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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年12月13日 02:54:33
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  Mao Sui Recommending Himself毛遂自荐Historical Record Volume 76 Prince Ping Yuan Biographies:《史记》卷七十六《平原君虞卿列传》记载:Qin’s troops laid siege to Handan, the capital of the State of Zhao.春秋时,秦军在长平一线,大胜赵军。秦军主将白起,领兵乘胜追击,包围了赵国都城邯郸。Therefore, Prince Ping Yuan was to be sent on a mission to the State of Chu to form an alliance against Qin.大敌当前,赵国形势万分危急。平原君奉赵王之命,去楚国求兵解围。Among the guests fed by Ping Yuan was a man called Mao Sui who went up to his host and recommended himself as a member of the Prince’s suite.平原君把门客召集起来,想挑选20个文武全才一起去。他挑了又挑,选了又选,最后还缺一个人。这时,门客毛遂自我推荐,说:“我算一个吧!”The negotiations between the Prince and the King of Chu proceeded without substantial results.到了楚国,楚王只接见平原君一个人。两人坐在殿上,从早晨谈到中午,还没有结果。Seeing this, Mao Sui mounted bravely the platform where the negotiations were being held and stated the advantages and disadvantages.毛遂大步跨上台阶,把出兵援赵有利楚国的道理,作了非常精辟的分析。The King of Chu was at last convinced and decided to dispatch his troops for saving the State of Zhao.毛遂的一番话,说得楚王心悦诚,答应马上出兵。Now, this allusion is used to refer to those who volunteer to offer one’s services for a task or a job.成语“毛遂自荐”由此而来, 比喻不经别人介绍,自我推荐担任某一项工作。 /201509/395383

  ;Keep your elbows off the table.; ;Don#39;t talk with your mouth full.; These are popular reprimands we#39;ve all heard while sitting around the dinner table. If you#39;re planning on traveling abroad, minding your manners may be a bit harder than you thought. Check out this list of quirky dining taboos in other countries.每次吃饭的时候,妈妈总会教导我们说:;把胳膊拿下去;;;嘴里吃东西的时候不要讲话;。如果你正打算来一次海外旅行,或许适应那个国家的餐桌礼仪对你来说会是一个不小的挑战。以下,小编找来一些各地令人匪夷所思的餐桌礼仪,给大家涨涨姿势~10.Asian Noodles Taboo10.亚洲:吃面别夹断!In Asian countries, it is known that rice and noodles are the staple of their diets. Eating a bowl of pasta seems pretty cut and dry. Pick it up and put it in your mouth. But if you#39;re in China, chopping your noodles in half will definitely draw a few dirty looks your way. To the Chinese, long noodles represent longevity. It is customary for people to slurp up a heaping bowl of lengthy noodles on their birthday. Your mom would have a fit if she saw you with noodles wagging from your lips. Tell her not to blame you, it#39;s Chinese tradition. In addition to watching your noodles, you better be careful of where you point your chopsticks. It#39;s rude to aim them at another person. That we can understand, but the don#39;t flip your fish on your plate is a little unusual. But who are we to argue with tradition? This one is mainly practiced in areas that rely on fishing. Apparently, flipping your fish over is symbolic of capsizing the boat.很多亚洲国家都以大米和白面作为主食。对我们而言,吃一盘意大利面很随意,只消用叉子挑起面条放到嘴里就好了,没什么讲究可言。但若身在中国,你要是用筷子把面条夹断吃,那就不免遭到别人嫌弃的目光。因为对中国人而言,长长的面条寓意着长寿。中国民间历来有生日吃长寿面的习俗,呼噜呼噜,一次一根,一根一碗。要是妈妈看到你嘴里晃荡着半根面条而大发雷霆,你就告诉她这是中国的风俗,怪不得你。除了吃面条有讲究,还得注意自己筷子的朝向,因为把筷子冲着别人放是很不礼貌的。筷子的问题我们能接受,但是吃鱼不能翻鱼身就令人有点摸不着头脑了。不过既然是风俗习惯,我们怎敢不从?原来,这个讲究源自一些以为生的沿海地区,很显然,这是因为翻鱼含有翻船的寓意。Neighboring Japan also has its fair share of intriguing dinner table taboos. They too are particular about their chopstick placement. In both countries, it#39;s frowned upon when you poke your sticks straight up in a bowl of rice. It#39;s a practice that is reserved for funeral services and a sign of disrespect for the dead when done any other time. If you#39;re out in a restaurant, the owner will take offense. This is a sign of you cursing his business. Better watch out for the steaming hibachi.作为中国的邻国,日本也有很多有趣的餐桌禁忌。他们同样也很注重筷子的摆放,在这两个国家,如果你把筷子插在碗里,小心别人给你白眼。因为只有在葬礼的宴席上,人们才会把筷子插到碗里,而其他时候,这种行为会被视作是对逝者的不尊重。要是去餐馆吃饭的时候这样做,餐厅老板会很生气,觉得这是在红果果地诅咒他的生意。所以你最好留点神,小心老板削你~9.New Guinea Menstrual9.新几内亚:经期要忌口!As if ;that time of the month; isn#39;t aly filled with an overflow of emotions, women in New Guinea must take care not to violate traditional taboo. According to their customs, women on their cycle are viewed as being ill. To heal themselves, they aren#39;t allowed to eat fresh meat, red fruit, or juicy bananas. On top of everything else, they have to watch their step as well. Anyone who eats food prepared by a menstruating women, or a meal she#39;s stepped over is believed to be destined for a horrible cough. The usual victim is the woman#39;s husband, some even believe this illness could lead to his death. In Papua, New Guinea, the Wogeo only believe blood is dirty when it comes from a woman#39;s menstrual cycle. In fact, they even say that those who come in contact with this blood are likely to die. As with the majority of ancient customs and taboos, no one really knows when or why they started. They#39;ve been taught what they#39;ve been taught and dare not question tradition.对于新几内亚的女人而言,大姨妈到访的日子本来就够烦躁了,可是还得留心不要违反传统禁忌,真是身心双重煎熬啊。当地风俗认为女人来例假是一种病,要想治好病,鱼、肉、红色的水果和美味的香蕉等在经期都得忌口。最离谱的是,她们走路还得时刻当心,不能涉足任何食材范围。当地人认为但凡是吃了处于经期的女人做的饭,或者吃了她们接触过的食材,就会害上一种病,不停咳嗽。当然,这段时间里最苦的还要数她们的丈夫,因为有些人认为女人来事期间可能会诱发其夫患病身亡。在巴布亚新几内亚,人们认为经期女人身上的血是肮脏的。更有甚者认为,只要接触到经血,便会立马见阎王。像大多数风俗和禁忌一样,没人知道这些忌讳是何时何地因何而起,一代又一代的人只是复述着老一辈人传授给他们的这些习俗,没人敢问为什么。8.Don#39;t Go Dutch8.法俄:千万别AA!In America, some men would jump for joy if a woman offered to pay for her half of the date. Well in France and Russia, the ;independent woman; mentality is not welcome. When picking up the tab, it#39;s all or nothing over there. Only an uncivilized person would only pay for half the bill. In fact, most women won#39;t even bring their wallets on a date. Just a not-so-subtle reminder that she#39;s not paying for a thing.在美国,如果约会的时候女生愿意跟男生AA制,男生估计会高兴得一蹦三尺高。但若是在法国和俄罗斯,这种有;独立意识;的女性可就不受欢迎了。当地人认为埋单付一半钱是很不礼貌的,所以在付账的时候,你要么自己全付,要么就让别人全付。事实上,大多数女生在约会的时候都不带钱包,从这点就能看出她们不打算付一分钱。Since we#39;re on the topic, it#39;s also expected to dress for the occasion. Jeans and a tee are never ok. In Russia, it#39;s viewed as an honor to get acquainted with someone new. When getting y for your date, it#39;s preferred to dress formal.Say you were invited to eat at someone#39;s home, it#39;s extremely rude to show up empty-handed. When you#39;re first greeted, it#39;s also taboo to shake hands through a doorway. Also, don#39;t ask for a to-go box or doggy bag. In America, we see it as a sign that we loved our meal and want to take it home. In France, it#39;s the exact opposite. There is a bunch of differences we accept over here but people across the water may not share our sentiments. Something as simple as using the wrong hand gesture is social suicide. Your trip will be much more pleasant if you study the taboos before you travel.既然说到了约会,那我们一定要聊聊约会的着装问题。切记,约会的时候别随随便便图省事穿个仔裤和T恤就出门。俄罗斯人把初次见面看得很神圣,所以如果要跟新朋友约会的话,最好穿得正式得体些。还有,如果别人邀请你去他家做客,别空着手去,因为这也是很不礼貌的。如果是初次见面,在门口握手也是不允许的。还有,饭后最好也别问主家要外卖盒或者打包袋。要是在美国,把饭菜打包回家表明你很喜欢这个菜,可如果是在法国,意味则恰恰相反。所以,由于地方差异,别国的人可能会常常会错我们的意,甚至一个错误的手势也可能造成巨大误会。如果动身之前能好好研读一下对方国家的一些禁忌,那么相信大家的旅途会更加顺利和愉快。7.Italians Are Sensitive About Their Cheese7.意大利:别轻易要芝士!Our Italian dining experience is normally tailored around ordering lasagna from Olive Garden. On the contrary, an authentic experience in Italy will vary quite a bit. First thing to remember, don#39;t insult the chef by asking for more cheese. Instead, you might get a swift whopping by an old loaf of garlic b. Seafood in Italy isn#39;t meant to have cheese on it. If you ask nicely, the chef might oblige but most of the time, you#39;ll just get a dirty look.提到吃意餐的经历,大家好像一般也就是到橄榄花园点一份经典的烤宽面条。然而,如果真到了意大利,你可能会大跌眼镜。首先要切记,除非餐厅提供额外的芝士,否则千万别问大厨要,要不大厨会觉得你在蔑视他的厨艺。不过,你可以;曲线救国;,点一长条奶香浓郁的蒜蓉面包,因为面包一般都会配有芝士。与美国人饮食不同,意大利人吃海鲜一般不加芝士。如果你问得恰当的话,或许有的大厨不会介意,不过大多时候他们都会很生气,小心大厨;小胖附体;,用恶狠狠的眼神秒杀你!Also, Italians take their meal definitions seriously. Breakfast food is for breakfast. Lunch is for lunch, and so on. Ordering a cappuccino after breakfast is not cool. More milk than what#39;s in a macchiato#39;s after mid day will give the locals permission to tell you about yourself. You don#39;t need to speak Italian. They#39;ll make it perfectly clear that you#39;ve crossed the line. When you#39;re offered food, proper etiquette says you should always decline the first time. After they insist again, you humbly accept and merrily enjoy the cuisine.此外,意大利人对吃饭比较讲究。早饭就是早饭,午饭就是午饭,不能随便吃。你要是早饭后喝一杯卡布奇诺,那可就不合适了。还有,如果别人知道你午后喝了比黑糖玛奇朵里多一丁丁的牛奶,那即使你说着一口流利的意大利语,他们也能判断出你非当地人的身份,因为当地人肯定不会这样做,他们都觉得午后喝牛奶不利于消化。再来,如果别人邀请你一同进餐,得体的做法是先委婉拒绝,然后等对方再三坚持邀请,你再谦虚地接受,愉快地共餐。6.Tardy Tanzania6.坦桑尼亚:我迟到我骄傲!This dining taboo is one we can get used to. Americans pride themselves on arriving promptly on time (well, most of them), but in Tanzania it is considered rude to show up to an invitation early. Out of respect, invited guest should always wait 15-20 minutes after the affair#39;s commencement to make an appearance. If you#39;re looking for something to wear, loose-fitting clothing is always appropriate. Most meals are enjoyed while sitting on the floor.这个风俗大家似乎比较乐意接受。美国人一直都以严谨的时间观念而自豪(啊哦~大多时候还是比较准时的~),但是在坦桑尼亚,人们却认为提前到场是很无礼的。出于尊重,应邀的客人总要在活动开始后的15-20分钟之后,才稀稀拉拉地出场。至于衣着的话,穿的宽松些永远不会错。大多时候,大家都是齐坐一地享用美食。Also, Tanzanian men and women don#39;t eat together. In fact, taboo prevents men from entering the kitchen at all. That#39;s a card we know a bunch of American men wish they could pull. ;Honey, I would help with the dishes but I#39;m forbidden from coming in the kitchen.; A bowl of water and towel will be passed around for you to clean your hands. This as well as the ugali, or communal bowl for the meal, must all be passed only with the right.还有,在坦桑尼亚,男女不可一同用餐。事实上,男性甚至是不允许进厨房的。美国男人多希望本国也有这样的禁忌啊,(一脸无辜的便宜相);亲爱的,我特想帮你做饭洗碗,可惜……我不能进厨房。;在坦桑尼亚,主人在饭前会端上一大碗水和一条毛巾,让大家轮流洗手。吃乌加里的时候也有一个类似的公共碗,碗中盛有乌加里,食客轮流手抓食用,记住传碗的时候只能用右手。翻译:毛志遥 来源:前十网 /201509/400517

  Japanese bookseller Yoshiyuki Morioka has come up with a highly unusual concept for a bookstore – he sells one book at a time in a tiny shop located in Ginza, Tokyo#39;s luxury shopping district. Ever since he launched the store in May, he has stocked multiple copies of only one title per week.日本书商盛冈三行(Yoshiyuki Morioka)想出一个不同寻常的创意:他在奢侈品店林立的东京银座(Ginza)开了家小书店,且一周只卖一种书。自五月开张以来,书店每周都只进购一种书。You might argue that it#39;s hardly a bookstore if you can#39;t go in and spend at least a few hours browsing through hundreds of volumes, but Morioka never intended to create a classic bookstore. It#39;s like a weekly #39;suggested ing#39; service – you just go in and pick up the book chosen for the week, relieving yourself of the burden of choice. Morioka said he came up with the idea a store that solely focused on one book at a time after organising several book-launch events at his old bookstore.你可能认为它根本不是书店:里面完全没有数以百计的书籍,供你浏览好几个小时。盛冈三行的书店更像是每周为你提供一次“推荐阅读”的务机构。在书店里每周只能看到一种可供购买的书,大大减轻了读者挑选的负担。盛冈三行说,他曾在自己原来的书店里组织过几场新书推介会,此后便萌生了开一家每次只关注一本书的书店的想法。;Before opening this bookstore in Ginza, I had been running another one in Kayabacho for 10 years,; Morioka told The Guardian. ;There, I had around 200 books as stock, and used to organise several book launches per year. During such events, a lot of people visited the store for the sake of a single book. As I experienced this for some time, I started to believe that perhaps with only one book, a bookstore could be managed.; To finance the store, Morioka sold his huge collection of Japanese wartime propaganda, famous for the quirky, strong graphics.他告诉《卫报》说:“银座这家书店开业前,我曾在茅场町(Kayabacho)开了十年的书店。那家店里有200多种书,每年也会组织几场新书推介会。在这些活动中,许多人都是为寻找同一本书而来的。我开始相信,或许只卖一种书,书店也开得起来。”盛冈三行曾在家囤了不少战时宣传画,但为了筹建这家书店,他卖掉了那些诡异而露骨的画作。The store itself is minimal, with concrete walls and ceiling barely covered in a thin coat of white paint, and the raw concrete floor left as is. A vintage chest of drawers doubles as a counter, while a flimsy table in the center displays the title of the week.这家书店很小,混凝土墙和天花板上只涂有薄薄的白漆,地板仍保持着混凝土原貌。有着老式抽屉的衣柜充当柜台,中间一张薄板桌子上则展示着这周出售的书籍。According to Morioka, his concept has a distinct advantage—the bookstore can serve as an exhibition for the book and its world, making the story come alive for customers. ;For instance, when selling a book on flowers, in the store could be exhibited a flower that actually appears in the book,; he said. ;Also, I ask the authors and editors to be at the bookstore for as much time as possible. This is an attempt to make the two-dimensional book into three-dimensional ambience and experience. I believe that the customers, or ers, should feel as though they are entering #39;inside a book.#39;;盛冈三行说,他的创意具有明显的优势。书店可以作为展示这本书及书中世界的地方,给读者以身临其境之感。他说:“例如,在出售跟花有关的书时,书店中可以摆放书里的那种花。我还邀请作者和编辑多在书店待一些时间,这就让二维的阅读成了三维的体验,从而让读者产生进入书中世界的感受。”Some of the books that have been featured in the store include The True Deceiver by Finnish author Tove Jansson, and Fairy Tales by Hans Christian Andersen. A few Japanese titles have made the list as well, like Tsukiyo To (Moon Night and Glasses) by Mimei Ogawa, and Karachi No Moto (Source of Form) by Akito Akagi. The first title on next year#39;s list is Fish-Man, a photo anthology by Maseru Tatsuki.这家书店出售的书有芬兰作家朵贝·杨笙的《真正的骗子》和安徒生的《安徒生童话》。也有一些日本作家的书,像小川未明的《月夜与眼镜》和赤木明登的《造物有灵且美》。明年第一个星期将要出售的是马塞卢·龙贵的摄影集《鱼人》。It isn#39;t clear how Morioka goes about choosing which books to display and sell, but his concept has been quite well received – he claims to have sold over 2,000 books since May. ;The concept of this bookstore seems to have gained the sympathy of a lot of people, and I receive a number of guests from all over the globe,; he said.现在还不清楚盛冈三行如何选择出售的书籍,但他的创意已被大众所接受。自从五月份以来,他已经卖出2000多本书。他说:“这种书店创意得到许多人认可,我的客人来自世界各地。” /201512/419045Ballet is one of the world’s most graceful and glamorous art forms. But the new Starz series, Flesh and Bone, explores the ugly, brutal side of the industry.芭蕾舞是世界上最优雅、最有魅力的艺术形式之一。不过Starz有线电视台的新剧《骨肉之躯》却深扒了芭蕾舞界丑陋、残酷的一面。The show, which premiered on Nov 8, centers on Claire Robbins (Sarah Hay), a gifted young ballerina who runs away from her abusive home in Pittsburgh and goes to New York to pursue a dancing career.本剧于11月8日首播。主角克莱尔圠宾斯(萨拉眠伊饰)是一位极有天赋的年轻芭蕾舞演员。由于不堪忍受在家乡匹兹堡受到的凌辱,她决定前往纽约追求她的舞蹈事业。Her skills soon earn her a leading position at a renowned ballet company. But her swift rise also rankles her fellow dancers. Robbins struggles to succeed in this highly competitive new environment while dealing with the scars of sexual assault.娴熟的舞蹈技艺让她很快成了著名芭蕾舞团的领舞。但她的平步青云却引来了其他舞蹈演员的不满。罗宾斯不仅要在竞争激烈的新环境中拼搏奋斗,还要一直忍受性骚扰留下的伤害。“This is the first time we’ve really seen the underbelly of a ballet company,” the show’s writer, Moira Walley-Beckett, told Los Angeles Times. Walley-Beckett spent 20 years in ballet herself, and she said she drew on that experience to give the show its grit. “A lot of those movies have catered to the very glossy, ethereal, optical illusion that is ballet, and we ripped the Band-Aid off.”编剧莫拉瓦利-贝基特告诉《洛杉矶时报》:“这是我们第一次亲眼目睹芭蕾舞团的内幕。”瓦利-贝基特曾跳过二十年的芭蕾舞,这段经历帮她更好地打磨了这部戏。“很多电影只是一味地迎合人们对芭蕾舞耀眼夺目和高贵优雅的幻想,但我们却撕开了这块遮羞布。”To create a sense of authenticity, Walley-Beckett insisted that the show cast real-life ballet dancers. Hay, for instance, was formerly a soloist with the Semperoper Ballet in Dresden, Germany.为了让剧集看起来更真实,瓦利-贝基特坚持让真正的芭蕾舞演员参演。例如,本剧主演海伊曾是德国德累斯顿森帕歌剧院的芭蕾舞独舞演员。“The verisimilitude was really important to me. I didn’t want to fake it. I didn’t want to have body doubles. I wanted to watch [the dancers] sweat and bleed and suffer and sore,” she told The Sydney Morning Herald.瓦利-贝基特告诉《悉尼先驱晨报》:“真实感对我来说十分重要,我不想伪造它。我也不想要替身。我要看到舞者们流汗、流血,看到他们的伤痛和愤怒。”Thanks to the ballerinas’ talents, the show is able to stage dazzling dance scenes. But the show is not only appealing to dance lovers.多亏芭蕾舞演员们的天赋,本剧才能展现绚烂的舞蹈场景。不过被这部剧吸引的不仅只有舞蹈爱好者。“I’m not telling a story about ballet. I’m telling a story about the characters,” said Walley-Beckett.瓦利-贝基特表示:“我并不是在讲芭蕾舞的故事。我讲的是人物的故事。”Indeed, Flesh and Bone gets under the skin of its characters, who all have their own dark pasts. The show tackles incest, drugs, eating disorders, the dancers’ low wages and their psychological and physical pain.事实上,《骨肉之躯》触及了人物皮囊之下的内心世界,他们都有各自不堪回首的过往。该剧探究了乱伦,毒品,厌食症,舞蹈演员的低薪水和他们心理和生理上的双重痛苦。“Going deep into the intricate aspects and darker impulses of human nature has always been appealing to me,” said Walley-Beckett, who is also the writer and producer of the Emmy-winning TV series Breaking Bad (《绝命毒师》).瓦利-贝基特还是艾美奖获奖剧集《绝命毒师》的编剧及制片人,她表示:“探究人内心深处错综复杂的方面和天性中黑暗的冲动让我着迷。”The fascinating thing about darkness is that it sometimes empowers people. In Robbins’ case, her self-loathing and despair later turn out to be the source of her strength. Her darkness is also a gift. And this idea is the very “genesis” of Flesh and Bone, said Walley-Beckett.黑暗最吸引人的地方就是它有时能赋予人力量。在罗宾斯的案例中,她的自我憎恨和绝望后来成了她力量的源泉。她的阴暗也是一种天赋。瓦利-贝基特说,这正是《骨肉之躯》的“起源”。 /201512/413727

  Yuan Dynasty元朝Social Economy and Culture社会经济与文化As in other periods of alien dynastic rule of China, a rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan dynasty.正如中国其他时期的不同年代一样,丰富的文化多样性在元朝得以发展。The major cultural achievements were the development of drama and the novel and the increased use of the written vernacular.文化上的主要成就在于戏剧和小说的发展以及对于本地文字书写的增多。Given the unified rule of central Asia, trades between East and West flourished.统治了整个中亚之后,东西方的贸易交往得到了振兴。The Mongols’ extensive West Asian and European contacts produced a fair amount of cultural exchange.蒙古国与西亚和欧洲的广泛联系创造了一定的文化交流。Western musical instruments were introduced to enrich the Chinese performing arts.西方的乐器传入中国,丰富了国内的表演艺术。From this period dates the conversion to Islam, by Muslims of Central Asia, of growing numbers of Chinese in the northwest and southwest.从这个时代开始,由于中亚的穆斯林,越来越多的西北和西南部的中国人转而信奉伊斯兰教。Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism also enjoyed a period of toleration.景教和天主教同样得到了一段时间的默许。Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism) flourished, although native Taoism endured Mongol persecutions.尽管传统道教受到了蒙古人的迫害,喇嘛教(藏传佛教)却繁荣发展。Confucian governmental practices and examinations based on the Classics, which had fallen into disuse in north China during the period of disunity, were reinstated by the Mongols in the hope of maintaining order over Han society.为了保持对于汉人的统治,在分裂时期被北方弃用的儒家政策和以儒家经典为基础的科举制在元朝时期得到了恢复。Advances were realized in the fields of travel literature, cartography, and geography, and scientific education.旅游文学、制图学、地理学和科学教育领域取得了进步。Certain key Chinese innovations, such as printing techniques, porcelain production, playing cards, and medical literature, were introduced in Europe, while the production of thin glass and cloisonne became popular in China.当薄玻璃制造和法蓝瓷工艺在中国兴起时,一些核心的中国发明例如印刷术、瓷器制造、纸牌以及医药文学传至欧洲。The first records of travel by Westerners date from this time.西方人的第一部游记追溯到这个时期。The most famous traveler of the period was the Venetian Marco Polo, whose account of his trip to “Cambaluc” the Great Khan’s capital (now Beijing),and of life there astounded the people of Europe.这个时代最著名的旅者是人马可波罗,他对于自己到元朝都城“堪巴禄克”(今北京)的旅行以及那里人们的生活震惊了欧洲人。The Mongols undertook extensive public works. Road and water communications were reorganized and improved.蒙古人还广泛进行公共工程的建设。To provide against possible famines, granaries were ordered built throughout the empire.道路和水陆交通得到了整顿和改进。The city of Beijing was rebuilt with new palace grounds that included artificial lakes, hills and mountains, and parks.为了对抗可能发生的饥荒,国家的每个地方都建立了粮仓。During the Yuan period, Beijing became the terminus of the Grand Canal, which was completely renovated.北京城被重建,新建了包括人工湖、假山和花园在内的皇家建筑。These commercially oriented improvements encouraged overland as well as maritime commerce throughout Asia and facilitated the first direct Chinese contacts with Europe.元朝时期,经历了全面翻修,北京成为了大运河的终点。Chinese and Mongol travelers to the West were able to provide assistance in such areas as hydraulic engineering, while bringing back to the Middle Kingdom new scientific discoveries and architectural innovations.这些贸易导向型的发展不仅鼓励了陆路贸易还激励了贯穿亚洲的海上贸易,并促进了中国与欧洲的首次直接联系。Contacts with the West also brought the introduction to China of a major new food crop—sorghum—along with other foreign food products and methods of preparation.中原和蒙古前往西方的旅者可以再水利工程方面提供帮助,同时为朝廷带回新的科技发现与建筑创造。与西方的联系还为中国带来了一种新的主要粮食作物——高粱以及其他一些国外的食物和制作工艺。 /201512/412227

  Ming Dynasty明朝Building the Great Wall修建长城After the Ming army defeat at Battle of Tumubao and later raids by the Mongols under a new leader, Altan Khan, the Ming adopted a new strategy for dealing with the northern horsemen: a giant impregnable wall.土木堡之役战败以及蒙古的新领袖俺答汗威胁之后,明朝采取了对付北方马背上的民族的新策略——一座巨大的坚不可摧的城墙。Almost 100 years earlier (1368) the Ming had started building a new, technically advanced fortification which today is called the Great Wall of China.早在100多年前,明朝开始修建了一个新的、技术先进的防御工事,今天我们称其为“长城”。Created at great expense the wall followed the new borders of the Ming Empire.这座城墙沿着大明帝国的新边界,耗资巨大。Acknowledging the control which the Mongols established in the Ordos, south of the Huang He, the wall follows what is now the northern border of Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces.意识到蒙古人在黄河南部的鄂尔多斯建立的统治,城墙围住了现在的陕西省和山西省的北部边界。Work on the wall largely superseded military expeditions against the Mongols for the last 80 years of the Ming dynasty and continued up until 1644, when the dynasty collapsed.修建长城的工事远远超过了对于蒙古的军事远征,它一直持续到明朝的最后80年,直到明朝于1644年灭亡。The Great Wall seen today was built during the Ming Dynasty (明朝), on a much larger scale and with longer lasting materials than any wall built before.今天我们看到的长城就建于明朝,明长城规模更大,其使用的材料也比早先建的长城更加持久。The primary purpose of the wall was not to keep out people, who could climb the wall, but make it difficult for semi-nomadic people outside the wall to cross with their horses or return with stolen property.修建长城最原始的目的并不是为了阻止会爬墙的人们进入而是为了使游牧民族的人们骑马翻过墙并偷走财物更加困难。The Ming Dynasty Great Wall starts on the eastern end at Shanhai Pass, near Qinhuangdao, in Hebei Province, next to Bohai Gulf.明城墙东起河北省秦皇岛渤海湾附近的山海关。Spanning nine provinces and 100 counties, the final 500 kilometers have all but turned to rubble, and today it ends on the western end at the historic site of Jiayu Pass (嘉峪关), located in northwest Gansu Province at the limit of the Gobi Desert and the oases of the Silk Road (丝調之路).跨过9省100市,其最终的500公里今天已经全部化为废墟,现在它西至西南甘肃省的嘉峪关遗址,这几乎到达了戈壁和丝绸之路。Jiayu Pass was intended to greet travelers along the Silk Road.嘉峪关本来是为了丝绸之路上的游人的地方。Even though The Great Wall ends at Jiayu Pass, there are many watchtowers (烽火台)extending beyond Jiayu Pass along the Silk Road.尽管长城止于嘉峪关,在嘉峪关之外的丝绸之路上仍有很多烽火台。These towers communicated by smoke to signal invasion.这些烽火台通过狼烟来发出入侵的信号。The Kokes Manchus crossed the Wall by convincing an important general Wu Sangui(吴三桂)to open the gates of Shanhai Pass and allow the Manchus to cross.满洲人通过说重要的守关将领吴三桂打开山海关的大门放他们入关通过了长城。Legend has it that they took three days for the Manchu armies to pass.传说满洲军队花了三天时间入关。After they conquered China, the Wall was of no strategic value as the people whom the Wall was intended to keep out were ruling the country.在他们征中国之后,长城就没有了战略价值,因此它所要抵挡的人们已经统治了整个国家。 /201512/412243。

  Burning of Books and Burying of Scholars焚书坑儒1. Book burning1、焚书According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after the First Emperor of Qin annexed the State of Qi and unified China in 221 , his Chancellor Li Si suggested suppressing the freedom of speech, unifying all thoughts and political opinions.根据《史记》的记载,秦始皇吞并齐国并一统中国之后,他的丞相李斯建议压制演讲的自由,统一思想和政见。This was justified by accusations that the intelligentsia sang false praise and raised dissent through libel.这个建议被指责知识分子阿谀奉承和进行文字诽谤的论点明了它的合理性。Beginning in 213 B.C, all classic works of the Hundred Schools of Thought----except those from his own, the school of philosophy known as Legalism----were subject to burning.公元前213年开始,争鸣的所有典籍,除了他所尊崇的法家学说以外,全部被焚烧。Li Si proposed that all histories in the imperial archives except those written by the Qin historians be burned;李斯建议帝国档案馆里的所有史料,除去秦朝历史学家所撰写的,都应该被烧毁;that the Classic of Poetry, the Classic of History, and works by scholars of different schools be handed into the local authorities for burning;包括《诗经》、《书经》和那些由诸子所写的著作都应被收至中央进行焚烧;that anyone discussing these two particular books be executed;that those using ancient examples to satirize contemporary politics be put to death, along with their families;任何人谈论这两本书都应被处死,任何人用过去的例子来讽刺当朝的政治都应被处死,他们的家人也应被行刑;that authorities who failed to report cases that came to their attention were equally guilty;朝廷中有任何人知情不报同样该被治罪;and that those who had not burned the listed books within 30 days of the decree were to be banished to the north as convicts working on building the Great Wall.那些没有按圣旨在30天内焚烧名单上书籍的人应被发配到北疆和犯人们一起修建长城。The only books to be spared in the destruction were books on medicine, agriculture and divination.在焚书期间唯一得以流传的书籍是有关医药、农业和占卜的。2. Burial of the scholars2、坑儒After being deceived by two alchemists while seeking prolonged life, the First Emperor of Qin ordered more than 460 of them in the capital to be buried alive in the second year of the proscription, though an account given by Wei Hong in the 2nd century added another 700 to the figure.自从在寻找长生不老方法的过程中被两个炼金术士欺骗,秦始皇在放逐他们的第二年就在都城活埋了超过460个儒家学者,不过2世纪时卫宏又为这个数据增加了700个人。The Crown Prince Fusu counseled that, with the country newly unified, and enemies still not pacified, such a harsh measure imposed on those who respect Confucius would cause instability.太子扶苏劝谏说,对于一个刚刚统一的国家,外敌还未平定,对尊崇孔子学说的那些人采取这样严酷的刑法会造成不稳定。However, he was unable to change his father’s mind, and instead was sent to guard the frontier in a de facto exile.但是,他不仅无法改变秦始皇的想法,甚至还被发配至边疆充军。The quick fall of the Qin Dynasty was attributed to this proscription.秦朝如此快速的覆灭就源于这些对于人权的剥夺。Confucianism was revived in the Han Dynasty that followed, and became the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state.儒学思想在之后的汉代复兴并成为了中国封建社会的官方学说。However, many of the other schools of thought disappeared.然而,其他的思想学派却消失了。 /201509/397328

  

  Recently, a map of China#39;s top ten gathering places for singles became an internet hit. The map has triggered extensive discussions among netizens.近日,中国十大单身聚集城市的地图在网上走红。这张图片也引起了大众的热烈讨论。Statistics from the Ministry of Civil Affairs show that there are nearly 200 million single people on the Chinese mainland, and more and more women voluntarily choose to be single. In 1990, 6 percent of the total population lived alone, while in 2013, the figure was 14.6 percent. From the map, we can see that Tianjin, Sichuan and Heilongjiang are the top three gathering places for singles in China.来自于民政部的数据显示,中国大陆有近2亿单身人口,而且越来越多的女性自愿选择单身。1990年,只有6%的人口独居,而2013年独居人口高达14.6%。从地图上可以看出,天津、四川、黑龙江是中国独居人口最多的地区。Why do so many people now choose to be single? Is it because true love is scarcer? The answer may be complicated. However, generally speaking, the trend of staying single has much to do with the following factors.为什么越来越多的人选择单身呢?因为真爱太少见了?或许是很复杂的。但是,一般说来,单身潮流的兴起大致有以下几个因素。First of all, women have become more economically independent, which is an important condition for doing away with male chauvinism and a patriarchal society. Economically independent women have changed women#39;s dependence on men in love and marriage. Nowadays, women have the ability to plan their own lives.第一,越来越多的女性开始经济独立,这是脱离大男子主义和男权社会的主要因素。女性经济独立改变了女性对于男性在爱情和婚姻方面的依赖。现在,女性有能力计划好自己的生活。Secondly, information tools have changed people#39;s interactions, including how men and women get along with one another. It is easier to establish social relations, and singles find no difficulty in acquiring intimate companions.第二,信息交流工具改变了人们之间的联系,包括男女之间的相处方式。建立社会联系很简单,单身人士很容易和其他人建立密切的伙伴关系。Thirdly, people#39;s attitudes toward childbirth have changed. Marriage has historically been largely in service of carrying on the family line. Today, the birth rate of urban, white-collar women continues to reach new lows. Some women even try freezing their eggs to extend the possibility of childbearing. What#39;s more, fewer and fewer people get married for the purpose of having children.第三,人们对生育孩子的观念改变了。婚姻素来被认为是主要用来传宗接代的。但是今天,城市白领女性的生育率越来越低。一些女性甚至尝试冷冻卵子来延长生育孩子的期限。而且越来越少的人为了生育孩子才选择结婚。 /201512/415065

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