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来源:安专家    发布时间:2020年01月29日 03:40:01    编辑:admin         

SEVENTY years ago, the ed Nations was formed as the expression of a simple choice: cooperation instead of war. Humanity would stand as one against conflict, poverty and disease. All the world’s voices would be heard.70年前,联合国的建立表明,人类做出了一个简单的选择:合作而非战争。全人类应该团结起来,应对冲突、贫穷和疾病。世界上所有人的声音都应被听到。At least, that was the plan.至少,那时是这样计划的。We’ve come a long way. We’ve halted and reversed the sp of killer diseases, extended life expectancy and raised incomes. We’ve even walked ourselves back from the edge of some global conflicts and catastrophes. But progress has not been evenly distributed. Too many people have been left outside of a mostly urban, mostly Northern success story.我们一路走来取得了极大的进展。我们遏制和扭转了致命疾病的传播,延长了预期寿命,提高了收入水平。我们甚至将自己从一些全球性冲突和灾难的边缘拉了回来。但是人类的进步并不均衡。成功的故事主要在城市、在北半球,而太多的人被遗忘在这些成功故事之外。Seeing that, world leaders put forth a new set of global goals in New York last week. If we want to build a world where not just some but all get to live in security and prosperity, there’s a lot still to do, as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development signed off on by ed Nations member states shows.目睹这些现象,世界各国领导人上周在纽约提出了一系列新的全球目标。如果我们希望构建一个不仅让一部分人,而是让全体人都可以生活在安全与繁荣中的世界,我们仍有很多工作要做。联合国成员国签署的《2030年可持续发展议程》就体现了这一点。It lists 17 goals and 169 targets, and one of these, 9(c), is a target that we believe is crucial to accelerate realization of all the others: a commitment to provide Internet connectivity for all by 2020.议程中列出17项总体目标和169项具体目标。我们相信其中一项目标,即编号9(c)的目标,对促成其他所有目标的实现是至关重要的:承诺到2020年,让全世界所有人接入互联网。Today over half the people on this planet don’t have access. That is not good for anyone — not for the disempowered and disconnected, and not for the other half, whose commerce and security depend on having stable societies.今天,我们这个星球上超过半数的人无法接入网络。这对任何人来说都不是好事——对那些处于劣势、未能连入网络的人并非好事,对另外一半也一样,因为后者的利益和安全都依托于社会的稳定。An unprecedented array of technologists and activists — from Mo Ibrahim to Bill and Melinda Gates, action/2015, Ushahidi and Sahara Reporters have come together to support a global Connectivity Declaration, pledging their support for the new global goals and connecting the world to opportunity. This needs to become a global movement.从穆·易卜拉欣(Mo Ibrahim)到比尔和梅琳达·盖茨(Bill and Melinda Gates),从“行动/2015”(action/2015)到“见者”(Ushahidi),再到“撒哈拉记者”(Sahara Reporters),一系列科技界人士和活动人士史无前例地联合起来,持一项全球“互连宣言”。他们承诺会持新的全球目标,让全世界与机遇相连。这需要成为一项全球性的运动。In this century, global development and global connectivity are closely linked. If you want to help people feed, heal, educate and employ themselves around the world, we need to connect the world as well. The Internet should not belong to only three billion people, as it does today. It should be seen as a necessity for development, and a tool that makes larger things possible.这个世纪,全球发展与全球网络互联是密切相关的。想要协助世界各地的人得到饱足、医疗、教育并自力更生,我们也需要让全世界接入网络。互联网不应该像今天这样,只属于30亿人口。它应该被视为发展的必需品,一个用来成就更远大目标的工具。In Ethiopia and Tanzania, for example, farmers connect to get better prices, track inventory and make mobile insurance payments in case of bad weather. In Nigeria, citizens use BudgIT, a mobile app, to assess whether governments keep their spending promises. The opportunity is especially great for women. Men have significantly more access to the web, but when women get connected, they use technology as a pathway to better education, health, economic status and security. In Guatemala, cellphones inform mothers how to have healthy pregnancies. In Kenya, women receive financial services via their cellphones thanks to the brilliant M-Pesa microfinance scheme.以埃塞俄比亚和坦桑尼亚为例,当地的农民可利用网络争取较高的售价、追踪库存、通过移动设备付保险费用,以防天有不测风云。尼日利亚公民可以利用BudgIT这个手机app,来监督政府是否遵守承诺运用开。对女性来说这尤其是个大好机会。虽然男性连线上网的机会要多得多,不过如果女性也能使用网络,她们就能借助科技手段,寻求更好的教育、健康、经济地位与人身安全。危地马拉的准妈妈能使用手机学习如何在期保持健康。而在肯尼亚,借助M-Pesa这个出色的微型贷款计划,妇女们能够通过手机获得金融务。In the last few weeks, we’ve watched desperate refugees seek shelter on the frontiers of Europe. Smartphones have made it possible for those left behind to communicate with loved ones across checkpoints and razor wire. The Internet connected our world in shared grief as a Syrian child’s death on a beach in Turkey came to symbolize every refugee. Social media carried the message and changed not just popular opinion but public policy.过去几周,我们看到许多难民铤而走险,在欧洲边境寻求庇护。智能手机使得那些留在当地的难民,得以与跨过了检查站和铁丝网的亲人保持连系。网络使全世界人,共同为一个死在土耳其海滩上的叙利亚男童哀悼,使他成为了每位难民的共同象征。社交网络不只传递了信息,同时也促成了公众意见与公共政策的改变。It’s one thing to say we should connect the world. The real trick is how.然而用网络连结全世界说来容易,做起来难。There’s no simple solution or silicon bullet.并不存在简便的解决方案,或者一蹴而就的技术工具。In many places, increasing connectivity will have to start with extending access to energy. Nine out of 10 rural Africans don’t have electricity. Governments can make the difference. This is why we support initiatives like President Obama’s Power Africa plan and the bipartisan Electrify Africa Act in Congress, as well as the African Development Bank’s investments in renewable energy.在许多地方,想普及网络连接,得先从普及能源供应开始着手。非洲农村地区的民众十分之九没有电力可用,政府当局可以在这个方面带来改变。这就是我们为什么要持奥巴马总统提出的“电力非洲计划”(Power Africa)、两党在国会共同提出的《非洲电气化法案》(Electrify Africa Act),以及非洲开发(African Development Bank)对可再生能源的投资。Where governments lay the foundation, the private sector can build. Promising efforts are underway to bridge the digital divide. But we know the global community can, and must, do more — and urgently. The Intel Foundation’s work in STEM education, Microsoft’s use of technology to advance the Millennium Development Goals and Google’s Project Loon to connect remote locations illustrate how technology leaders are prioritizing this effort, as is Internet.org, Facebook’s contribution to meeting the challenge.政府打下基础之后,私营部门就能继续建设。我们为缩小数字鸿沟所付出的努力前景可期。不过我们也很清楚,世界各国可以也应该作出更多贡献,而这是刻不容缓的。英特尔基金会(Intel Foundation)为理工和数学教育所做的工作,微软利用科技推进千年发展目标(Millennium Development Goals)的努力,以及谷歌为偏远地区提供网络接入的热气球计划(Project Loon),都显示出科技巨头将此视为当务之急。Facebook旗下的Internet.org也为应对挑战做出了贡献。More technology companies and entrepreneurs must take more responsibility. Silicon Valley should look beyond itself and act more on issues like education, health care and the refugee crisis. We challenge the tech industry to do far more for those most marginalized, those trapped in poverty, and those beyond or on the edge of the network.需要有更多科技公司与企业家承担起更多责任。硅谷不只应该关注自身,还应该采取更多行动,应对教育、医疗及难民危机等议题。我们想对科技产业提出挑战,替那些最边缘化、为贫穷所困,还有那些网络所不能及的人群,付出更大努力。All the global goals must be scored — but the goal of connectivity for everyone everywhere will surely hurry this game-that’s-not-a-game to its successful conclusion. Hurry being the operative word here.所有的全球目标都必须达成,然而让世界各地的所有人都接入互联网的目标,肯定能加速这场并非儿戏的赛跑。“加速”理当成为我们的行动方针。 /201510/401921。

Alibaba is experimenting with a drone delivery service as the Chinese ecommerce group seeks ever faster ways to put its goods in eager consumers’ hands.阿里巴巴(Alibaba)正在测试无人机送货务,这家中国电子商务集团寻求以更加快速的方式,将商品送到急切的消费者手中。The service — using propeller-driven drones in three major Chinese cities — appears more a publicity stunt than a serious business model, but raises the question of whether using drones for short-hop logistics is viable on the mainland, where airspace is tightly controlled.这项在中国三大城市测试的、使用螺旋桨驱动无人机送货的务,似乎更像是一个宣传噱头,而不是一种正式的商业模式,但它提出了一个问题:在中国大陆使用无人机进行短途送货是否可行?中国存在严格的航空管制。Alibaba “aren’t hinting that drone-delivery service is ripe for commercialisation in [mainland China]”, the company said.阿里巴巴表示,该公司并不是在暗示无人机送货务(在中国大陆)的商业化时机已经成熟。It said the quadcopter drones were deployed in a “one-off test”, to last three days, launched in areas of Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou to whisk boxes of ginger tea to customers.阿里巴巴称,将在北京、上海、广州三地展开为期三天的“一次性测试”,测试中将使用四轴飞行器把盒装姜茶快递给客户。The drones would not be flown right to customers’ doors, but to central logistics sites where the “last-mile” delivery will be handled by human couriers, said Alibaba, whose online marketplaces account for about 75-80 per cent of the ecommerce in China.该公司表示,这些无人机不会直接飞到客户门前,而是会飞到物流站点,“最后一公里”的送货将由快递员负责。阿里巴巴的在线集市占据了中国电商市场约75%到80%的份额。The drones were deployed by logistics company YTO Express, a partner of Alibaba.阿里巴巴的合作伙伴、物流公司圆通速递(YTO Express)执行了这次无人机送货务。Companies the world over have begun to experiment with unmanned aerial vehicles as part of efforts to more easily and quickly reach more remote delivery addresses.全球各地的企业已开始测试无人机送货,以求更快捷地将货物送到较偏远的送货地址。But regulations in China are so onerous that few believe airspace will be freed up any time soon to widesp use of whirring and buzzing quadcopter drones.但中国的法规非常繁琐,以至于没什么人相信其领空不久之后就能开放给嗡嗡作响的四轴飞行器广泛使用。Last June, US artist Trey Ratcliff was detained and had his GoPro camera-equipped drone confiscated by police after he flew it over the Forbidden City in Beijing without permission.去年6月,美国影像艺术家特里#8226;拉特克利夫(Trey Ratcliff)在未经许可的情况下,操控装有GoPro摄像头的无人机从北京故宫上空飞过。拉特克利夫随后被逮捕,无人机也被警方没收。“Deciding to fly a drone over China is kind of like Luke Skywalker deciding to ride his landspeeder on the Death Star,” he wrote in a blog post about the incident. “Note to self: don’t mess with these guys.”拉特克利夫在一篇客中对此事描述道:“决定操控无人机飞过中国上空,有点像卢克#8226;天行者(Luke Skywalker)决定在死星(Death Star)上驾驶他的陆上飞艇(landspeeder)。自我提醒:别碰这些家伙。”In 2013, a Shanghai bakery scrapped plans to deliver cakes within 30 minutes, using drone couriers, blaming airspace regulations.2013年,上海一家面包店放弃了用无人机在30分钟内将糕点送到顾客手中的计划,并将原因归于航空管制。Even in the relatively liberal US, Amazon has had to navigate regulatory issues as it tries to set up drone delivery services. The company, which has drone Ramp;D testing centres in both the US and the UK, said last year that it was creating Amazon Prime Air, which aims to use pilotless flying vehicles to deliver packages to millions of customers within half an hour of orders being placed.即使在管制相对宽松的美国,亚马逊(Amazon)在尝试建立无人机送货务时,也必须小心应付监管问题。亚马逊在美国和英国都有无人机测试中心。去年该公司表示,正在创建Amazon Prime Air务,其目标是利用无人飞行器将包裹送到数百万顾客手中,顾客下单后最多等半小时包裹即可送到。However, founder Jeff Bezos has said the service could be delayed by red tape as US authorities have yet to approve proposals for commercial drone use. Tech commentators have dismissed the project as a marketing gimmick.然而,亚马逊创始人杰夫#8226;贝索斯(Jeff Bezos)已表示,这项务有可能因繁琐的审批手续而延迟推出,因为美国监管部门尚未批准使用商业无人机的方案。科技人士认为该计划是一个营销噱头、不必理睬。Racing against Amazon to get drones into regular commercial use, Google has opted for test runs in Australia, as aviation authorities have yet to allow any more than limited use in the US.在让无人机进入正规商用方面,谷歌(Google)正与亚马逊展开竞赛。谷歌选择在澳大利亚进行测试,当地航空管理部门对无人机使用的限制并不比美国宽松。 /201502/359209。

HONG KONG — Uber is spending money at a breakneck rate to crack the China market — even paying its drivers more than the fares they collect.香港——优步(Uber)正在以极快的速度投入资金,进军中国市场——甚至在提供比司机赚取的车费还要高的补贴。Fat with almost billion in venture capital, Uber, based in San Francisco, is doling out bonuses up to three times the amount of its fares, in a bet that its exceptional rise in the ed States can be matched in China.总部位于旧金山的优步坐拥将近60亿美元(约合370亿元人民币)的风险资本。它给中国司机发放的补贴至多达到乘客车费的三倍,希望借此在中国市场上复制它在美国的惊人崛起。So far, its strategy is working, shattering prevailing assumptions that young American tech companies cannot compete against local rivals.到目前为止,优步的策略发挥了作用,推翻了盛行的一种说法,即新兴的美国科技企业无法与中国当地的对手展开竞争。The spending spree has attracted droves of drivers like Jacky, a systems analyst at an international telecommunications company, who recently began moonlighting for Uber with his Ford Fiesta in Shanghai. In late May, Uber said it had created more than 60,000 jobs in China over the past month, with the sp of its service spurring protests from some taxi drivers.发放优厚补贴的热潮吸引了大批司机,比如在一家国际电信公司担任系统分析员的杰基(Jacky)。他最近开始成为优步的兼职司机,在上海开着自己的福特嘉年华(Ford Fiesta)赚外快。优步在5月底宣称,公司过去一个月在中国创造了六万多个就业机会。优步务的盛行还导致一些出租车司机发起抗议。“This is a really great opportunity for me to make some extra money,” said Jacky, 34, who declined to give his full name because he was releasing internal information about Uber.“这是我赚外快的大好机会,”34岁的杰基说。他拒绝提供全名,因为他透露的是有关优步的内部讯息。Though other ride-hailing services also offer driver bonuses, Jacky said Uber pays the most. In the first three weeks of May, he said, he made the equivalent of about ,000 from Uber — or almost half of his ,100 monthly salary at the telecommunications company — with the majority of his earnings as a driver coming from the subsidies.虽然其他打车软件也为司机提供补贴,但杰基表示,优步给得最多。他透露,在5月的前三周里,他通过优步获得了大约1000美元的收入——几乎是他在电信公司的2100美元月薪的一半。作为司机,他的大部分收入来自优步提供的补贴。While China represents huge scale as a market, it has fended off the entry of just about every major Western technology start-up. Uber, a five-year-old company that operates in more than 310 cities and 58 countries worldwide, faces homegrown Chinese rivals like Didi Kuaidi, which has more than 90 percent of the market and is backed by two of the largest Chinese Internet companies, Alibaba and Tencent. It may also have to grapple with a fickle central government that could shut it out of the market overnight.虽然中国市场规模庞大,但它阻止了几乎所有主要的西方科技初创企业进入市场。优步这家成立五年已在58个国家逾310座城市运营的公司在中国面对的是滴滴快的等本土竞争对手。滴滴快的占据的市场份额超过了90%,背后是中国的两大互联网巨头阿里巴巴和腾讯。优步可能还需要应对变化无常的中央政府,防止被其突然赶出中国市场。Yet more affluent and cosmopolitan Chinese have flocked to Uber’s service, attracted by fares that are on average at least 35 percent cheaper than taxis, with the cars generally more luxurious than cabs and drivers who offer free water and are typically more polite.不过,越来越多富裕而国际化的中国人纷纷开始使用优步的务。他们被优步的质优价廉吸引。优步的乘车费用平均比出租车的车费低至少35%,而提供务的汽车又通常比出租车高档,司机会提供免费的水,一般也更有礼貌。Uber is providing more than 100,000 rides a day in China, according to two people with knowledge of the company’s internal metrics, who declined to be identified because the numbers are confidential. That is about 10 percent of the total one million rides a day that Uber said it was getting companywide in December.了解公司内部数据的两人表示,优步每天会在中国提供逾10万次接送务。由于相关数据属于商业机密,这两人要求不具名。优步称,去年12月,全公司的接送务总量为每天100万次。前述数据相当于这个总量的10%左右。In the central Chinese city of Chengdu alone, Uber has attracted 20,000 drivers since 2014, compared with 26,000 in New York City who have come aboard since 2011. Travis Kalanick, Uber’s chief executive, is teaming up with the Chinese Internet giant Baidu and making multiple visits to the country, including one last month to the provincial capital of Guiyang in the southwest.从2014年开始,优步仅在中国中部城市成都就吸引了2万名司机,而在纽约市,从2011年开始提供务算起,累积的数字为2.6万。公司首席执行官特拉维斯·卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)正在与中国网络行业的巨头百度开展合作。他多次访华,上个月还曾到访位于中国西南部的省会城市贵阳。“Uber is doing quite well in the first-tier cities, and it’s a bit of a surprise,” said You Na, an analyst at IC International based in Hong Kong. “The subsidies make a big difference.”“优步在一线城市的表现非常好,有点意外,”工银国际驻香港的分析师尤娜说。“补贴产生了很大的影响。”An Uber spokeswoman declined to comment on the scale of the company’s business in China. Uber is in talks with investors to raise another .5 billion or so in a financing that would value it at billion.优步的一名女发言人拒绝就公司在中国的业务规模置评。目前,优步正在与投资者进行协商,意图通过新一轮的融资再筹集大概15亿美元。届时公司估值将达500亿美元。Uber still faces many hurdles in China, where the market is highly competitive, regulated and, at times, eccentric. Chinese tend to favor Chinese-branded services, said Mark Natkin, founder of the research firm Marbridge Consulting in Beijing, though sometimes using a globally leading brand — like Uber — has cachet.优步在中国仍然面临着重重阻碍。中国市场的竞争十分激烈,监管严格,有时还颇为反常。调研企业北京迈瑞咨询有限公司(Marbridge Consulting)的创始人马克·纳特金(Mark Natkin)认为,中国人倾向于持本土品牌的务,尽管有时使用全球著名品牌——比如优步——会让人感觉良好。Uber has attracted Chinese customers like Li Yufang, 28, a Beijing resident and an employee at a property developer, who switched to Uber in January from other ride-hailing services.优步吸引了许多中国顾客,28岁的李云芳(音)就是其中之一。在北京生活的李云芳是一家房地产开发公司的员工,于今年1月弃用其他打车务,开始使用优步。“The reason I love Uber is because the price is really low compared with taxis or private limos,” Ms. Li said.“我喜欢优步,因为跟出租车和私人豪华轿车相比,它的价格很低,”李云芳说。On Chinese social media, jokes that Uber provides a convenient, self-selecting pool of potential husbands for single women have even made the rounds.在中国的社交媒体上,有人开玩笑,优步为单身女性提供了一个有筛选性的便利择偶途径。这种说法甚至已传播开来。Uber began tests in China in late 2013 in the southern cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen, focusing on a service that would let people hail rides from licensed limousine companies. Instead of following other Western tech firms, which at times have relied on foreign managers with little knowledge of China, Uber hired and empowered local people to act as managers to run city operations as they saw fit. It now operates in nine Chinese cities.优步从2013年年底在中国南方的广州和深圳开始试运行,只提供让用户从有执照的豪车公司叫车的务。西方科技企业时常会依赖对中国毫无了解的外国经理人,但优步没有遵循这一路线,它聘请本地人才从事管理岗位,让他们放手用自己觉得最佳的方式去运作。现在优步在中国的九座城市运营。The company also took a more cautious, cooperative approach in China, unlike in other countries, where it has brazenly flouted authorities. In December, Uber sold a stake in itself to Baidu and began working to offer its service directly on Baidu’s popular maps application. Uber recently earned praise from the head of a major Chinese Internet industry group for behaving more like a Chinese company than like an eBay or an Amazon.在别的国家一向敢于公然挑衅权威的优步,在中国采取了一种更谨慎、更合作的态度。去年12月,优步向百度售出了一部分股份,并开始在百度很受欢迎的地图应用中直接提供优步务。中国一家主要互联网行业团体的负责人最近称赞优步更像是一家中国公司,而不是像eBay和亚马逊(Amazon)那样。In October, however, Uber expanded a new service that put it on questionable regulatory footing in the country. The service, playfully called People’s Uber after the Marxist language favored by the Communist Party, resembles what Uber does elsewhere by letting private drivers register and shuttle passengers for pay. The service runs counter to what is offered by companies like Didi Kuaidi, which either enable customers to hail taxis directly or use contracts with private limo companies to offer high-end cars at luxury prices.然而在10月,优步拓展了一项新务,让它在中国处在了暧昧的监管处境。这项务借用了共产党青睐的马克思主义式的语言,戏谑地称作“人民优步”(People’s Uber),它类似于优步在其他国家的做法,即让私家车注册并收费搭载乘客。这项务与滴滴快的等公司提供的务构成了竞争,后者要么直接允许乘客叫出租车,要么通过与私人豪车公司签约,以高昂价格提供高端车辆。It also drew scrutiny from local governments since the drivers are unlicensed. In the last two months, local authorities in Chengdu and Guangzhou have raided Uber offices in response to the questionable legality of People’s Uber.由于司机都没有执照,所以这项务受到了地方政府的严厉限制。成都和广州的地方政府,因为人民优步的合法性存疑而突击检查了优步的办公室。Local traffic authorities in Guangzhou and Chengdu did not respond to requests for comment. At the time of the raids, Uber said it was cooperating with officials. People’s Uber is still operating in both cities.广州和成都的地方交通部门没有回应置评请求。在突击检查之时,优步表示配合官方行动。人民优步在这两个城市仍在经营。The raids have spurred driver protests. In Chengdu last month, hundreds of Uber drivers lashed out at the local traffic police after one driver’s car was impounded.突击检查招致了司机的抗议。上个月在成都,一名司机的汽车被扣押后,数百名优步司机对当地交警进行了围攻。People’s Uber has also prompted a battle with Didi Kuaidi, which last month started its own service for private drivers, called Kuaiche. A few weeks later, Didi Kuaidi announced an initiative to spend 1 billion renminbi (0 million) subsidizing the program in the form of discounts to passengers and driver incentives.人民优步也对滴滴快的发起了战斗,后者上个月推出了自己的私家车叫车务——快车。几周之后,滴滴快的宣布,将启动十亿元人民币的补贴项目,向乘客提供折扣,向司机发放奖金。“We welcome all good competition,” said Jean Liu, Didi Kuaidi’s president, at a May 22 media briefing. “This is our home market; we love this market so much, we want to make sure it grows in a healthy, sustainable, safe way.”“我们欢迎所有良性的竞争,”滴滴快的总裁柳青(Jean Liu)在5月22日的新闻发布会上说。“这是我们的主场,我们很爱这块市场,我们希望确保它以一种健康、安全、可持续的方式增长。”The inducements from both sides are stirring resentment from taxi drivers, similar to what Uber has faced in other countries. In recent weeks, cabdrivers in Tianjin have lashed out at private car drivers.双方的补贴都招致了出租车司机的怨恨,这与优步在其他国家面临的处境相似。最近几周,天津的出租车司机袭击了专车司机。One woman, whose husband and father-in-law share a taxi in Tianjin, confirmed the protests but declined to be named. She said the popularity of services like Uber has cut what taxi drivers can make during the day by about a third.天津一名不愿具名的女性的丈夫和公公合开一辆出租车,她实了抗议事件的发生。她表示,优步这样的务开始流行,使得出租车司机每日的收入下降了三分之一。Another problem for Uber may be its own drivers. On Taobao, Alibaba’s e-commerce site, vendors run a thriving black market for driver accounts, allowing purchasers to circumvent Uber’s background checks. Jacky also confirmed reports in local news media that many drivers log fraudulent Uber rides using fake passenger accounts to get some of the bonuses the company is offering.优步面临的另一个问题是自己的司机。在阿里巴巴旗下的电子商务网站淘宝上,卖家推动了一个销售司机账号的活跃黑市,买主可以藉此绕开优步的背景核查。杰基也实了当地媒体的一些报道,即许多司机使用虚假的乘客账号,骗取该公司提供的一些奖金。Uber isn’t deterred.优步并没有退缩。“We’re particularly optimistic in China,” Mr. Kalanick said in a speech in China last month. “I’ve just seen cities everywhere and have found that mayors and city governments are far more focused on progress in their cities here in China than I’ve seen elsewhere, and it makes me incredibly optimistic.”“我们对中国尤其乐观,”卡拉尼克上个月在中国的一次演讲中说。“我在很多地方见到过很多城市,我发现在中国,市长和市政府与我在其他国家见到的相比,都远更关注于自己城市的进步,这让我异常乐观。” /201506/380098。

The millions of New Yorkers who pour out of crowded subway cars and into high-tech jobs in Manhattan every day would be taken aback to see inside the 4th Street signal tower. The tower — a subterranean room in Greenwich Village — is a veritable museum of ancient, electromechanical technology, some of it dating back to the 1930s and 1940s. 纽约每天有数百万人从拥挤的地铁车厢蜂拥而出、然后奔向曼哈顿的各个高科技岗位。如果他们看到第四街(4th Street)信号室内部的样子,可能会大吃一惊。位于格林威治村(Greenwich Village)地下的这间信号室是一个名副其实的物馆,展示着古旧的电机技术,其中某些部分可追溯至上世纪三四十年代。 The technology still controls trains safely but it is growing harder to maintain. The system’s limitations also restrict the number of trains the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), the subway system’s operator, can operate at the busiest times. 这种技术仍安全地调控着地铁,但越来越难以维护。该系统的局限性也限制了地铁系统运营方纽约大都会交通署(Metropolitan Transportation Authority)在高峰期能够运营的最大列车数量。 Two companies, Germany’s Siemens and France’s Thales, face the formidable challenge of replacing outmoded technology on key parts of the system with modern electronic systems that will cost less to maintain and increase capacity. 德国西门子(Siemens)和法国泰雷兹(Thales)这两家公司面临这项艰巨的挑战:用维护成本较低、能够增加运力的现代电子系统,去替换地铁原有信号系统关键部位的过时技术。 Yet they face the task not only of making the new communications-based train control (CBTC) system work with older technology but also of installing it on a network that operates round the clock. This all-day, all-night operation sets New York apart from other old metro systems such as London and Paris, which have made far more rapid progress in installing CBTC signalling. 然而,它们不仅面临让新的基于通信的列车控制(CBTC)系统与老技术兼容的任务,而且还得把它安装在一个全天候运营的网络中。这种24小时不间断运营让纽约的地铁系统不同于伦敦和巴黎等其他较旧的地铁系统,后者在安装CBTC信号系统方面取得了更为迅速的进展。 “The railroad doesn’t stop,” Kevin Riddett, head of Siemens Mobility business in the US, says. “You get very limited access.” 西门子交通(Siemens Mobility)业务美国负责人凯文#8226;里德特(Kevin Riddett)表示:“地铁系统不会停下来,我们的安装操作非常受局限。” One problem is the lack of clear records about what was installed in the first place. The work is also going to move quickly beyond the two discrete lines where installation has been tried first — the Canarsie line, which carries the L train from Manhattan to outer Brooklyn, and the Flushing line that carries the 7 train through Queens. The system started operating on the Canarsie line in 2007 and is due to go into operation on the 7 train next year. 一个问题在于缺乏原本安装了什么的清晰记录。工程还将迅速扩展至首次试安装CBTC系统的两条互不相连的线路以外。这两条线路一条是从曼哈顿至远郊布鲁克林的运营L号线的卡纳西线(Canarsie line),另一条是从曼哈顿到皇后区运营7号线的法拉盛线(Flushing line)。该系统从2007年开始在卡纳西线运营,并计划从明年起在7号线上运营。 Siemens and Thales were last year both awarded contracts to start installing CBTC on the Queens Boulevard Line. Like much of the New York subway, the four-track line is used by multiple different services. All the trains operating on the route will need technology to communicate with the new signals. 西门子和泰雷兹(Thales)去年全都获得了在IND皇后大道线(Queens Boulevard Line)开始安装CBTC系统的合同。与纽约地铁许多线路一样,这条四轨线路供多个不同的务使用。所有在该线上运营的列车都将需要技术装备来与新的信号系统通讯。 The award of the contracts for work on Queens Boulevard was a sign of the MTA’s determination to make improvements across the network, Thomas Prendergast, the MTA’s chairman, said in July when awarding the work. MTA主席托马斯#8226;普伦德加斯特(Thomas Prendergast)在去年7月授予这些合同时表示,授予这些在IND皇后大道线上作业的合同,表明MTA决心升级改造整个网络。 Installation of CBTC has allowed a substantial increase in L train services. CBTC系统的安装使得L线列车出勤大幅增加。 “CBTC represents the MTA’s efforts to bring advanced technology to a century-old subway system that, in some parts, has not been updated in decades,” Mr Prendergast said. 普伦德加斯特表示:“CBTC代表着MTA向一个拥有百年历史的地铁系统引入先进技术的努力,这个地铁系统的某些部分已有几十年没有升级改造过。” However, Mr Riddett also points out that CBTC installation on the Canarsie line took a painful seven years as the company struggled to adapt microprocessor-based technology for the first time to the subway. He is hopeful the Queens Boulevard work will be far faster and that the MTA should start working faster on installation elsewhere. 然而,里德特也指出,在卡纳西线上安装CBTC系统耗费了7年时间、过程艰辛,因为该公司很难将基于微处理器的技术首次运用于地铁上。他预计IND皇后大道线的工程进展将会快得多,而且MTA应该会更快开始在其他线路上安装这一系统。 “All of the technology is proven out for Queens Boulevard,” he says. 他说:“在IND皇后大道线上安装的时候,这项技术已全部经过了检验。” /201603/431863。