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来源:安心对话    发布时间:2019年10月21日 17:07:44    编辑:admin         

Muammar Qaddafi穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲Muammar Qaddafi, ruler of Libya, died on October 20th, aged 69利比亚统治者穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲于10月20日去世,享年69岁AS THE rebel insurgency flowed and ebbed across Libya this year, it passed through most of the staging posts in Muammar Qaddafi’s life. Sirte, where he was born in a Bedouin tent in the sand-wastes and died amid the crackle of sniper fire; Misrata, where he went to a private tutor to learn history; Benghazi, where at military college he began to plot revolution; and Tripoli, where in the sprawling half-bombed barracks at Bab el-Aziziya he pitched his tent again, the Brother-Leader, insisting he would never leave until he had fired the last bullet he possessed.今年,利比亚武装力量风起云涌,近来淡出帷幕。革命之火燃遍穆阿迈尔?卡扎菲生命历程中每一个中转站。多年前,卡扎菲生于苏尔特荒野沙漠的贝多因帐篷内;尔今,又是在苏尔特,卡扎菲葬身于阻击手林弹雨之中。在米苏拉塔,卡扎菲拜访家庭教师学习历史。在班加西军事院校时,卡扎菲开始策划起义;在的黎波里巴布阿齐耶耶区时,他的军营一半被炸,七零八散;然而,这位穆斯林领袖又在此安营扎寨,还宣誓除非战死沙场,否则绝不撤退。When death overtook him, he had ruled Libya for 42 years. The handsome, magnetic army captain who had overthrown King Idris in 1969 had become a robed buffoon, with a surgically smoothed face, a mop of dyed black hair and, until she scuttled home, a blonde Ukrainian nurse on his arm. Yet he was no less cunning. Behind the designer shades his eyes were those of a fox. By sheer imposition of the cult of himself, he had held his tribally fractious country together.死亡之神将他带走之际,他统治利比亚已达42年之久。这位玉树临风,魅力四射的上尉曾于1969年推翻伊德里斯王朝。然而,他却变成了身着长袍的跳梁小丑,挂着做过拉皮手术的脸,披着蓬乱的黑色染发,搂着金发碧眼的乌克兰护士匆匆逃回老家。不过,他依旧诡计多端。时髦的墨镜下面藏着如狐狸般狡猾的眼睛。他奉行绝对个人崇拜,实现了统一国家的大业,尽管这个国家曾经因部落群立而四分五裂。He ruled unsparingly. In his Libya, dissent was punishable by death. A private press was forbidden, and political parties banned. Several dozen deaths a year of political opponents were attributed to his secret police, acting on tip-offs from the surveillance committees to which around 10% of Libyans belonged. In Abu Salim prison, on one night in 1996, 1,200 political prisoners died. If his enemies fled abroad, his hired assassins found these “scum” and killed them. The colonel’s writ, as recorded in his “Green Book” of rambling political philosophy, replaced the rule of law.他奉行铁血政策。卡扎菲在位期间,政见不同者以死刑处置。取缔私人报社,禁止政治团体。他成立监督委员会,成员约占全国人口10%。每年秘密警察执行委员会密诏,将几十个卡扎菲政敌都送至极乐世界。1996年一天晚上,阿布萨利姆监狱里有1200名政治犯化为亡魂。如果敌人逃至国外,他就雇佣刺客,追踪这些“败类”,了结其性命。上校的训诫代替了法律条文,记录在其漫谈政治思想的“绿皮书”中。His rule had begun better. Like Venezuela’s Hugo Chávez, a rare ally, he came to power determined to secure oil revenues for his people rather than for foreign corporations. Having renegotiated the oil contracts, he redistributed wealth and saw Libya grow rich—though no one grew rich faster than his own clan, with billions invested abroad. Oil gave him power far beyond the confines of his dilapidated state. He began to see himself as the leader of the Third World, the voice of the world’s poor, the King of Africa (when, in , he chaired the Organisation of African y) and the patron of world revolution. He invited to Libya for military training such bloodstained luminaries as Liberia’s Charles Taylor and Sierra Leone’s rebel leader, Foday Sankoh. He gave money to Colombia’s FARC and the IRA, and tried to radicalise even the Maoris of New Zealand. Wherever anti-Western or anti-parliamentary feelings stirred, he was there, sowing trouble; for as he said in the “Green Book”, the only true democracy was the direct, even violent, expression of the will of the people—except in Libya.他始创基业时,政策更为光明。他跟为数不多的盟友-委内瑞拉的胡戈·查韦斯所怀抱负一样,初涉政治舞台时,决意保障子民的石油收入,而不是为外国公司务。他重谈石油合同,对财富进行再分配,看着利比亚走向富裕。不过,他的家族比任何人都富得更快,拥有上亿海外投资。石油赋予了他权利,让他敢于蔑视破败不堪的祖国施加给他的限制。他开始自视为第三世界的领袖,世界穷人的发言人,非洲世界的国王(年他任非洲统一组织主席)以及世界革命的赞助人。利比里亚查尔斯·泰勒,塞拉利昂义军领导福戴·桑科等沾满血腥的名人都曾受卡扎菲邀访问利比亚,提供军事训练。他给哥伦比亚革命武装力量及爱尔兰共和军提供资金,还试图激化新西兰毛利人间的矛盾。哪里掀起了反西方或反议会浪潮,哪里就有他的身影,并在那儿制造麻烦。他在“绿皮书”中如是写道,唯一的真民主即人民能直接甚至运用暴力流露其意愿,不过,这句话不适用于利比亚。Around this figure the West, for four decades, prevaricated. The young colonel’s “Third Mystery of Socialism”, a middle way between capitalism and communism which, in his words, solved all the contradictions of either system, seemed unthreatening enough. His people’s communes were blatantly powerless, his own “brotherly” power absolute, but then absolutism was common enough in oil-producing states. He was not a Marxist, at least: Egypt’s nationalist hero, Gamal Abdel Nasser, was his model, rather than Lenin. And he had oil.四十年来,西方世界一直对这个家伙采取避让的态度。这位年轻上校提出“社会主义第三信仰”的理论,按他的话来说,这是资本主义与共产主义的中间路线,可以化解两种体系中的矛盾,这似乎也未构成足够的威胁。他的人民公社显然毫无实权,因为他奉行“老大哥”般的专制政权,但是在石油产出国专制亦是司空见惯。他算不上马克思主义者,至少他视埃及民族英雄加迈尔?阿卜杜勒?纳赛尔为偶像,而非列宁。并且他拥有石油。Eventually tolerance snapped. In the 1980s, as Colonel Qaddafi shopped round the Far East for nuclear bombs, sponsored terror groups, invaded Chad in the cause of a “Greater Libya” and sent agents to blow up a Pan Am airliner over Lockerbie in Scotland, he became a pariah: Ronald Reagan’s “mad dog”, to be bombed until he whimpered. But by the new century he was ingratiating himself. He said the right things about al-Qaeda; offered his nuclear programme for inspection, and in 2003 abandoned it; paid compensation for Lockerbie; and, apparently chastened by his own military incompetence, seemed to have forgotten his windy pan-Arab and pan-Islamist dreams. In a world suddenly teeming with dangerous Islamists, he was now far from the worst. At the G8 in he shook hands with Barack Obama. The same year he was allowed to speak for more than an hour at the UN, repaying its tolerance by tearing from the UN Charter the pages that talked about democracy.最终,人们的忍耐到了极限。20世纪80年代时,卡扎菲在中东附近采购核弹,资助恐怖团体,为了“扩大利比亚”事业入侵乍得,派遣特工炸毁苏格兰洛克比镇泛美航空公司客机。从此,他开始遭人唾弃,罗纳德?里根抨击他为“中东的疯”,宣誓将他炸得跪地求饶。但是进入新世纪后,他开始迎合献媚。他正确评价基地组织,主动提出接受核计划检查,答应于2003年放弃核计划,给洛克比提供补偿金。显然,他开始后悔自己军力不强,似乎忘却了曾夸夸其谈的泛阿拉伯与泛伊斯兰梦想。在危险的伊斯兰主义者骤然升温的世界里,他远远谈不上是最危险的。年G8峰会上他与奥巴马握手示好。同年,他获准在联合国发言一个多小时。结果,他当场撕毁联合国宪章中讲述民主的章节,来报答联合国的宽容。Pitching his tent安营扎寨He never forgot his origins among the desert wanderers and cattlemen. Despite the gilded mermaids and white pianos of his ludicrous quarters in Tripoli, he preferred to live in a tent, and always travelled abroad with one. When not in uniform, he wore flowing robes. His grandest project, the Great Man-Made River, brought water from southern aquifers to the northern cities. Precious green was his colour, in flags, Book and billboards. His socialism, at root, was based in desert customs of shared property and grazing land. His deep devotion to the army was the gratitude of a poor boy who had used it as a ladder to higher social rank and more grandiose ambitions.他从未忘记自己根源于沙漠游牧者和牧牛者。尽管他在可笑的的黎波里总部装饰镀金美人鱼和白色钢琴,但是他更偏爱在帐篷里生活,出国旅游时还常随身带着。不穿制时,他就身着一件飘逸长袍。他修筑了最宏伟的工程-大人工河,把南部的地下水引到北方城市。宝石绿是他最爱的颜色,不仅出现在各种旗帜上,还出现在绿皮书以及广告牌上。他所倡导的社会主义,从根本上来讲基于沙漠财产与牧地共有的传统。他极力推崇军队建设,因为他心怀感激,感谢军队帮他这个穷孩子进入上层社会,实现雄心壮志。Almost to the last, too, he tried to pose as one of his people. When protesters first erupted on the streets of Tripoli this year, he offered to protest along with them. Surely, after years of venomous pabulum from his “Green Book”, they would have learned to think as he did. But they were beginning to dare to think differently—about Libya, and about him.几乎死到临头时,他还试图伪装为百姓中的一份子。今年,抗议者初次走上街头抗议时,他还表示与他们并肩作战。的确,多年汲取“绿皮书”中充满恶意与怨恨的精神食粮,他们本应该学会像他那样思考。但是,他们开始敢于从不同的视角看待利比亚,看待卡扎菲。201205/183546。

In the record of his life at Walden Pond, Henry David Thoreau reported on an odd phenomenon. ;As I walked on the railroad causeway,; he wrote, ;I used to wonder at the halo of light around my shadow.; Thoreau was probably seeing a phenomenon called ;heiligenshein,; which is German for halo. This is a glowing light around the head and shoulders of your shadow. These days, its likely to be seen by early morning golfers on dewy grass. Where does this halo come from?在瓦尔登湖的生活记录里,亨利·大卫·梭罗报告了一个奇怪的现象。“而当我在铁路堤道上行走的时候,”他写道:“我常常惊奇地看到我的影子周围有一个光轮。”梭罗可能看到的是一个叫作;heiligenshein;的现象,;heiligenshein;是德语,意为“光环”。那是围绕在头和肩膀的影子周围的一圈耀眼的光芒。这些天,清晨在被露水打湿的高尔夫球场上很有可能看见这种现象。这些光环来自哪里?Your shadows halo is made by something called ;back scattering.; This happens whenever sunlight enters a dewdrop. The sunbeam enters the front of the drop, then a certain amount of light bounces off the back. This light streams back out the front, almost exactly in the direction it came from. Thanks to back scattering, every dewdrop on the golf course is shining a narrow beam of light directly back toward the sun.影子周围的光环是由于“反向散射”形成的。当阳光射进水滴时,往往会发生这种现象。阳光从水滴前方进入时,总有一定数量的光线被反射回去。这些光线从水滴前方反射回去,反射角度几乎与入射方向一样。由于反向散射,高尔夫球场上的每一滴露珠都会向太阳发出一道狭小的光芒。Heiligenshein is the glare from this backward bouncing sunlight. If every dewdrop bounces sunlight, why does the halo only appear around your shadows head instead of over the whole fairway? Unlike a light bulb, which shines light in every direction, each dewdrop is reflecting a narrow, tightly focused beam, aimed directly at the sun. Your eyes must be in the path of these beams to see them. If youre looking down at your shadow, your eyes are only in the line of fire for those dewdrops near your shadows head. The beams from the dewdrops a few feet to the side miss your eyes entirely. This is why youre likely to see a halo around your own shadows head, but not around those of others.Heiligenshein 就是这种反射光线较耀眼的部分。如果每一滴露水都反射阳光,那么为什么光环只出现在头部的影子周围?灯泡向四面八方发光,但与灯泡不同的是,露水反射的光只对着太阳,而且反射光线即狭小又集中。只有当这些光束射入你的眼睛,你才能看见。当你低头看向影子时,只有影子头部周围的露珠反射的光线才会进入你的眼睛,而旁边几英尺远的露珠反射的光芒就会错过。这就是为什么你可能在影子头部周围看到光环,而不是在影子的其它部位看到。原文译文属!201209/201512。

FOR four years New York was adrift. When Eliot Spitzer, a crusading lawyer, became governor in 2007, his uncompromising ways caused political gridlock in Albany, the state capital. Just over a year later, he was caught frolicking with a prostitute and resigned. His successor, David Paterson, was affable enough, but too weak to push the state legislature to balance the books. When Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat like his predecessors, handily won the 2010 governorrsquo;s race on a promise to ;rebuild the government, restore competence, restore trust, [and] get the people of this state believing once again;, New Yorkers gave a cynical snort.近四年来,纽约的政局并不稳定。2007年,时任州长艾略特?斯皮策,他律师出身,作风凌厉,毫不妥协。这种做法曾让纽约州首府奥尔巴尼一度陷入政治僵局。且任职仅一年多,斯皮策就陷入招妓门事件,辞去了州长职务。民主党人大卫?帕特森继任,他亲和有余,力度不足,无力推动纽约州立法机构平衡财政收。同为民主党人的安德鲁?科莫,于2010年参加州长竞选,并轻松取胜。他承诺要;重建政府,重塑能力,重拾信任,让州民能够再次相信政府;。纽约民众曾对此不以为然。But Mr Cuomo has had an extraordinary year. In the first six months of his term he could point to three historic achievements. First, he balanced the budget: not only bringing spending under control;filling a billion hole and nudging the public-sector unions to make concessions worth 0m;but putting mechanisms in place to control spending in future. He even got the cantankerous legislature to agree. In June Mr Cuomo brought in a cap on property taxes, in a state which the Tax Foundation ranks as the sixth-most-taxed in the country. Robert Ward of the Rockefeller Institute called it ;the biggest change in New Yorkrsquo;s fiscal policy since the creation of Medicaid;, almost 50 years ago.但科莫继任一年来,政绩斐然,任期前半年便取得三大有历史意义的成就。首先,他平衡了纽约的财政收,填补了100亿美元的财政漏洞,并促使公共机构的工会做出了4.5亿美元的让步。此举不仅使当前的财政花销得到控制,而且使相关部门机构各司其职,以控制今后的花销。更为难得的是,他甚至征得了一向刁钻苛刻的立法机构的同意。六月,科莫引入财产税上限政策,此前按税务基金会的统计,纽约州的税收排名全国第六。洛克菲勒政府研究所副所长罗伯特?沃德称此项政策为继50年前;创立lsquo;医疗补助计划rsquo;后,纽约财政政策的巨变;。Then, also in June, Mr Cuomo signed a bill legalising same-sex marriage, having worked hard to drive the bill through the Republican-controlled state Senate. In December he got bipartisan backing to change the income-tax code, which he says will generate .9 billion in additional revenue for the state. It sets in place the lowest tax rate for the middle class in 58 years, while;according to Mr Cuomorsquo;s opponents and the Manhattan Institute;leaving the tax burden on the richest at its highest level since 1986.其次,科莫还于六月签署法案,将同性婚姻合法化,并全力推动该法案通过由共和党掌控的州参议院。十二月份,他获得两党持,修改个税法条款。科莫称此举将会为纽约州带来19亿美元的附加收入。新条款将中产阶级的税率降至58年以来的最低点。曼哈顿研究所和科莫的竞争对手们称,如此一来,课税负担便落在了富人肩上,富人的纳税金额将升至自1986年以来的最高水平。Still, most New Yorkers are not upset with him. Indeed, they rate him very highly. He learnt much about Albany politics at the knee of his father, Mario, a former governor. He is clever and determined. His most noticeable flaw is his arrogance, which he has tried to keep in check, but which slipped out in November when he remarked: ;I am the government.;但是大多数的纽约民众并没有因此对科莫不满,反而对他给予很高的评价。科莫的父亲马里奥?科莫是前纽约州长,科莫从小受父亲熏陶,谙熟奥尔巴尼政事。因此他更加机敏,更加坚定。他最明显的缺点是其傲慢的态度,虽然他竭力控制但还是在十一月的一次演讲中说漏了嘴,一句;我就是政府;令众人哗然。In that case, his cockiness was accurate. There is not much transparency in how he is getting the results, notes Gerald Benjamin of the State University of New York at New Paltz. Disappointingly, it is still three men (Mr Cuomo, the assembly Speaker and the Senate president) in a room making all the decisions.科莫的傲慢由此可见一斑。新帕尔茨纽约州立大学院长杰拉尔德?本杰明指出,科莫制定政策的透明度并不高。令人失望的是,做决定的仍然是州长、州众议员院长和州参议院议长三个人。 201202/170233。

To stay healthy, your cells must continuously perform a wide variety of chemical tasks. Your DNA genes, in the nucleus of every cell, help orchestrate this activity. A cell uses its genes as a kind of biochemical cookbook: whenever it has to do anything, a cell looks up the recipe in its DNA. It then uses this recipe to cook up whatever proteins it needs to get the job done. Your cells are hard at work right now, creating thousands of tailor made proteins for thousands of different biochemical jobs. Sometimes, however, things can go wrong. When a virus attacks, it injects its own DNA into one of your cells. Like your own genes, the viral DNA contains recipes. Unfortunately, these recipes are only good for making new viruses.为了保持健康,你的细胞必须不断地进行各种各样的化学反应。你的DNA基因,存在于每一个细胞的细胞核,会帮助协调这项活动。细胞用它的基因作为一种生化食谱:无论何时细胞在工作的时候,它都要在DNA查询配方。然后,它使用这个配方来烹煮蛋白质所需的物质,从而完成化学反应。此刻你的细胞都在努力工作,创造数以千计由蛋白质形成的;裁缝;来完成数千项不同的生化反应。然而,有时候,事情会出差错。当病毒攻击时,它将自身的DNA注入到你的细胞中。像你自己的基因一样,病毒的DNA也包含有食谱。不幸的是,这些食谱只对产生新的病毒有利。201201/166879。