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2019年08月20日 18:52:21来源:泡泡分类

And in fact, if I want to speak correctly, Chinese forces me to constantly think about it.事实上,如果要我不弄错的话,我就要不断的去想这之间的关系。Now, that fascinated me endlessly as a child,这是小时候让我很好奇的事情,but what fascinates me even more today as an economist而现在我作为一个经济学家更加好奇的是is that some of these same differences carry through to how languages speak about time.不同的语言在如何表示时间上的差异。So for example, if Im speaking in English, I have to speak grammatically differently例如,在英语中需要用明确的语法变化来表示不同的时态,if Im talking about past rain, ;It rained yesterday,; current rain, ;It is raining now,; or future rain, ;It will rain tomorrow.;如果我说过去下过雨:“It rained yesterday”,正在下雨:“It is raining now”,将要下雨:It will rain tomorrow.”Notice that English requires a lot more information with respect to the timing of events.注意英语中需要很多的元素来表示事件发生的时间。Why? Because I have to consider that and I have to modify what Im saying to say, ;It will rain,; or ;Its going to rain.;因为我需要根据我要说的事件的时间来调整自己要说的话,“It will rain”或“Its going to rain.”Its simply not permissible in English to say, ;It rain tomorrow.;英语语法禁止你说成“It rain tomorrow”。In contrast to that, thats almost exactly what you would say in Chinese.中文的表达方式跟英文恰恰相反。A Chinese speaker can basically say something that sounds very strange to an English speakers ears.一个说中文的人说出来的话会让一个说英文的人听起来怪怪的。They can say, ;Yesterday it rain,; ;Now it rain,; ;Tomorrow it rain.;他们会说,“昨天下雨”、“现在下雨”、“明天下雨”。In some deep sense, Chinese doesnt divide up the time spectrum从更深的角度来看,中文并没有将时间进行严格的分割,in the same way that English forces us to constantly do in order to speak correctly.而英文则将此作为语言正确与否的准则之一。Is this difference in languages only between very, very distantly related languages, like English and Chinese?这种差异是不是只有在中文和英文差异这么大的语言之间才会有?Actually, no. So many of you know, in this room, that English is a Germanic language.实际上,不是。你们当中的很多人都知道英语属于日尔曼语系。What you may not have realized is that English is actually an outlier.你们可能没有意识到英语算是这个语系的一个异类。It is the only Germanic language that requires this.英语是日尔曼语系中唯一需要这些的。201703/496088。

  • In fact, most of us do,事实上,我们大多数也会拒绝whether were atheist or theist or anywhere in between or beyond, for that matter,无论我们是无神论者或有神论者,或中间派或超越二者,就此而言what drives us is that, despite our doubts and even because of our doubts, we reject the nihilism of despair.让我们前进的是:尽管我们会怀疑,甚至正是因为我们怀疑,我们排斥絶望的虚无主义We insist on faith in the future and in each other.我们坚持信仰,对未来和对彼此皆是Call this naive if you like. Call it impossibly idealistic if you must.随便你叫它做天真。叫它做不可能的理想主义But one thing is sure: Call it human.但这点是确定的:叫它做人性Could Muhammad have so radically changed his world穆罕穆德能彻底改变他的世界吗?without such faith, without the refusal to cede to the arrogance of closed-minded certainty?没有信仰,不拒绝退让给抱成见的固执傲慢者?I think not.我认为不会After keeping company with him as a writer for the past five years,在过去五年里,作为一位陪伴他的作家I cant see that hed be anything but utterly outraged at the militant fundamentalists我看到他对那些被称为激进的原教旨主义者非常愤怒who claim to speak and act in his name in the Middle East and elsewhere today.对那些今天在中东和其他地方藉他的名行事的人。Hed be appalled at the repression of half the population because of their gender.他会对半数人口因为她们的性别而受到压抑感到大为震惊Hed be torn apart by the bitter divisiveness of sectarianism.他会被宗派主义之间充满仇恨的分歧所折磨Hed call out terrorism for what it is,他会大声叫喊那是恐怖主义not only criminal but an obscene travesty of everything he believed in and struggled for.不仅是罪犯,还是对他所相信的、所奋斗的、令人厌恶的拙劣模仿Hed say what the Koran says: Anyone who takes a life takes the life of all humanity.他会照着《古兰经》说:任何人夺走一条生命,就夺走了全人类的生命Anyone who saves a life, saves the life of all humanity.任何人拯救一条生命,就拯救了全人类的生命And hed commit himself fully to the hard and thorny process of making peace. Thank you.他会全心全力地投入这条艰难的、充满荆棘的和平之路。谢谢201609/468792。
  • Now, where do we go from there?现在,我们该走向何方?I believe that the way forward is to learn to manage success.我相信前进的道路就是学会管理成功。Very often, when people succeed or countries succeed, they forget what made them succeed.当一个人成功了,或一个国家成功以后,他们往往会忘记是什么导致他们成功的。Learning what youre successful at, managing it and keeping it is vital for us.了解到自己成功的原因是什么,管理它并保持住,这对我们来说是至关重要的。So all those things I said we did right, we have to learn to do it right again, keep doing it right.所以那些我说过我们做得对的事情,我们需要学会再做对一次,坚持正确地去作为。Managing the economy while creating stability is vital, getting prices right, and policy consistency.把经济管理好,同时建立稳定性,这些都是非常重要的,调控合适的价格和保政策一致性。Very often, we are not consistent.我们总是前后不一致。One regime goes out, another comes in and they throw away even the functioning policies that were there before.一个政权走了,另一个政权来了,然后他们就把就算很早之前就在那儿的运行政策都扔掉了。What does this do?这样会导致什么?It creates uncertainty for people, for households, uncertainties for business.这样会给人民、家庭、商业,都造成不确定性。They dont know whether and how to invest.他们不知道什么时候、怎么样去投资。Debt: we must manage the success we had in reducing our debt,债务上,我们一定要管理好,我们在减轻债务上的成功,but now countries are back to borrowing again,但是现在很多国家又开始借钱了,and we see our debt-to-GDP ratio beginning to creep up,我们看到我们的债务/GDP比率又开始逐渐上涨,and in certain countries, debt is becoming a problem, so we have to avoid that. So managing success.在某些国家,债务正演变成一个问题,因此我们必须避免这件事发生。所以要管理成功。The next thing is focusing with a laser beam on those things we did not do well.下一个事情是,专注到那些我们做得不对的事情上。First and foremost is infrastructure.首先是基础设施。Yes, most countries now recognize they have to invest in this,是的,大多数国家现在意识到了他们应该投资基础设施,and they are trying to do the best they can to do that. We must.他们也在试图尽最大可能去做到最好。我们一定要做到最好。The most important thing is power. You cannot develop in the dark.最重要的是电力。你不能在黑暗中前行。And then governance and corruption: we have to fight. We have to make our countries transparent.接着,管理体制和腐败。我们要与之搏斗。我们要让我们的国家公开透明。And above all, we have to engage our young people.尤其是,我们需要聘用我们的年轻人。201701/488895。
  • And because maybe I can make a difference. To help others have an easier and more hopeful time.也因为,可能我能有一些影响,能给他人以希望。Regardless, for me, I feel a personal obligation and a social responsibility.不管怎样,对于我,我能感觉到个人义务和社会责任。I also do it selfishly, because I am tired of hiding and I am tired of lying by omission.我这么做也源自一个很自私的原因,因为我对躲藏和撒谎感到了厌倦。I suffered for years because I was scared to be out.这些年我总感到很煎熬,因为我害怕出柜。My spirit suffered, my mental health suffered and my relationships suffered.我的精神,我的心里健康和我的关系都因此受到了很大的伤害。And I’m standing here today, with all of you, on the other side of all that pain.我今天,和你们一起站在这里,远离那些痛苦。And I am young, yes, but what I have learned is that love, the beauty of it, the joy of it and yes, even the pain of it, is the most incredible gift to give and to receive as a human being.我很年轻,是的,但是我已经明白其中的爱、美丽、喜悦和伤痛是给人类最不可思议的礼物。And we deserve to experience love fully, equally, without shame and without compromise.我们都有权享受完全的平等的爱,没有羞愧也没有退让。There are too many kids out there suffering from bullying, rejection, or simply being mistreated because of who they are.有太多的孩子仅仅就因为他们的身份而承受着欺凌,排斥,或者是虐待。Too many dropouts. Too much abuse. Too many homeless. Too many suicides.太多的辍学,太多的侮辱,太多的无家可归,太多的自杀。You can change that and you are changing it.你可以改变这些,你现在正在改变这些。But you never needed me to tell you that.但是你们并不需要我来告诉你们这些。And that’s why this was a little bit weird.这就是为什么我感到有点奇怪。The only thing that I can really say is what I’ve been building up to for the past five minutes.我唯一可以说的是我确实为刚才的五分钟做了准备。Thank you. Thank for inspiring me. Thank you for giving me hope, and please keep changing the world for people like me.感谢你们。谢谢你们激励我,给我希望,请继续改变这世界,为了像我一样的人。Happy Valentine’s Day. I love you.情人节快乐,我爱你们。201604/434683。
  • 即学即用英语会话词典C部分:制止 即学即用英语会话词典文本下载即学即用英语会话词典这部词典着眼日常生活、学习、工作等语言环境,囊括了当今美国最最简洁、最地道的日常口语表达方式。本词典获得2002年全国优秀畅销书奖 /200707/15213。
  • 「美国习惯用语」第十六讲Right on the beamTo fly by the seat of his pants美国英语当中有许多成语和俗语都和过去的历史有关系。例如,美国开拓西部的过程给美国语言增添了不少色。可是,美国的一些习惯用语也反应了各种科学在现代化道路上的发展。这次的[美国习惯用语],我们要讲两个和飞行有关的习惯用语。四十年前,乘飞机可是一件新鲜事,是一个值得向朋友夸耀的冒险行动。可是,现在乘飞机已经变得和乘公共汽车差不多了。美国的航空公司每天大约有一百万乘客。空中飞行变得如此普遍的原因之一是由于电子导航系统的发展,这样飞机就可以在无线电电波发出的领航信号指挥下准确地从一个机场飞到另一个机场。这些尖端的科学设施已经变得非常普遍,因此美国英语里有一个表达形式,那就是:Right on the beam。Right on the beam在日常生活中的意思就是一个人做某件事做得很对。下面就是一个例子:例句-1:;Your school report is right on the beam: you followed directions exactly and got all the facts down in the right order.;这听起来好像是一个老师在对一个学生说话。他说:“你的报告写的很对,你准确地按照要求写了,而且每个事实也都按照正确的次序写了进去。”下面这个例子是一个人在那个竞选州长的候选人发表的讲话:例句-2:;I thought Mr. Claghorns speech was right on the beam last night! Just like he says, we need to spend more money on educating our children. He makes a lot of sense to me.;这个人说:“我认为克拉格霍恩先生昨晚上讲的话完全正确。就像他说的,我们应该花更多的钱在教育孩子方面。我觉得他讲的话很有道理。”像电子导航系统这样现代化的安全设施在以前是根本没有的。在使用无线电电波,雷达和空中交通管制系统前,飞行员只能根据地面的铁路、河流和水塔那样的标记来决定他们的航向。要是一个飞行员不得不在云层里飞,或在气候不好的情况下飞行的话,那他只好靠自己的猜测来决定方向了。这在英语里就是:To fly by the seat of his pants。现在人们用To fly by the seat of his pants来形容某种局面,也就是你在做某件事的时候没有明确的指导,也缺乏足够的知识。下面这个例子就可以说明这个词汇在日常生活中的用法:例句-3:;When Jones started up business in a new town, he didnt know anybody, so he had to fly by the seat of his pants.;这是说:“当琼斯在一个新的地方开始经营他的生意的时候,他在那里一个人都不认识。所以他只好全靠自己摸索着办。”我们再来举个例子:例句-4:;Driving to a friends house last night I took the wrong turn off the main highway and got lost. I didnt have a road map but I flew by the seat of my pants and after twenty minutes I found the street I was looking for.;这个人说:“昨晚在我开车去一个朋友家的路上,我在一条高速公路上拐错了一个弯,结果就迷失了方向。我当时又没有地图。我只好凭着自己的猜测开,过了二十分钟我终于找到了我要去的那条路。”以上我们讲了两个来自空中飞行的习惯用语。一个是:Right on the beam,在日常生活中这句话的意思就是一个人做某件事做得很对。另外一个习惯用语是:to fly by the seat of my pants,这是来形容某种局面,也就是你在做某件事的时候没有明确的指导,也缺乏足够的知识。 /200601/2971。
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