically innovative users of social media that engage citizens in political conversations with each other, in which they have the chance to discuss and explore the complexity of the key political challenges the world faces today.”“这种2.0版本的民粹主义将政治公共空间降级为‘提交并赢奖’的竞赛、政治表演以及由领导人物主导的人格政治,”他说,“当今基本上不存在有政治创意的社交媒体用户,他们能够发动公民在彼此间开展政治对话,在此过程中有机会讨论和探索当今世界面临的关键政治挑战的复杂性。”Nick Anstead, assistant professor at the media department of the London School of Economics, says it is also a myth that social media is a way to reach large audiences for free.伦敦政治经济学院(London School of Economics)传媒系助理教授尼克褠斯特德(Nick Anstead)表示,社交媒体是一种免费接触大批受众的方式的说法也是错误的。“When people were first considering the internet and new media, there was certainly a sense that it was going to change the power dynamics, it would lead to a redistribution of power,” he says. But it is now clear that to thrive on social media, politicians have to have access not only to a large group of supporters and but also to money, he says.“当人们最初考虑互联网和新媒体时,确实有种看法认为这些新事物将改变力量格局,导致力量的重新分配,”他说。但他表示,如今已经十分明显的是,如果要在社交媒体上走红,政治人士不仅必须拥有大批持者,还需要资金。In the 2008 US presidential election race, Obama’s campaign was seen as mastering the use of grass roots supporters to sp messages online — but it also spent 10 per cent of its paid media budget on buying digital advertising.在2008年美国总统选战中,奥巴马的竞选被视为很好地利用了基层持者来在线传播消息——但奥巴马选举团队也将10%的付费媒体预算用于购买数字广告。Andrew Heyward, of the MIT Media Lab, says politicians’ social media strategies now resemble those of brands, with Republican Donald Trump by far the most successful presidential candidate.麻省理工学院媒体实验室(MIT Media Lab)的安德鲁眠荭德(Andrew Heyward)表示,如今政治人士的社交媒体战略和品牌很像,这就是为什么共和党人唐纳德礠朗普(Donald Trump)成为遥遥领先的最成功的总统候选人。Mr Trump has made so many waves on social media they have flooded into traditional media and given him so much coverage that he is only just buying his first traditional, mainstream media advertisements.特朗普多次在社交媒体上掀起风浪,这些风浪涌入传统媒体,让他获得了铺天盖地的免费报道,以至于特朗普刚刚开始购买传统主流媒体广告。Mr Heyward is using a new analytics tool to track the “horse race of ideas” in the US presidential election campaign.海沃德使用了一种新的分析工具来追踪美国总统选战中的“思想赛马”。Discussion of many topics on social media — from national security to immigration — reflects what is being said in the mainstream media, and vice versa, the study has shown.这项研究表明,社交媒体上对许多话题的讨论——从国家安全到移民——反映出主流媒体正在进行的讨论,反之亦然。Because of this, Mr Heyward is more optimistic that social networks can actually become the “virtual town hall meeting” that Twitter, at least, has aspired to be.有鉴于此,海沃德对社交媒体能够变成“虚拟市政厅会议”抱着一种更加乐观的看法,至少Twitter有这样的志向。“It is a brave new world,” he says. “But actually, ironically, even though it takes advantage of a modern and sophisticated technology, it is a throwback to what the Founding Fathers had in mind — a lively conversation.”“这是一个美好新世界,”他说,“但具有讽刺意义的是,即使它利用精湛的现代技术,它其实是对开国先贤们愿景的回归——一场活跃的对话。” /201602/424100淮安妇保院看妇科多少钱江苏省涟水县中医院治疗早孕多少钱

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