2019年09月23日 22:49:17|来源:国际在线|编辑:康养生
Guo Moruo (1892~1978), originally named Guo Kaizhen, literary name Shangwu, alias Dingtang, was born in Leshan of Sichuan Province.郭沫若(1892~1978),原名郭开贞,号尚武,别号鼎堂,四川乐山人。He was the representative poet and playwright of chronicle play of the great May Fourth period of enlightenment, the prophet-poet of new China.是现代文学史上足以代表一个时代的诗人与历史剧作家,是鲁迅热切呼唤的罗诗人,新中国的预言诗人。He was the Satanical poet whose appearance was fervently summoned by Lu Xun. His rebellious idiosyncrasy of being unrestricted and capricious, optimistic and progressive contributed to his writing style, which was vigorous and unconventional.他的自由任性、放荡不羁、乐观向上的叛逆型人格特质,形成了他充满青春活力、敢于标新立异、尽情张扬个性的创作风格。His first poetry anthology The Goddess gave free rein to the powerful imagination through which he could transform things in the universe into poetic beings that served as animated objects of his emotional response. In expressing the desire to break out of the confines of feudalism, in voicing strong demands for social reform and in emitting boundless enthusiasm for the commendation and pursuit of high ideals. The Goddess distinctly reflected the characteristics of the May Fourth Movement. Indeed, in poetic terms it was the strongest voice of this period. An image was created with the passionate yearning for light and the pursuit of ideals. In the poem the outpourings of the heart and the rapid tempo of poetic melody fully demonstrated the poet#39;s hurricane-like creative power at work. The Goddess was steeped in revolutionary romanticism. The poems, artistically characterized by their strong colors, passionate tone and quick tempo, amply revealed the poet#39;s galloping imagination, boldness of expression and great powers of conception. By freeing himself from the fetters of the old poetry, Guo Moruo created a new world for the post-May Fourth freeverse. Its influence could not be overstated in paving the way for poets of the new poetry. The poetry of Guo Moruo with its overflowing revolutionary romanticism opened a new chapter in the history of modern Chinese poetry.郭沫若的第一本诗集《女神》,以汪洋恣肆、雄奇瑰丽的想象力,创造了一个热烈地追求精神自由和个性解放的白我抒情的主人公形象;诗化了五四狂飙突进的时代精神,以崭新的内容和形式,开一代诗风,堪称中国现代新诗的奠基之作。His achievement in the writing of historical plays was outstanding. The representative works included Qu Yuan, Zhuo Wenjun, Wang Zhaojun, The Tiger Tally, The Gall Bladder of the Peacock, The Twin Flowers, etc, in which he ;used the past to explain the present;.郭沫若的历史剧创作之早、数量之多、质量之高、影响之大,几乎无人与之匹敌,代表作有《屈原》、《卓文君》、《王昭君》、《虎符》、《孔雀胆》、《棠棣之花》等。He grasped the essence of history and, in accordance with the laws of art and the development of plot, incorporated his own hopes and ideals in what he wrote. Boldly he experimented, aiming to achieve ;resemblance through omission of certain facts;.他创作历史剧的动机是“古为今用”,借古喻今、讽今,本着“失事求似”的原则对历史进行合理的艺术虚构,表现出崇高的悲剧美。His historical dramas had sublime tragic beauty, incisive historical opinions and passionate personal emotions, which reflected his strong sense of social responsibility and political participation.他的历史剧含有精辟的史识与强烈的主观抒情色,具有明显的指导性和战斗性,体现了作者强烈的社会责任感和政治参与意识。In addition, Guo Moruo#39;s achievements in the study of history, archaeology and paleography were also most impressive.另外,郭沫若在历史学、考古学和占文字学方面的研究,也具有当时一流的水平。 /201602/427434GPS sport watches, compression leggings and hydration packs are the new must-haves for wealthy Chinese.配备全球定位系统功能的运动手表、压缩紧身裤和水袋背包是富有的中国人的最新必备品。Extreme sports apparel and expensive activewear is in vogue thanks in part to government promotion of sport ahead of the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, and the purchase of the Ironman brand by China#39;s richest tycoon last year.极限运动装以及昂贵的运动目前正在引领潮流,这要部分归功于中国政府在2022年北京冬奥会之前对体育运动的推广,以及去年中国首富王健林收购世界铁人公司。The market is also forecast to grow with the government#39;s decision to relax its one-child policy after 36 years, and companies like US-listed Under Armour is lining up to cash in.中国实施了36年的独生子女政策之后,终于于今年全面放开二胎,这预计也将推动运动装市场的增长。在美国上市的安德玛也在准备挖掘其中的商机。For Under Armour and Lululemon Athletica, two of the Western brands aly active in China, the country offers an opportunity to grow outside the mature markets of the US and Europe.对安德玛公司和露露柠檬运动用品公司这两个已经活跃在中国的西方品牌而言,中国提供了一个在欧美成熟市场之外另一个实现增长的机会。US sportswear maker Under Armour expects China sales to leap 25 percent a year until 2018, while Vancouver-based yogawear giant Lulu-lemon says its first Hong Kong store is on track to make million in sales this year.美国第二大体育用品制造商安德玛预计,到2018年其在华销售将每年增加25%;而总部位于温哥华的瑜伽装巨头露露柠檬称,其首家香港门店今年将有望获得800万美元的销售额。But they face a strong field of Chinese rivals such as Anta, Xtep and 361 Degrees whose share prices soared between 34 percent and 56 percent last year.但这些外国公司面临着中国众多体育品牌如安踏、特步和361°等的强有力竞争。这些中国公司的股价去年飙升幅度介于34-56%。China#39;s sportswear market will surpass the luxury goods market by 2020, according to Euromonitor. China#39;s market is only just starting to flex its muscles. The sports sector contributes 0.67 percent of China#39;s total gross domestic product, compared with 2.2 percent in the European Union and 3.5 percent in the ed States, according to Oriental Patron Research.据市场研究公司Euromonitor数据显示,到2020年,中国的运动装市场将超过奢侈品市场。中国的运动装市场不过刚开始展露头角。据Oriental Patron调查结果显示,运动产业对中国整体GDP的贡献为0.67%,而欧盟与美国的该比例分别为2.2%和3.5%。 /201602/427824Yuan Shao extended his power to the north of the Yellow River, while in further south, between the Yellow River and the Huai River, there was a tense and vicious conflict between Yuan Shu, Cao Cao, and Tao Qian, the Governor of Xu province, Lu Bu from the northwest and Liu Bei, a man of poor family who yet claimed descent from the rulers of former Han.袁绍的势力主要在黄河以北;向南,在淮河和黄河之间,有袁术、曹操、徐州太守陶谦、西北的吕布和刘备。刘备出生寒微但却是汉室后人。Yuan Shu was driven south to of the Huai River in 193, Tao Qian was destroyed in 194, and Liu Bei surrendered in 196.袁术于公元193年兵败逃到河北(淮河以北),陶谦于次年被击败,刘备在196年投降曹操。Cao Cao’s power sp unprecedently, and by 198,when he captured Lu Bu and killed him, Cao Cao had no further rival in the southern part of the Yellow River area.曹操的军队实力盛极一时,到198年曹操俘杀吕布后,在黄河流域已无人能敌。In 196, Cao Cao forced Emperior Xian to move his capital to Xuchang (in pres-#39; ent-day Henan Province), took advantage of ruling in the emperor ’ s name and continued to project his influence.And he justified his actions as a loyal minister of Han.公元196年,曹操又将洛阳的献帝迎至许昌,挟天子以令诸侯,在政治上得到了优势。During this period, the development of agriculture was heavily hampered and there were prevailing famines, therefore food supply was fatal for warlords. The cases were countless that the warlords were self-defeated for lacking sufficient food supply instead of being destroyed in the battle.这一时期,社会生产遭受严重破坏,出现大饥荒。粮食供应成为各军事军队最大的问题,因军粮不足而无敌自破者不可胜数。In the same year, Cao Cao accepted a land reclamation system,an advice proposed by Zao Di,one of his subord卜 nate. According to this system, destitute peasants placed under military officers were organized into civilian colonies to work in the land while soldiers, when not fighting, were encouraged to grow crops in military colonies. This system yielded with great harvest and excellent results.建安元年,曹操采纳部下枣祇等人的建议,在许下募民屯田,当年即大见成效,得谷百万斛。Then the system was sp all over the country which effectively settled the problem of food supply of the army. Meanwhile, Cao Cao implemented other policies such as subsiding small owner-peasant, transferring people to farm on the deserted farmland in war zones, developing the irrigating system and recovering the growing of agriculture.于是曹操命令在各州郡设置田官,兴办屯田。屯田有效地解决了曹操军队的粮食问题,在兴置屯田的同时,他采取各种措施,扶植自耕农经济。针对当时人口流失,田地荒芜的情况,曹操先后采取招怀流民、迁徙人口、兴修水利、恢复农业生产等措施。All these practices enhanced the agricultural development and enriched the national reserve.通过以上措施,曹操统治区的农业生产迅速恢复。这是其在经济上的一大成功。Since the year 198, after taking protection and control of Emperor Xian, Cao Cao started his plan of crushing other warlords and united the northern part of China.从建安二年起,曹操利用他“挟天子以令诸侯”的政治优势,东征西讨,开始了他翦灭群雄,统一北方的战争。In the summer of 200, armed with 100 000 skillful land armies and about 10 000 cavalries,Yuan Shao marched south to fight with Cao Cao.Cao Cao killed Yuan Shao ’s two fierce warriors Yan Liang and Wen Chou in succession and stayed in the small city of Guan Du, south of the Yellow River(Zhongmou county, Henan Province) where Yuan Shao and Cao Cao met in a long-drawn campaign.公元200年夏,袁绍挑选10万精锐步兵,骑兵万余,南下与曹操争锋,曹操先后击杀袁绍勇将颜良、文丑后勒兵官渡(今河南中牟县);袁绍兵力远远超过曹操, 但交战一月后袁绍无法取胜。Cao Cao ’ s forces were heavily outnumbered, but they held their defence for more than a month, then a fortunate raid against the enemy ’ s supply lines in Wuchao broke the morale of Yuan Shao, s forces and the chief general Zhang He and Gao Lan surrendered. Cao Cao launched a counterattack, killed ten thousands and captured about 70 000 of the enemies and drove them in disorder to the north. Two years later, Yuan Shao died, his two sons fought against each other over the inheritance,and Cao Cao took advantage of the confusion.后曹操放火烧掉袁绍屯放于乌巢的军粮等军用物资,袁绍大将张郃、高览投降曹操,袁军士气全无,曹操乘机发动大反攻,杀万余,俘虏7万余。袁军仓皇北逃,其后袁绍一蹶不振,两年后,袁绍病死,二子争位,曹操加以利用。In 207, after a brilliant campaign at Wuwan,Cao Cao cleared off Yuan Shao’ s remaining forces, established control o-ver all the Yellow plain and became the most powerful military lords in north of China.公元207年,曹操远征乌丸,出其不意,大胜,平定了北方,一举成为北方最强的军事集团。 /201512/413061

Wang Mengshu, an expert at the Chinese Academy of Engineering, said at a panel discussion on the sidelines of the annual session of the National People#39;s Congress that WiFi should not be provided on high-speed trains, as it might disturb onboard communication signals and would also cost a lot in maintenance. He also encouraged passengers to enjoy the views, instead of fixing their eyes on the tiny screens of smartphones and laptops. However, on last Tuesday Beijing Youth Daily said it should be market demand that decides whether the WiFi is offered on board trains or not.全国人大代表、中国工程院院士王梦恕在全国人民代表大会某代表团的分组审议中表示,高铁上面不应该覆盖WiFi信号,因为WiFi可能会影响机车通信信号,并且后期维护成本也高。他还鼓励乘客多享受铁路两旁的风景,而不是盯着智能手机或平板电脑的小屏幕看。不过,根据上周二北京青年报报道,高铁覆不覆盖WiFi应当由市场需求来决定。An increasing number of residents, especially young white collar workers, are addicted to their smartphones rather than face-to-face interactions, thanks to the extensive WiFi coverage across the country. That partly justifies Wang#39;s opposition to the offering of WiFi on high-speed trains, because they are not supposed to be dependent on high-tech gadgets. It is also evident that passengers on trains without free WiFi will use their smartphones and other mobile devices less.得益于全国广泛覆盖的WiFi信号,越来越多的人们,特别是年轻白领沉迷于智能手机,而不喜欢面对面的交流。这也在一方面明了王院士反对高铁覆盖WiFi是有道理的,因为人们不应当活在高科技数码产品的虚拟世界里。同时也表明,如果高铁上没有免费WiFi,乘客使用他们的智能手机或者其他移动设备上网的机率就会小一些。However, whether the trains should provide a free WiFi service fundamentally depends on customer demand.然而,高铁上到底应不应该提供免费WiFi务,说到底是由用户需求来决定的。In other words, State-owned as it is, the China Railway Corp still has to abide by relevant market rules, and provide technologically feasible services to passengers if that is what they want. It cannot turn a blind eye to customers#39; wants ;for the sake of their well-being;.换句话说,即便是国企,中国铁路总公司仍然得考虑遵守市场规律,如果乘客有需求,就得为乘客提供可行的技术持。用户要追求更好的务享受,该公司就不能对此视若无睹。Free WiFi, in fact, is aly available on a slew of buses and coaches. This is a natural response to their competition with trains (especially high-speed ones), which are significantly faster and safer. The bus companies have been compelled to improve their services to survive.事实上,很多公共汽车和长途汽车上已经提供了免费WiFi,这是面对速度与安全性都有显著提高的火车(特别是高铁)带来的竞争所做出的正常回应。公交客车公司被迫改善务以求生存。It requires properly tailored guidance, not a total ban on the use, to offset the negative effects of high-end technologies, such as people#39;s increasing addiction to smartphones.免费WiFi的使用需要适当的引导,而不是完全禁止,以此来消除高端技术所带来的负面影响,比如人们对智能手机越来越依赖。 /201603/431835

I was on the Shinkansen bullet train and roaring north toward the Japan Sea at 125 miles per hour when I passed through the wormhole in space-time. The wormhole was on the far end of a long, unlit tunnel. Three-quarters of an hour earlier, in the midst of a sunny winter’s day, I’d boarded the train at the loud, insanely complex and many-leveled Tokyo main station, accompanied by my friend Bob Sliwa. We were bound for the coastal town of Kanazawa, sometimes known as the hidden pearl of the Japan Sea and famed for the freshness and variety of its fish-based cuisine. 新干线子弹列车以125英里的时速在漫长而黑暗的隧道中飞驰,奔向北方的日本海。忽然,列车从隧道尽头穿过,仿佛带着我们从时空虫洞一跃而出,来到另一个崭新的世界。那是一个阳光灿烂的冬日。45分钟之前,我和老友鲍勃·斯里瓦(Bob Sliwa)在人声鼎沸、层次繁多、纷乱繁忙的东京站登上了这列动车,目的地是海滨城市金泽。金泽被誉为日本海一颗鲜为人知的明珠,以新鲜多样的海鲜料理而闻名于世。 The trip there last winter was to be the climax of my weeklong attempt to find the hidden culinary truth of Japan, beyond the reach of guidebooks or the well-intentioned efforts of such celebrity investigators as Anthony Bourdain. My secret weapon in this was Bob himself, a man embedded in Japan for 30 years, deeply conversant in the ways and cuisines of the country and, by great good fortune, my college roommate. 这趟行程是我去年冬天为期一周的日本之旅的高潮。此行目的是寻找日本料理不为人所知的真相。这些真相在一般旅游指南的介绍中是找不到的,即使那些安东尼·伯尔顿(Anthony Bourdain)之流的著名美食家用心良苦的努力也未能触及。我的秘密武器就是老友鲍勃,他在日本生活了30年,对这个国家的饮食人文深有浸润。我曾与他大学同窗,真是幸何如之。 We exited the tunnel into a crash of white light. On the far side was a winterscape of deep snow, mountain vistas and blowing wind. The day we’d been traveling through until then had been dry and mild, and the sudden atmospheric shift made it seem that we might, in fact, have just rocketed through a rift in space-time. Bob, stroking his goatee, laughed out loud at my confusion. 在我们穿出隧道的那一刹那,耀眼的白色阳光扑面而来。远方是一片白雪皑皑、山峦起伏、寒风凛冽的冬季景色。在此之前,我们所到之处的天气一直温暖而干燥。眼前气候却迥然不同,实在令人惊异,似乎我们真的实现了一次时空穿越。鲍勃捋着山羊胡子,对我的困惑大声笑了起来。 “We were climbing in the dark in that tunnel the whole time — didn’t you feel your ears pop?” he asked. “What you see here is the result of the steady wind blowing off the Japan Sea from China, picking up the moisture of the ocean along the way and throwing it against the mountains as snow — and lots of it. Think of the Continental Divide, Japan-style.” “我们在那条黑暗的隧道里一直在向山上爬升——你没觉得耳压有变化吗?”他说,“风从中国吹过日本海,带来海上的湿气,遇到高山阻隔后变成大量降雪,于是形成了窗外这样的景色。这就是日本特色的大陆板块气候。” I lowered my eyes from the Alpine visuals and back to my notes on the previous days’ eating and drinking. The pages, which were thick with arrows and exclamation points, seemed only to get more densely crosshatched as time went on, and for good reason. The dozen or so meals I’d had in Tokyo had been a marvel of consistent variation, ringing fluid changes of texture and flavor on those three little words that define the cuisine of this island nation at its heart: iso no aji, or “tastes like ocean spray.” 我的目光从积雪覆盖的高山景色收回,落在摊开的笔记本上。那上面记录了我这些日子里享受的美酒美食,字里行间充满了各种箭头和惊叹号。随着时间的推移,这些记号愈发变得密密麻麻。在东京的十几餐,多姿多的美食、流畅变幻的质感与风味,无不体现着岛国料理之精髓,那简单的三个字:iso no aji ——“浪之味”。 By agreement, the majority of places Bob and I had gone to so far were chosen to illustrate the point that the most creative cooking in Japan is no longer being done in A-list restaurants. Those places, which continue to serve up superb food, belong to the days when the country was still riding high atop the mighty economic surge that carried it from the ashes of World War II all the way to the forefront of the global market. They’re relics of the time when the Japanese, so expert at mimicry, sent their best young chefs to the high-end restaurants of France and Italy where their work ethic ensured them a rapid rise up the kitchen ladder, and upon their return, the creation of perfect interpretations of their previous employers’ cuisine. 这次我们共同选择的多数餐馆都是为了实一点,那就是日本最有创意的烹饪料理已不再属于那些高档餐饮会所。这些餐馆仍然提供着最高端的食物,但他们却属于那已经逝去的年代。当时,日本从二战的灰烬中站起,驾驭着经济复苏的大潮,直至国际市场最前沿。作为模仿的专家,日本把他们最好的年轻厨师送进法国和意大利的高档餐馆。他们刻苦工作,在餐饮业的职业阶梯上一路攀升。当他们回到日本,也带回了对就学之地烹饪艺术的完美诠释。 It’s no accident that Tokyo has the highest number of Michelin-starred restaurants of any city in the world. But rather than sampling the wares of these warhorses, I’d arrived to try the second culinary wave, a quiet in-house revolution that is afoot all over the country. Driven by chefs mostly in their late 20s and early 30s, its inspiration was the collapse of that same economic surge in the early 1990s, followed by the now famous stagnation or “20 lost years,” as it’s referred to in the foreign press. As the country entered a period of soul-searching, these young chefs took the opportunity to throw off what Bob calls the “legacy exoskeleton” of manners and slavish obedience to groupthink and instead to begin advancing the cause of native ingredients, prepared with great care and what seems at times almost freakish originality. 因而,东京拥有全世界最多的米其林星级餐馆,并非侥幸。但是,我这次不是为了这些久经沙场的老牌餐馆而来。我要品评的,是正在全日本悄然兴起的二次料理革命,是来自日本本土的一波崭新的美食潮流。这场革命由一代30岁上下的厨师兴起,他们的灵感植根于二十世纪90年代初著名的经济大萧条时期。那时日本经济从高速发展之中迅速崩溃,步入了外媒所称的“失去的二十年”。在全日本进入反思之时,这些年轻厨师们趁机摆脱了对集体思维的奴性从,用鲍勃的话来说,抛开了“前人的桎梏”。他们开始倡导一种以本土食材为材料,精心准备,独具匠心,甚至异想天开的料理风格。 Exhibit A: the plate of smoked salted cod roe sprinkled with red chile pepper flakes at a restaurant called N-1155 in the hip, hilly Tokyo neighborhood of Nakameguro. The smoking and salting produced a deliciously bespoke version of fish jerky, whose peppery marine tang married perfectly with a chilled glass of sauvignon blanc. 我记录里的第一件精品,是洒着红辣椒末的腌熏鳕鱼白。这是在东京附近,时尚的丘陵小镇中木黑(Nakameguro),一家叫做N-1155的餐馆里吃到的。品尝着经熏制和腌制而成的美味特制鱼干,再叫上一杯冰白苏维翁,正与弹性的海鲜口感相得益彰。 Exhibits B and C: a flash-cold-smoked sea perch sashimi, and a bagna cauda, both served at the same restaurant. Flash cold smoking, done in the kitchen just before plating, imparts a tangy, cooked woodland savor to the raw flesh of the fish that makes for a delicious cognitive dissonance in the mouth. The bagna cauda was upgraded by having its oil mostly replaced with cream, creating a rich bath into which produce from the restaurant’s own farm in southern Japan — thin-cut yellow carrot, mustard green, lotus root and kohlrabi — was dipped and then removed, leaving its bright, vegetal essences enrobed in unctuous garlic. 在这家餐馆里还可以吃到冷熏微烤鲈鱼刺身加意大利蘸酱。在后厨即将装盘之前,快速的低温微熏给生鱼片增加了一种浓郁的木香,放入嘴中,满口生香。意大利蘸酱经过改良,由奶油代替菜油。餐馆在日本南部农场自产各种蔬菜,包括胡萝卜、芥菜、莲藕和甘蓝。这些蔬菜被切成薄片,在汤汁中浸润,然后捞出弃置不用,只留下一股爽口的蔬菜精华,与厚厚的蒜茸和奶油一起,创造出一碗香浓的酱汁。 The next day, a few blocks away, it was the turn of a place called Harbor Bar. Modeled vaguely on a Venetian wine bar and boasting fish from the Sanriku Coast region of northern Japan, the tiny restaurant has a cheerfully casual D.I.Y. atmosphere that channels Bushwick. But there’s nothing casual about the food in the least. 第二天,我们去到几个街区之外的另一家料理,叫做港湾酒吧(Harbor Bar)。这家小餐厅格局依稀有些酒吧的味道,所用的食材都是日本北部三陆海岸地区的海产。它的环境轻松随意,有一种自助的气氛,让人想起纽约的布什维克。可它的菜肴却很精致。 The opener was a plate of super-fresh scallop sashimi, enlivened with a ginger sauce whose citrus notes gave the dish the feel of a mollusk ceviche. This was followed up by a serving of raw botan shrimp — as large as langoustines — which arrived paired with a spicy rémoulade of cured carrots. While we ate, Bob and I continued to catch up. Unusually for a Westerner who has been living long-term in Japan, he’s lost none of his youthful enthusiasm and manifests the same manic glee he once did as a jazz-mad, art-crazed undergraduate. 开胃菜是一盘超级新鲜的扇贝刺身,配料的姜汁带有一种柑橘味,使这盘菜有一种酸橘汁腌海鲜的口感。接着上来的是生牡丹虾——和海鳌虾一般大小——搭配香辣蛋黄酱腌胡萝卜。我和鲍勃边吃边聊我们分别之后的生活。他还是像年轻时那么热情洋溢。在大学时,他曾是个爵士乐狂和艺术狂。而现在,他那种兴奋与狂热的劲头丝毫未减。对于一个在日本长期生活的西方人来说,这实在很不寻常。 “Some people live here and want to be Japanese,” he said. “I didn’t. Not only is it impossible, but I don’t want to be treated the way Japanese treat themselves. I love Japan, but I sell myself as a foreigner who’s willing to break the rules and say what’s wrong.” “有些人在这里生活,希望与本地人融为一体。”他说,“可我不是这样。不单因为我根本做不到,而且我也不喜欢日本人对待他们自己的方式。我爱日本,但是作为一个外国人,我不怕打破规矩,也不怕指出他们不好的地方。” “And what is wrong?” I asked. “他们有什么不好的地方呢?”我问道。 Bob, who works in Japan as an industrial designer, rubbed his hand over his shaved skull and said: “Two words define Japanese culture. One is ‘monozukuri,’ or ‘the Japanese way of making things.’ The other is ‘omotenashi,’ or ‘the Japanese way of hospitality.’ If the country rebuilt itself into such a buff economic specimen after World War II, it did so partly out of its belief in the superiority of both of these things to any other country’s. But then the bubble economy burst, the 21st century happened, and the country lost its way. I call it a nationwide case of the rope-a-dope. Whole industrial sectors have fallen asleep. Remember the Walkman? How’s that working out for you, Sony?” 鲍勃在日本的职业是工业设计师。他用手摸了摸自己剃光的头,说:“日本文化可以用两个词来定义。第一个词是‘制造’,也就是‘日本特色的制造方式’。第二个词是‘招待’,也就是‘日本人的待客之道’。这个国家在二战后把自己建成一个强有力的国家,原因之一就是因为他们确信,自己在这两点上比其他任何国家都优越。但是,进入21世纪之后,经济泡沫的破灭使他们不知所措。我认为,整个国家现在都在韬光养晦,整个工业界毫无生机。你还记得随身听吗?让我们来问问索尼:它的命运如何了?” Before I could answer the rhetorical question, my attention was distracted by the arrival of something called an iwagaki rock oyster. 我正在想如何回答他的这个反诘,一道新菜的到来打断了我的思绪。这道菜名是岩蚝。 Ah, that oyster. It was the largest bivalve I’ve ever seen, with a shell approximately the size and shape of my foot. “You freeze it while alive and then slow-cook it at low temperatures,” the waiter explained, bowing. “That makes the umami come out.” The monster was dressed in a brightly acid dill-based mignonette and disproved the axiom that larger versions of anything taste worse: It was a briny, exquisite splash of sea in the mouth. 呵,那生蚝。可以说它是我曾见过的最大的贝类了。贝壳的形状大小和我的脚差不多。“它还活着的时候你就得把它冷冻起来,然后用小火慢炖。”侍应生鞠了一躬,对我们介绍说,“这样鲜味才能出来。”这个特大生蚝上涂抹着一层酸酸的茴香木樨草酱汁,吃在嘴里,给你带来鲜咸而细腻的海浪滋味,彻底否定了“物大则无味”这一坊间说法。 I was still finishing it when the owner of the restaurant, alerted by my exclamations of joy, came over to talk. His name was Akira Matsuoka and he’s part of a restaurant consortium that oversees several venues in Tokyo. Rail thin, with high cheekbones, black jeans and alt-rock facial hair, he answered my question as to how he invents his dishes by explaining: “My partners and I think of ourselves as a food think tank. We don’t care about Michelin rankings. First we come up with the concept, and then we invent the dishes to fit it, sometimes collectively and sometimes individually. Rather than a star chef, we make the food the star.” He smiled and circled a finger in the air to indicate the small space crammed with diners. “And it seems to be working.” 我细细品尝着它的滋味。听到我不停的赞叹之声,餐馆老板走了出来,与我攀谈起来。他名叫阿基拉松冈(Akira Matsuoka),他的这家小店是一个餐饮集团属下的一部分,这个集团在东京还有几个其他店面。他人很瘦,高高的颧骨,身穿黑色牛仔,留着另类摇滚式的须发。当我问到他是如何创造出这道菜时,他回答说:“我和我的合伙人把自己看作美食智库。我们不在乎米其林星级。我们会首先想出一个概念,然后再创造一盘菜来表达这个概念。菜点的创作有时合作完成,有时独立完成。我们并不想做什么明星厨师。在这里,食物才是明星。”他微微笑着,手指在空中划了一圈,指着挤满小屋的就餐者。“这个做法看起来还蛮有效的。” Over the next few days, the culinary wizardry of Tokyo chefs remained unflagging. Yet, of all the entrees and appetizers I tried (the rice paper tubes of crab flash-fried so that the crunchy, starchy surface held a core of molten raw crustacean; the cod ovaries baked in Gorgonzola that scattered delicious marine bursts of garlic across the palate; the tiny fish called an ayu, or “sweet fish,” which is fermented in the dregs of sake for three years to make the bones grow edibly soft) — all of it, no matter how odd, gross or wonderful, would pale next to the one dish that remained dangling, like the holy grail, just out of reach. People spoke of it as the greatest white-fleshed sashimi in the world. 接下来的几天里,东京大厨们展示了从未令我失望的料理魅力。我品尝了各式各样的开胃菜与正餐,包括壳脆馅嫩的香煎软壳蟹米纸卷,充满蒜香海鲜口感的奶酪焗鳕鱼子,还有用清酒渣腌制三年而成的酥骨小香鱼。这些餐点有的怪异、有的恶心、有的美味。然而,所有这些,在另一道美食面前都黯然失色。那就像一个遥不可及的圣杯,一直在我们眼前晃动。它就是传说中世上最了不起的白身鱼刺身。 Back on the train, I heard Bob say, “We’re almost here,” and I slowly raised my eyes from my notebook. The fish was the legendary kanburi, or winter yellowtail, which abounds in the waters off Kanazawa, and after a couple of hours on the train, we were finally sliding into Kanazawa Station. “我们快到了。”鲍勃的话音把我拉回到眼前的火车上,我从笔记本上慢慢抬起目光。经过两小时的旅程,火车终于缓缓滑进金泽车站。那传说中的鱼,就是盛产于金泽的冷鰤鱼,又叫冬鰤。 But before food, a drink. Several, actually. Drinking in Japan is a crucial social and professional lubricant in a country where ritualized courtesies can easily harden into walls, and Bob, a teetotaler in college, had successfully adapted. Kanazawa, like most Japanese cities of a decent size, has a distinct “drinking district,” honeycombed with tiny bars, and not long after checking in to our hotel, we found ourselves in a stand-up bar called Choikichi. 当然,在吃之前,总得喝上一杯。或者多喝几杯。在日本这个地方,礼仪往往成为人际交往的障碍,而饮酒则成为社会与职业交往至关重要的润滑剂。鲍勃在大学是个滴酒不沾的人,但他终于也成功地转型了。和其他略有规模的城市一样,金泽也有自己的“饮酒区”。在这里,小酒家比肩接踵。我们在酒店入住之后没多久,就已经身处一家名为崔基地(Choikichi)的站立式酒吧了。 Stand-up means exactly what it sounds like, and the long counter of this former ice cream parlor was crowded on a late afternoon with regulars watching sumo wrestling on television. As titans clashed thunderously on the screen above us, the locals chatted happily with one another, and I had the sense of having wandered into a tiny Japanese analogue of Cheers, the famously chummy bar “where everybody knows your name.” We ate edamame and delicious rakkyo (pickled onions) and drank a fairly common but tasty sake. 站立式酒吧恰如其名。傍晚时分,这个由冰激凌小店改造的酒吧里,长长的柜台前熙熙攘攘地站满了本地的熟客,兴高采烈地彼此交谈。头顶上,电视中播放着相扑比赛,一个个彪形大汉如雷霆般向对方冲击。恍惚间,我觉得走进了日本版的干杯酒吧(Cheers),那个有名的酒吧,“在那儿每个人都互相认识”,如一家人般亲密。在这个站立式酒吧里,我们就着毛豆和美味的腌藠头(一种腌制的小洋葱)喝到了味道不错的普通清酒。 Bob, a habitué of these places, was welcomed everywhere we went with shouts. The shouts were particularly loud later that night at a bar named, hilariously, Pub Dylan (as in Bob). There I was served a very expensive sake called Dassai, whose cool, perfect balance gave me the impression of drinking a dipperful of outer space. It was also at this place that Bob (my friend) brought down the house by correctly identifying the Japanese rock band playing on the big-screen TV as the Atomic Bomb Masturbation. 鲍勃显然是这些地方的常客,他每到一处都会受到人们的欢呼。那天晚上晚些时候,我们来到另一家酒吧,它的名字很有趣,叫迪伦酒吧(Pub Dylan),和鲍勃·迪伦(Bob Dylan)同名(译者注:美国著名歌手,名字与作者的老友鲍勃相同)。我们走进这家酒吧时,欢呼声尤为响亮。在那里他们端给我一杯非常昂贵的清酒,叫做獺祭(Dassai)。它那清凉、酸甜有致的口感让人有飘飘欲仙之感。在这里,鲍勃,不是鲍勃·迪伦,而是我的朋友鲍勃,准确地认出了头上大屏幕电视里表演的日本摇滚乐团是Atomic Bomb Masturbation,赢得了全场又一次欢呼。 After a quick, delicious tempura dinner I returned to my dwarf hotel room, only moderately worse for alcoholic wear, and asked myself the obvious question: Is Japan the most food-crazed nation on earth? Evidence for “yes” is pretty thick on the ground. Tokyo has a staggering 80,000 restaurants, as opposed to the 15,000 of New York or the 6,000 of London. But more to the point: Where else on the planet would a country’s biggest boy band have its own cooking show? What other nation would stage a televised competition in which they brought in challengers to try to better a master sushi chef’s technique and scanned the resulting sushi pieces with an MRI to compare the ratio of rice to air? What other place could possibly, under any circumstances, have invented the operatic and off-the-wall “Battle of the Iron Chef”? 简短而美味的天妇罗晚餐之后,我回到狭小的酒店房间,略有醉意。我忍不住自问:日本是否是地球上最爱吃的国度?肯定的明比比皆是:东京餐馆有令人震惊的8万家之多,而纽约只有1万5千家,伦敦更是才有6千家。更说明问题的是:除了日本,世界上哪个国家里最著名的男孩乐队会有自己的烹饪节目?哪个国家电视台的厨艺比赛,会不仅让参赛者挑战寿司师傅的料理技巧,更是用核磁共振来检测寿司饭卷中空气的含量,并以此决定比赛结果?又还有哪一个国家能发明出那个夸张而奇特的“铁人料理”(Battle of the Iron Chef)电视节目? The very next day, as if in answer to these questions, Japan served me the best seafood meal of my life. It did so at a small, easily missed, relatively modest-looking restaurant called Yamashita. 就在第二天,仿佛是要回答我的问题,日本献出了我一生中吃到的滋味最美的海鲜。这事发生在一家豪不引人注目,门面简单的小餐馆里,其店名叫“山下”(Yamashita)。 Yamashita is on no foreigner’s must-see lists, and there wasn’t an English language word in sight. But the restaurant, located by Bob, is a temple of sorts where the eponymous owner and chef Mitsuo Yamashita is referred to by his employees as the Master, and boss and staff work as one to pluck the freshest, purest products from the nearby ocean and put them on your plate with minimal interference. 山下餐馆是鲍勃找到的,像个禅院模样。它在任何一个外国旅游者的景点清单里都从未出现过。店里所有地方也没有半句英文。店主兼大厨山下光雄(Mitsuo Yamashita)被手下称作“师傅”。老板和手下共同努力,从附近的海域中带来最新鲜纯净的海产,然后做极简的处理之后送上你的餐盘。 The meal began with a pictorially perfect tray of amuse bouches: thin-cut strips of yellowtail stomach dressed in a vinegar-miso sauce, which tasted smoked though they weren’t, along with a small pile of herrings fermented in the dregs of sake, and a handful of fresh snap peas, each dabbed with tiny blobs of black sesame pesto. 最先送上来的是餐前点心:切得薄薄的鰤鱼肚沾香醋味噌酱,虽然没有经过熏制,吃起来却有些微烤的味道;还有一小堆酒糟鲱鱼和十来个上面点洒着黑芝麻酱的新鲜蜜豆。 A sake, painstakingly engineered by Mr. Yamashita in consultation with local brewers, partnered these refined salty nibbles perfectly. But all this was a mere prelude to that moment when a waitress, smiling, brought in plates heaped high with the prized kanburi sashimi. 与这些鲜咸的小吃完美配合的是山下先生与当地酿酒师合作精心酿制的清酒。这只不过是个前奏。接下来才是大家翘首以待的时刻:女侍应生微笑着端上一盘堆得高高的久负盛名的冷鰤鱼刺身。 Why has this fish been elevated to the very top spot among sashimi lovers? Because kanburi uniquely fuses two qualities that are almost never found in the same animal. Take maguro, the tuna whose sashimi is most recognizable to Americans. There’s the red meat, or akami, version, with its firm texture and relatively mild flavor, and the pinker version known as otoro that is filled with delicious oils and fats. The problem is that the tasty otoro has a crumbly, falling-apart texture in the mouth likened disdainfully by Bob to “eating sashimi marshmallows.” Because texture, along with temperature and flavor, are part of the “mouth moment” of Japanese cuisine, the challenge is to find a firm fish that is also rich in oil. 为什么冷鰤对生鱼片爱好者来说位居榜首?因为它是能够融合两种重要品质的唯一鱼种。就拿美国人最熟悉的金鱼来说吧。鱼背部颜色偏红的部分,叫Akami,肉质紧实,味道相对比较平淡。鱼腹颜色偏浅的部分称为otoro,油脂丰溢,味道香美,但是肉质却十分疏松,按鲍勃轻蔑的话来说,吃起来就像 “吃生鱼片棉花糖”。肉质、温度和味道是日本料理中“口感”不可或缺的部分。因此,找到一种油脂丰溢而肉质紧实的鱼片是一个挑战。 Enter kanburi, which for that brief, miraculous period every winter, is both those things. The fish, in thick slabs, now lay fanned out on the plate before me, glistening with oil — oil that had leached out of it because the Master had intentionally let the fish “rest,” or cure for a day or so. Mind you, fish oil like this has nothing “fishy” about it. The kanburi was silky, pliant, yielding and tasted of a distilled, superclean essence of the sea. It seemed to exemplify everything that was best about Japanese cuisine, and mouthful by mouthful it put me into a kind of trance. 这时就轮到冷鰤出场了。每年冬天,有那么短暂而奇妙的一小段时间,冷鰤能够同时拥有这两种美质。我面前的盘子里摆放着一块块厚厚的鱼块,闪着油光——师傅特意让鱼“歇”了一天左右,让油脂溢出。别忘了,这样的鱼油毫无腥味。冷鰤肉质柔软滑顺、富有弹性,吃在嘴里,像是浓缩了清新爽口的大海芳香,突显日本料理的最高境界。随着一片片刺身送人口中,我仿佛不知身在何处。 Suddenly the Master poked his head in again and barked some machine-gun Japanese at Bob, who translated it with a single word: squid. It was being offered as our next course, and there was no question of not taking it. One would as soon have refused an audience with the pope. 忽然,师傅探出头来,对鲍勃叫出了一串如机关一般的日语。鲍勃的翻译只有一个词:乌贼。原来这是下一道菜,我们当然来者不拒。我宁可错失与教皇见面的机会,也不会拒绝这样的美食。 This would turn out to be something called “spear squid.” Freshly caught and still alive in the kitchen, it was killed, masterfully julienned and brought to the table as sashimi, along with a sauce made of fermented bonito guts, a condiment of pickled wild wasabi flowers, a heated stone and some stern admonitions from the Master as to exactly how to cook the squid — barely — and what the precise protocol was for eating it. Dishes like this belong to a category known for its hazawari, or “tooth feel,” and produce a dazzling mix of ocean flavor notes while offering an old-fashioned popcorn-like crunch in the mouth. 端上来的是所谓的“乌贼”。刚刚抓到的,在厨房活杀之后,精巧地片成条,然后作为刺身端上桌来。配菜包括鲣鱼内脏酱和腌渍野芥末花,还有一块烤热的石头。师傅神情严肃地教导我们如何烹制乌贼——不能久烹——然后又教给我们吃乌贼的准确步骤。这道菜肴主要是要感受它的“嚼口”,一种海洋风味交织着老派爆米花的爽脆。 By the end of such a meal, something has happened to you, something close to the psychic euphoria produced by yoga or meditation. You’ve entered a zone of food satori, mystically zonked by the punch of a culture that has been perfecting its culinary subtleties for thousands of years. What to do? 一餐已矣,你会感受到一种微妙的变化,好似瑜伽或冥想之后感悟的那种心灵之升华。仿佛你刚刚接受了那历经千年浸润的饮食文化对你的神秘一击,使你顿获美食之悟。 After an elaborately choreographed goodbye, we took a digestive stroll in the seaside air, passing through the gaudy Kanazawa downtown with its Ginza-style flashing lights, its kuru kuru (conveyor belt) sushi restaurants (Japanese is rich in onomatopoetic words, and “kuru kuru” is the sound of a conveyor belt; say it fast and you’ll understand), its knickknack shops, bars and omnipresent FamilyMart convenience stores. 经过一个精心设计的告别仪式之后,我们在海滨的空气中缓步前行。一路上是金泽市中心银座格调的华丽灯火,以及一家家库鲁库鲁回转寿司餐厅(日语里有很多拟声词。“库鲁库鲁”是回转带转动的声音,试一下快速读这个词你就会明白了)、小礼品店、酒吧,和无处不在的全家连锁便利店。 Our destination was the beautiful old wood-fronted part of town called Higasha Chaya-Gai. (Kanazawa shares with Kyoto the distinction of being one of the few large Japanese cities not bombed by the Allies during World War II). There, we entered a sleekly minimalist bar called Teriha and seated ourselves among the drinkers, conscious that it was our last evening out. 我们的目的地是老城东茶屋街(Higashi Chaya-Gai),那是一片美丽的木质民房。(金泽和京都是二战期间没有遭到盟军轰炸损毁的仅有的几个日本大城市之一。)在那里,我们走进了一家简约风格的酒吧,叫做照葉(Teriha)。我们在酒客间坐下,心知这是我们这趟旅行的最后一晚了。 I had spent a full week living inside a kind of tone poem of fish and alcohol, enriched by unflagging conversation with a dear old friend. But a vague perception had been weighing on me constantly during the trip, and suddenly, in the dark bar, that perception sharpened into words: I’ve never been to so foreign a place before that felt so deeply familiar. 整整一个星期,我仿佛生活在一个鱼和酒交织而成的音诗之中,伴随着亲密老友热情洋溢的交心畅谈。自始至终,我的脑海里有一种若隐若现的感觉,琢磨不透,转瞬即逝。那天,在那个昏暗的酒吧里,我忽然抓住了那个感觉:我从未在一个如此陌生的国度里体会到如此深刻的熟悉感。 Differently from an Asian country like India, where I’ve also spent time, the social iconography of Japan is profoundly recognizable to an American. Despite the culture’s insularity and remoteness from us, the Japanese often dress and style themselves in a way that clearly states their social membership in categories of rocker, matron, intellectual, etc., and these identities can be easily “” by a tourist from the ed States. This fact, a product of the longstanding symbiotic relationship between the countries, produces a visual halo effect, in which one is always observing roles and mores on several levels at once. Exhausting on the one hand, it’s endlessly, compulsively fascinating on the other. 我去过其他亚洲国家,比如印度。但是日本不同。它的社会表象对美国人来说有深度的共识感。尽管日本是个距我们很远的岛国,但那里人的着装饰清楚表达出他们的社会归属:摇滚人、主妇、文化人,等等。美国旅游者可以轻易认出这些人的身份。这是日美两国相存相依多年的产物,也因此促成了一个光环效应,使人可以同时观察到他人的社会角色以及其他诸多层面的东西。一方面,这有些令人应接不暇,另一方面,这也的确让人不由心醉神驰。 Back in the bar, the lights suddenly dimmed further, and the conversations ceased. Rain started to fall, visible out the windows. Shrouded in darkness at the end of the bar, the owner, an ex-geisha named Yaeko Yoshigawa, began playing a flute. It was a bamboo flute called a shinobue, much used in Noh and Kabuki theater music and part of the essential “kit” of the geisha. The slow, wavering tones, played without obvious melody but filled with richness, lack the forward propulsive quality of Western music. Instead, individual notes are held until they’re mere wisps of sound, acoustic vapor. 这时,酒吧里灯光转暗,大家停止了交谈。窗外开始淅淅沥沥地下起雨来。吧台尽头,黑暗笼罩之中,酒吧主人吉川八重子(Yaeko Yoshigawa)开始吹起了笛子。她以前是个艺妓。她使用的竹笛叫做筱笛,是艺妓的基本“工具”之一,多用在日本能剧和歌舞伎剧场音乐之中。与西方音乐的大收大放不同,这音乐悠扬而婉转,听不出曲调,却充满内涵。每一个音符都拉得长长的,直到它越来越轻,终至弱不可闻,犹如情人耳边轻轻的私语。 For several minutes, quietly, the flute music continued, thing the air in the darkness. It wavered, seemed about to stop and then, surprisingly, went on, moving forward without resolution, a little bit like the beautiful, perplexing country of Japan itself, whose mix of ceremonial gravity and hidden culinary wonders had given me a week of the very best eating of my life. There was a pause that extended until we could hear the rain pattering on the roof and a single last note, after which Ms. Yoshigawa removed the flute from her mouth with a bow. The recital was finished. The tone poem was over. In the semi-darkness, Bob raised his glass in a last toast. It was time to go home. 几分钟里,静静的笛声在黑暗中萦绕。若隐若现,时有时无,在你以为音乐已尽之时,它却重再浮现,复又前行。这音乐正像日本这个美丽而莫测的国度,其庄重的礼仪和不为人知的料理奇迹交相辉映,让我度过了有生以来最美味的一个星期。音乐又一次停歇,只听见雨点在屋顶砸落的声音,接着,最后一个音符从笛中滑出。吉川夫人放下笛子,深深鞠躬。一曲终了,我那为期一周的交响音诗也就此结束。半明半暗之中,鲍勃最后一次举杯。是该回家的时候了。 If You Go 探访指南 Where to Stay 住在哪里 This particular trip was dedicated to eating, not lodging. In both Kanazawa and Tokyo there are abundant “business hotels,” found under that term on the Internet, where for usually less than 0 a night, or 11,390 yen at 114 yen to the dollar, one sleeps in a luxuriously appointed room the size of a large refrigerator. These are typically squeaky clean and have all modern conveniences, including, often, a washer-dryer and, incredibly, a pants press. 我这次旅行的目的是吃而不是住。金泽和东京都有大量的“商用酒店”,在网上用这个词即可查到。价钱一般为每晚100美元,或者1.139万日元(按1美元等于114日元计算)。房间和一个大型冰箱差不多大小,陈设奢华。这些酒店都一尘不染,拥有一切现代设施,通常包括洗衣机和烘干机,而且令人难以置信的是,常常还会有自动熨裤机。 Where to Eat 吃在哪里 Tokyo 东京 N-1155, 1-1-55 Nakameguro, Meguro, Tokyo; 81-3-3760-1001. N-1155, 东京目黑区中目黑1-1-55 ; 81-3-3760-1001。 A beautiful wood-paneled restaurant in one of the hipper districts of Tokyo that serves innovative, exquisitely prepared seasonal food. Much of the produce is from the restaurant’s own organic farm in southern Japan. An English-language is a plus. Dinner and drinks start at about 5,000 yen. 位于东京比较前卫的街区里的一家美丽的木质餐馆,提供富有创意而制作精美的海鲜食品。使用的蔬菜主要取自餐馆在日本南部自营的有机农场。更棒的是他们提供英语的菜单。晚餐和酒水从5千日元起。 Harbor Bar (Minatomachi Baru), 3-7-8 Kamimeguro, Meguro, Tokyo; 81-3-5869-5806. 港湾酒吧(Harbor Bar, Minatomachi Baru), 东京目黑区上目-7-8; 81-3-5869-5806。 Hipster interiors and a crowd right out of Bushwick fill up this small, very tasty seafood shop. The place is modeled loosely on a Venetian fish restaurant and has a decent Italian wine selection, but the superfresh and very creative dishes are straight from the Sanriku Coast, north of Tokyo. Dinner and drinks from about 4,000 yen on up. 这家小巧的海鲜店内饰时尚,味道上佳,满座的宾客与纽约布什维克没什么两样。室内装修仿效维也纳海鲜餐馆,酒单上有很不错的意大利酒品,然而它超级新鲜而极具创意的海鲜却全部来自东京北部的三陆海岸。晚餐与酒水4千日元起。 Kanazawa 金泽 Yamashita Restaurant, 2-23-5 Katamachi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 81-76-223-1461. 山下餐馆(Yamashita Restaurant), 石川县金泽片町2-23-5; 81-76-223-1461。 This world-class fish mecca is unostentatiously small and bare. Its stern, somewhat forbidding owner runs a very tight ship, and no English is spoken. But animated pointing at display cases will probably do the trick. Dinner and drinks, about 4,000 yen. 这个世界一流的海鲜胜地其貌不扬,风格简朴。餐馆主人不苟言笑,管理严格。这里没人会讲英语。不过,你只要动作夸张地朝摆在外面的餐点样品指一指,就一定能让他们明白你的意图。晚餐与酒水4千元左右。 Teriha Restaurant and Bar, 1-24-7 Higashiyama, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 81-76-253-3791. 照葉酒家(Teriha Restaurant and Bar), 石川县金泽东山1-24-7; 81-76-253-3791。 Located in the historic wood-fronted district of the city, this wine bar with its beautiful, minimalist interior tends to fill up fast with the local A-list crowd. The owner, a former geisha, speaks some English. If you beg her for a shinobue (flute) recital, she may oblige. Drinks begin at 500 yen. 这个坐落在金泽木屋古城的美丽而风格简约的小酒吧通常总是充满了当地的一流酒客。艺妓出身的酒吧老板懂一点英语。如果你请她演奏一曲笛子,她有可能会满足你的要求。酒水从5百日元起。 Pub Dylan, 3-25 Katamachi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 81-76-222-0322. 迪伦酒吧(Pub Dylan), 石川县金泽片町2-3-23; 81-76-222-0322。 This small, friendly, deeply atmospheric watering hole is found in the city’s Shintenchi bar quarter. A rowdy crowd tends to form by late evening, and chatting is encouraged in whatever language you happen to speak. The Dassai sake (about 9,110 yen a glass) is out of this world. Other drinks begin at about 500 yen. Cash only. 这是一个非常友好而氛围热情的小小的灌酒处,处于新天地酒吧区。每天夜深以后,这里会聚集一群嘈杂的人群,无论你讲何种语言,都可以在此聊天。他们的獺祭清酒2千到3千日元一杯,是不世出的美酒。其他酒水5百日元起价。只收现金。 Choikichi, 2-8-18 Katamachi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 81-76-261-4900. 崔基地(Choikichi), 石川县金泽片町2-8-18; 81-76-261-4900。 This is old-school working-class Japan. A single standing-only counter, jars of pickled bar food and local workers sighing over sumo wrestling on TV. The owner is often referred to as Mom (in Japanese, of course) by the clientele. No English spoken. Snacks and drinks start at 200 and 300 yen respectively. 这是个日本老派工薪阶层的酒吧。只有一个站立式柜台,成瓶的腌制的下酒菜,当地工人站着一边喝酒一边观看电视相扑比赛。客人们叫酒吧老板做妈妈(当然是用日语)。这里不会讲英语。小吃和酒水分别为2百和3百日元。 /201603/430121

For people who buy, sell or collect old art, the hope of unearthing a new work by a big name is a motivating dream. And names don’t come much bigger than that of Leonardo da Vinci.对于买卖和收藏古老艺术品的人们来说,发掘著名大师的未知作品堪称鼓舞人心的梦想,而最有名的大师恐怕莫过于列奥纳多·达·芬奇(Leonardo da Vinci)了。For eight years, the Canadian collector Peter Silverman, who lives in Paris, has been trying to convince the art world that a drawing of an aristocratic young woman he bought for around ,000 is a long-lost masterpiece by Leonardo, potentially worth as much as 0 million. Now the controversy surrounding the drawing, “La Bella Principessa,” has taken a new turn. Shaun Greenhalgh, the notorious British art forger who is thought to have created fakes that spanned centuries of art history, has declared it to be his work.八年来,现居巴黎的加拿大收藏家彼得·席尔瓦曼(Peter Silverman)一直都在试图说艺术界,自己手上有一幅遗失已久的达·芬奇真迹,这幅贵族年轻女子的肖像名为《美丽的公主》(La Bella Principessa),是他花大约二万美元买来的,可能价值1.5亿美元。现在,围绕着这幅画作的争议又进入到新的一轮。臭名昭著的英国艺术品伪造者绍恩·格林哈尔(Shaun Greenhalgh)所仿造的赝品跨越艺术史上的几个世纪,如今他声称这幅画是自己的作品。Mr. Greenhalgh says the subject was not an Italian noblewoman, but a check-out girl named Alison who worked at a supermarket in Bolton outside Manchester in northwest England.格林哈尔说,图上的女人不是什么意大利贵妇,而是英格兰西北部曼彻斯特市郊外尔顿某超市内一个名叫艾莉森(Alison)的女收银员。That sensational claim emerged on Nov. 29 in an article in The Sunday Times by the art critic Waldemar Januszczak, who is part of a consortium that has just published a memoir by Mr. Greenhalgh, “A Forger’s Tale.” Mr. Greenhalgh, who in 2007 was sentenced to four years and eight months in prison on forgery-related charges, was responsible for a number of well-documented fakes, including a Gauguin sculpture of a faun bought by the Art Institute of Chicago and an Egyptian alabaster sculpture of a princess purchased by the Bolton Museum. Now he has added “La Bella Principessa” to the list.这个耸人听闻的声明出现在11月29日的《星期日泰晤士报》(The Sunday Times)的一篇文章里,作者是艺术家瓦尔德马尔·雅努茨扎克(Waldemar Januszczak),他所隶属的财团刚刚出版了格林哈尔的回忆录《伪造者的故事》(A Forger’s Tale)。格林哈尔因涉及伪造艺术品,于2007年被判入狱四年零八个月。他所仿造的艺术品包括一尊高更的农神雕像,被芝加哥艺术学院购买;以及一尊古埃及公主的大理石像,被波士顿物馆购买。如今他把《美丽的公主》也加入了这个名单。Mr. Januszczak says Mr. Greenhalgh was about 20 years old when he made “La Principessa,” while he was working at the supermarket in the late 1970s.雅努茨扎克说,格林哈尔创作《美丽的公主》时20岁左右,当时是20世纪70年代末期,他在那个超市上班。“To draw her he says he bought an old land deed that had been written on vellum, and finding the ‘good’ side to be too ink-stained to use, turned it over and drew on the rough side instead, as Leonardo would never have done,” Mr. Januszczak wrote in The Sunday Times.“他说,为了给她画像,他买来了一张旧地契,是用上等羊皮纸做成的,上面写了字,他发现,纸张‘好’的那一面上有太多墨水字迹,所以就把它翻过来,在粗糙的一面上画画,列奥纳多从来不这么做,”雅努茨扎克在《星期日泰晤士报》的文中写道。Mr. Greenhalgh was unavailable to comment.格林哈尔先生未能置评。“It’s ludicrous and absurd,” Mr. Silverman said in a telephone interview. “It’s shameless that an art historian should stoop to that level to promote his book.”“这太滑稽,太荒唐了,”席尔瓦曼先生电话采访中说,“一个艺术史学家为了宣传新书,竟然做出这么有失身份的事,真是无耻之极。”Mr. Silverman said he would pay Mr. Greenhalgh 10,000 pounds, about ,000, if he could reproduce “La Bella Principessa” on vellum in front of a committee of experts. “And he goes back to jail where he belongs if he doesn’t,” he said.席尔瓦曼说,他愿意付格林哈尔1万英镑(约合1.5万美元),看他能不能当着一个专家委员会的面,在羊皮纸上重新画出《美丽的公主》来。“要是他画不出来,就回监狱呆着去吧,”他说。The story of “La Bella Principessa” and its attribution started in January 1998, when Kate Ganz, an art dealer in New York, bought a hea·or ,850 with fees at Christie’s in New York. Executed in pen, ink, chalk and watercolor on vellum, it was cataloged by Christie’s as “early 19th century, possibly German.”《美丽的公主》及其作者鉴定的故事始于1998年1月,纽约艺术品交易商凯特·冈兹(Kate Ganz)以21850美元(含交易费)的价格,从纽约佳士得买来了这幅身穿意大利文艺复兴时期饰的年轻贵族女子的半身侧面像。这幅画以钢笔、墨水、粉笔和水在羊皮纸上绘制而成,被佳士得标记为“19世纪初,可能是德国作品。”Nine years later, in January 2007, Ms. Ganz sold the drawing, which she described as “based on a number of paintings by Leonardo da Vinci and may have been made by a German artist studying in Italy,” to Mr. Silverman for the original purchase price, minus a dealer’s discount.9年后的2007年1月,冈兹把这幅画以原价减交易商折扣的价格卖给了席尔瓦曼,她当时对它的描述是,“可能是一个在意大利学习的德国艺术家根据一幅列奥纳多·达·芬奇的画临摹的”。In June 2008, Lumière Technology, a company in Paris that specializes in digital scanning, announced that its analysis had determined that the portrait was by Leonardo. The work was subsequently valued at 100 million by the London art dealer Dickinson, who offered it for sale to selected clients. Timothy Clifford, a director of the National Galleries of Scotland from 1984 to 2006 who joined Dickinson as an adviser in 2007, declared the drawing a genuine Leonardo in an article in The Times of London in October 2009.2008年6月,法国数码扫描公司“光明技术公司”(Lumière Technology)声称,经分析,公司认为这幅画是出自列奥纳多本人之手。因此,这幅作品被伦敦艺术品交易公司迪金森(Dickinson)标价为一亿英镑,并向高级客户提供这幅作品的出售。蒂莫西·克利福德(Timothy Clifford)于1984年到2006年担任苏格兰国家艺术馆馆长,2007年出任迪金森的顾问,2009年10月,他在《伦敦泰晤士报》上发表文章,认为这幅画是列奥纳多的真迹。The attribution has also been endorsed by a half-dozen Leonardo scholars. Martin Kemp, an emeritus professor in art history at Oxford University who began researching the work in 2005, was an early convert, identifying the sitter as Bianca Giovanna Sforza, the illegitimate daughter of Ludovico Sforza, the duke of Milan from 1494 to 1499.这个结论还得到了半打列奥纳多专家的背书。马丁·肯普(Martin Kemp)是牛津大学的艺术史荣退教授,他从2005年开始研究这幅作品,是最早相信它是真迹的人之一,他认为画面上的人是比安卡·乔万娜·斯福尔扎(Bianca Giovanna Sforza),是于1494年至1499年任米兰公爵的卢多维克·斯福尔扎(Ludovico Sforza)的私生女。Research by Mr. Kemp and Pascal Cotte, a co-founder of Lumière, suggested that the drawing had been removed from a Sforza family album, now in the National Library in Warsaw, made to celebrate the 1496 marriage of Bianca to the Milanese military commander Galeazzo Sanseverino.肯普与光明技术公司的联合创建者之一帕斯卡·科特(Pascal Cotte)认为,这幅画是从斯福尔扎家族的画册中被拿出去的,该画册于1496年制作,是为了庆祝比安卡与米兰军事指挥官加里亚佐·桑瑟夫内洛(Galeazzo Sanseverino)的联姻,目前收藏于华沙国家图书馆。Those developments prompted the owner of the drawing when Christie’s sold it to Ms. Ganz, Jeanne Marchig, the widow of the artist and restorer Giannino Marchig, to sue Christie’s for breaches of fiduciary duty and of warranty, as well as negligence and negligent misrepresentation, claiming they should have known it was a Leonardo.佳士得把作品出售给冈兹时,该画像的主人是艺术家与艺术品修复家詹尼诺·马奇格(Giannino Marchig)的遗孀珍娜·马奇格(Jeanne Marchig),因为这一事态的发展,她起诉佳士得公司违反信托与担保责任,以及疏忽和做出草率鉴定,她主张,佳士得本应鉴定出那是列奥纳多的真迹。The suit was rejected by a ed States appeals court in 2011 on the grounds that the statute of limitations had expired. In a separate suit against Christie’s, concerning the loss of the drawing’s frame, Ms. Marchig stated that the drawing had been in her husband’s collection by 1955, long before Mr. Greenhalgh is supposed to have made it.该诉讼于2011年被美国一上诉法庭以诉讼时效过期而拒绝。在另一项起诉佳士得遗失了这幅作品的边框的诉讼中,马奇格女士指出,这幅画于1955年便归她丈夫所有,远远早于格林哈尔声称的创作时间。As a Leonardo, “La Bella Principessa” has yet to win over the art establishment. The work has not been shown in any major national museum, and it was not included in the landmark exhibition “Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan” at the National Gallery in London from November 2011 to February 2012.艺术界权威尚未彻底认可《美丽的公主》是列奥纳多的真迹。这幅作品还未在任何大型国家级物馆展出,2011年11月至2012年2月于伦敦国家物馆举办的重大展览“列奥纳多·达·芬奇:米兰宫廷时期画作”(Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan)也没有收入这幅作品。That show did, however, include a recently rediscovered Leonardo, “Christ as Salvator Mundi,” circa 1499, which was bought in 2013 by the Russian collector Dmitry E. Rybolovlev for 7.5 million from Yves Bouvier, a Swiss businessman and art dealer.不过,那次展览确实收入了一幅新近发现的列奥纳多作品:《救世主基督》(Chirist as Salvator Mundi),创作时间约在1499年,是2013年俄罗斯收藏家德米特里·E·雷波诺列夫(Dmitry E. Rybolovlev)以1.275亿美元从瑞士商人与艺术交易商伊夫·布维尔(Yves Bouvier)手中买下的。Mr. Rybolovlev sued Mr. Bouvier after discovering that he had paid the sellers, the New York dealers Alexander Parish and Robert Simon, between million and million for the work.后来雷波诺列夫发现,为这幅作品,布维尔只付给卖主纽约交易商亚历山大·巴利什(Alexander Parish)与罗伯特·西蒙(Robert Simon)7500万到8000万美元左右,便对布维尔发起了诉讼。Last Tuesday, meanwhile, Kasia Pisarek, an independent art historian who specializes in attribution, became the latest scholar to make a case against a Leonardo “Principessa.” In a paper presented at a conference in London, she ran down a checklist of what she termed “inconsistencies” — the lack of any documentation or copies, the presence of just three stitch-holes in the side of the vellum sheet ( the Sforza volume in Warsaw has five) and what she saw as anatomically incorrect quality of the drawing itself.上周二,专门鉴定艺术品作者的独立艺术史学家卡西娅·皮萨莱克(Kasia Pisarek)成了最新一位为列奥纳多的《美丽的公主》发起诉讼的学者。她在伦敦的一次听会上呈送文件,列举了这份作品的“矛盾清单”——它没有任何相关文件记载,也没有复制品、羊皮纸边上只有三个装订孔(华沙收录的斯福尔扎家族画册有五个装订孔),还有她眼中其他一些不符合真迹特质的细节。Her conclusion was that “the present attribution to Leonardo must be deemed unreliable.”她的结论是,“列奥纳多是作者这个结论是站不住脚的。”The drawing itself is at the Geneva Freeport storage warehouse and is not for sale, Mr. Silverman said, who added that in 2012 he had been offered million for it but had rejected the offer. “I want the drawing to be shown all over the world so that people can decide for themselves,” he said. “But the experts who won’t accept it have refused to see it. Bureaucrats don’t like to take a chance. They’re afraid of controversy.”席尔瓦曼先生说,这幅画作目前被存放在日内瓦自由港,不做出售之用,他还补充说,2012年,有人曾经出价6000万美元,但被他拒绝了。“我希望这幅画能在全世界展出,让人们自己来判断,”他说,“但是那些不接受它的专家们拒绝看它。官僚主义者们不愿把握机会,他们害怕争议。”By various accounts, then, it would seem that “La Bella Principessa” is either a real Leonardo worth tens of millions; a 19th-century Italian Renaissance style drawing worth tens of thousands; or a modern fake worth hardly anything at all.出于种种原因,这幅《美丽的公主》要么就是价值数千万的列奥纳多真迹;要么就是价值数万美元的19世纪意大利文艺复兴风格作品;再不就是一文不值的现代赝品。But adding characters like Shaun Greenhalgh and Alison from the supermarket into the mix will liven up the debate — and make it ever more difficult to discern what the scientifically minded Leonardo would have recognized as the truth.但是随着绍恩·格林哈尔与“超市艾莉森”等人卷入混战,争议无疑进一步升级了;列奥纳多是个相信科学的人,如今,要找到他渴求的真相,更是难上加难。 /201512/415094

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