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青岛妇科哪最好青岛新阳光妇科医院妇科医生Science and technology科学技术Three-dimensional printing3D印刷An image of the future印刷未来One of the biggest manufacturers in the world gives 3D printing a go世界龙头机器制造商用3D印刷术进行了一次格外成功的应用ULTRASOUND scanners are used for tasks as diverse as examining unborn babies and searching for cracks in the fabric of aircraft.超声波扫描器的应用领域很广,小到用于检查胎儿,大到飞行器机体瑕疵检测等。They work by sending out pulses of high-frequency sound and then interpreting the reflections as images.机理过程是,通过发射高频声波脉冲信号对反射信号进行成像解读。To do all this, though, you need a device called a transducer.但完成该过程,你不能缺少一台叫做压电式换能器的设备。Transducers are made from arrays of tiny piezoelectric structures that convert electrical signals into ultrasound waves by vibrating at an appropriate frequency.压电式换能器是由具有压电效应的一系列敏感元件机构组成。敏感元件机构通过定频震荡将电信号转换成超声波。Their shape focuses the waves so that they penetrate the object being scanned.机构的特定外形可聚焦超声波,对被扫描的物体产生穿透作用。The waves are then reflected back from areas where there is a change in density and on their return the transducer works in reverse, producing a signal which the scanner can process into a digital image.超声波会从密度发生变化的介质反射回来,这时压电式换能器会反向操作产生信号,再经过扫描器的处理,最后进行数字成像。To make a transducer by painstakingly micro-machining a brittle block of ceramic material can take many hours of work, though.压电式换能器需要用到陶瓷材料,而精密地加工一块精细的陶瓷材料就要耗费几个小时的工作时间。As a result, even as the size and cost of the console that controls the scanner has fallen with advances in microelectronics,the cost of making the probe itself remains stubbornly high—as much as ten times that of the console.随着微电子领域中,技术的突飞猛进,控制扫描仪的电路板无论从体积还有成本都有很大程度的优化变小和降低。有些电路板小到可以装进医生口袋里面,成本也不过几百美元的价格。而制作换能器探头的成本却一直居高不下,跟电路板相比,探头的制作成本大概是一块电路板的10倍左右。At least, it does if you use traditional subtractive manufacturing techniques like cutting and drilling.即使不考虑体积及成本的情况下,传统的对比相减式加工流程技术也能完成这些工作,比如切割,机钻等。However GE, a large American conglomerate, is now proposing to make ultrasound transducers by additive manufacturing—or three-dimensional printing, as it is also known.而GE作为美国的一个庞大的企业集团正考虑采用对比添加式的加工流程来加工超声波压电式换能器。A new laboratory at the firms research centre in Niskayuna, New York, is taking a hard-headed look at the technique, which some see as a fad and others as the future, and working out which products might be made more efficiently by addition rather than subtraction.GE在纽约Niskayuna地区的研发中心新成立了一个实验室,目前该实验室正本着理性实际的态度对该项技术进行研发,力图找到哪些产品用对比添加式而非对比相减式的技术流程加工生产更加适合。一些人认为,对该项技术的研发只不过是一时狂热。还有一些人声称,目前的时机并不成熟,对该项技术的研发仅仅具有将来时的意义罢了。Ultrasound transducers were an early pick both because of the complicated geometry needed to focus the sound waves and because ceramics are harder than metals to cut and drill accurately.最初选择超声波压电式换能器来作为3D印刷术的对象原因有两点。一是该换能器用来聚焦声波的机体外形非常复杂,二是它用到的陶瓷材料比金属的硬度要高很多,很难进行精准地切割和机钻。But they are easy to print.而用3D印刷术却很容易解决这两个难题。The GE process for making a transducer begins by sping onto the print table a thin layer of ceramic slurry containing a light-sensitive polymer.GE对加工换能器的方法是首先在印刷台上撒上薄薄的一层陶瓷粘土,其中混入一种光敏聚合体。This layer is exposed to ultraviolet light through a mask that represents the required pattern.然后用紫外线通过露光模板的光孔照射到印刷台的粘土层,以此塑造出需要的模型图案。Wherever the light falls on the polymer it causes it to solidify, binding the particles in the slurry together.光敏聚合体一经被紫外线照射就会立即变得坚硬,粘土中的粒子随即凝结固化。The print table is then lowered by a fraction of a millimetre and the process repeated, with a different mask if required.接下来,印刷台会以不超过一毫米的距离向下位移,然后重复整个上面这一过程,如果有必要,需要重新更换一个新的露光模板。And so on. Once finished, the solidified shape is cleaned of residual slurry and heated in a furnace to sinter the ceramic particles together.以此反复处理直到整个过程结束,再进行清理成模上的残余粘土,最后把成模放入熔炉,以低于熔点的温度进行焙烧,最终完成陶瓷粒子的凝固收缩聚合。More work will be needed to turn the process into a production-y system.该处理流程在具有批量生产体系能力之前,还需要做很多的工作。But Prabhjot Singh, who leads the project, hopes that it will be possible to use it to make not just cheaper ultrasound probes, but also more sensitive ones that can show greater detail.但项目负责人Prabhjot Singh表示,希望不仅仅制造出成本相对低廉的超声波探头,最好探头的灵敏性也会更高,这样可以让我们通过成像看到更加细节化的信息。Although researchers have had new transducer designs in mind for years, it has been impractical to construct them subtractively.多年以来,压电式换能器的研究者们一直都有新型设计的想法,但应用对比相减式的加工流程实际上很难能把这样的构想变为现实,Additive manufacturing could change that.而对比添加式很可能会使这种困顿得到改善。The new laboratory will look at other forms of additive manufacturing, too.GE的新实验室还将研究其它对比添加式的加工流程。Some 3D printers sp metal powders on the print table and sinter the pattern with lasers or electron beams, rather than using masks.比如一些3D印刷机在印刷台铺撒金属粉末之后,采用露光模板以外的激光或电子束方式进行热凝处理来产生样模。Others deposit thin filaments of polymer in order to build structures up.其它流程,如混入聚合体热敏细丝通过自加固原理进行聚合以产生成模。GE is interested in how the technology could be used right across the firms businesses, from aerospace to power generation and consumer products, according to Luana Iorio, head of manufacturing technologies at GE Global Research.GE全球研发中心制造技术中心主任Luana Iorio指出,GE旨在为各种商业形式,包括象航空航天、能源及消费产品等领域提供令人满意的3D印刷技术。The gains include less waste and the ability to make bespoke parts more easily.这种技术的获益在于节约耗材和使第三方定制个性化零部件变得更加容易。But one of the most compelling advantages is freeing designers from the constraints of traditional production.但最无可争辩的优势之一是让设计者从传统工艺的桎梏中解脱出来。Those constraints include having to design things not in their optimal shape but to be machined, often as a series of pieces.这些限制包括,设计者不得不用多个零部件去实现一个功能,不能从最优化的外形尺寸来设计产品。Additive manufacturing can combine parts into a single item, so less assembly is needed. That can also save weight—a particular advantage in aerospace.对比添加式可以整合零部件,避免了一些繁琐的机械组装过程,同时减轻了重量,这点对航空航天领域尤为有利。These new production opportunities mean manufacturers, big and small, are about to become a lot more inventive.在这种新的生产有利背景下,意味着制造商们,无论规模大小,都将变得更加具有创造性。 /201304/234733青岛有哪些妇科医院 莱西市妇科检查

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