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2019年06月26日 08:57:04    日报  参与评论()人

盐城/协和医院电话号码盐城协和医院男科咨询盐城/治疗急性尿道炎 Philosophers spend a lot of time pointing out that we dont really see the world and that what we really see is what our brains make of the world.哲学家花大把时间所进行的研究指出我们并未真正看到这个世界,我们真正看到的是我们的大脑制造的世界。Too much of this kind of thing can make you want change your major to Business Administration.有太多这种事使你想转投专业学工商管理的怀抱。But science has shown that those philosophy types actually have a point.但科学已显示这些哲学类型事实上有要点。Heres a simple demonstration you can do to show that your brain doesnt just take in information, but always interprets that information.下面的一个简单实验就可以实你的大脑不止摄入信息,而且也总是解释信息。Hold your arm out and stick your thumb up in the air.伸出你的胳膊,竖起拇指。While looking at your thumb, slowly move your hand back and forth.当你看拇指的时候,慢慢前后移动手掌。Next, hold your hand still and slowly move your eyes back and forth.接下来,保持手掌静止,慢慢前后移动你的眼睛。Why did your thumb seem to be moving in the first instance and not in the second?为什么你的拇指在第一个例子里看起来移动了而在第二个实验里没有?The same image was sent to your retina, but in one instance you felt your hand was moving and in anotheryou felt your hand was still.这是因为同样的图像被投入视网膜,但一个例子里你觉得手移动了,另一个例子你觉得手是静止的。This shows that our brains arent just open windows through which the world pours.这解释了我们的大脑不仅是世界汹涌时打开窗户。They are always interpreting the information they receive.它们还总是诠释获得的信息。In this case, your brain knew your eyes were moving, and it interpreted the change in visualimages as coming from inside your head.在此例中,你的大脑知道眼睛在移动,它将视觉图像的变化解释为来自大脑内部的变化。When it isnt told your eyes are moving, your brains the same image as motion taking place outside your head.当大脑没有发觉眼睛在移动时,大脑会将同样的视觉图像理解为是在大脑外部发生的变化。This is the same reason lying down on the bed doesnt make you immediately panic when you see the room turn on its side.这与躺在床上看房间倾斜不会立刻感到恐慌是一个道理。In fact, your brain is always seeing the world move and deciding whether that motion is in here or out there.事实上,你的大脑总是看世界转动并且在思考这运动是在内部还是在外部。 201404/284609盐城子宫肌瘤哪家医院最好的

盐城处女膜修复需要多少费用Science and technology科学技术Stopping asteroid strikes阻止小行星撞击地球Defenders of the Earth地球的守护者The cosmic near-miss in February has boosted research on space rocks二月一颗小行星掠过地球,促进了对太空岩石的研究ON JUNE 24th NASA, Americas space agency, announced it had discovered the 10,000th Near Earth Object,6月24日,美国宇航局NASA宣布已发现第10000颗近地天体。the rather dry name given to asteroids and comets that orbit the sun in the vicinity of Earth and which might, therefore, one day smash into it.这个颇为平淡的名称指的是在地球邻近区域围绕太阳运动的小行星和彗星,它们可能说不定哪天就撞向地球。Ten thousand potentially dangerous objects sounds a lot, but NASA reckons there could be ten times as many still waiting to be found.一万颗潜在危险物体听起来很多,但NASA认为尚待发现的NEO数量,可能是这个数字的10倍。A week earlier, on June 18th, the agency therefore launched a Grand Challenge intended to recruit and co-ordinate help from industry, academia and anyone else who is interested for a project to detect any asteroid that could threaten Earth.一星期前的6月18日,NASA因此发布了一项大挑战,为一个探测可能威胁地球的小行星的工程,向企业界和学术界求助,意图从中招募人才和协调力量,任何对此有兴趣的个人也可以参与进来。All ideas are welcome.NASA对各方建议一概欢迎。NASAs bosses are also thinking of allocating extra time on the ground-based telescopes they control to the search for such threats.NASA的领导们也在考虑将旗下的地面望远镜更多地用于搜索此类威胁。They have plans, too, to revive a mothballed space telescope called the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to aid in the hunt.同时,他们还打算唤醒一台休眠中的太空望远镜—广域红外巡天探测者—来协助搜寻工作。And Lori Garver, the agencys deputy administrator, has asked for the budget of a programme to find 90% of NEOs with a diameter above 140 metres to be doubled.NASA还有一个项目,旨在找出90%的直径在140米以上的NEO,NASA副署长洛瑞-伽尔瓦已申请将该项目的预算加倍。So far, NASA reckons it has a quarter of these in the bag, but finishing the job at the present rate of discovery will take decades.目前,NASA估算自己已确认了这些NEO中的四分之一,但按照目前的探测进度计算,完成这项工作还需要几十年时间。Nor is this renewed effort all NASAs.在这股NEO探测复兴中努力的不只有NASA一家。The European Space Agency is chipping in, too.欧洲航天局也参与其中,In May it opened a NEO Co-ordination Centre, to help scientists organise their work and share data.5月开放了一个NEO协调中心,该中心能帮助众科学家组织工作和分享数据。And the B612 Foundation, a charity which hopes to build and launch an asteroid-hunting space telescope called Sentinel, has also reported a substantial rise in donations.此外还有一个叫做B612基金会的慈善组织,希望建造和发射一台名为哨兵的太空望远镜,用于小行星搜寻。该基金会报告称其获得捐款数显著上升。The reason for all this activity is the events of February 15th, when an asteroid a mere 15-20 metres across exploded with the force of a medium-sized atom bomb over Chelyabinsk, in Russia, and another, much larger one buzzed Earth a few hours later.上述所有行动,都是因为2月15日发生了一些事情,一颗半径只有15-20米的小行星在俄罗斯车里亚宾斯克州上空爆炸,威力相当于中等大小的原子弹;就在数小时之后,又有一颗比这大得多的小行星掠过地球。What had been regarded as the stuff of science-fiction novels suddenly became a clear and present danger—but one that, unlike earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and hurricanes, might actually be prevented by timely human action.原先认为是科幻小说里的情节,突然变成了实实在在的危险—但与地震、火山喷发、海啸和飓风等灾难不同的是,人类可以采取及时的行动阻止小行星撞击地球。NEOShield, a research project involving several European Union countries, as well as Russia and the ed States, is looking at three main ways of diverting incoming asteroids.近地轨道防护盾是几个欧盟国家与俄罗斯美国合作开展的研究项目,研究让来袭的小行星改变方向的三个主要办法。One is to use a kinetic impactor—in effect employing a heavy, fast-moving spacecraft as the cue ball in a game of interplanetary billiards.一种办法是使用动能冲击飞船—就好像把一种重型快速移动的飞船当做白球,在太空打台球一样。The second is a gravity tractor.第二种是重力牵引飞船,This is a spacecraft parked near an asteroid, so that its minute gravitational pull will slowly tug the rock into a safer orbit.这种航天器会靠在小行星旁边,利用微小的引力效应,慢慢把岩石牵引到安全的轨道。And if an incoming object is particularly large, or is detected particularly late, the third course of action would be to blast it into a new orbit with nuclear weapons.如果来袭的物体特别大,或者侦测得特别晚,就轮到第三种应对措施了—使用核武器把它炸到新的轨道上。If all else fails, or if a threat is spotted too late to deflect, there is also the option of evacuation.如果所有手段失败的话,或者威胁发现得太晚以至于无法让它转向,我们还有疏散的选择。In 2008, for example, a small asteroid was detected 20 hours before it hit Earth. The worlds astronomers scrambled, and its likely point of impact was calculated with what turned out to be reasonable accuracy.举例来说,2008年,一颗小行星在撞击地球前的20小时才侦测到。全世界的天文学家急忙开始行动,结果明,计算撞击点的精确度还是不错的。It blew up over the Nubian Desert, in Sudan, and no one was injured.这颗小行星在苏丹的努比亚沙漠上空爆炸,无人受伤。But this incident showed that a properly organised early-warning system might pay dividends if ground zero turned out to be a populated area.但这个事件说明,如果地面零点是居住区域的话,组织恰当的预警系统就能显示出它的价值了。John Tonry, of the University of Hawaii, hopes to provide one.夏威夷大学的约翰-通瑞希望自己能提供一个预警系统。He is working on an eight-telescope system called ATLAS.他正在开发一个8台望远镜组成的系统,名为ATLAS。It is designed to scan the whole sky twice a night, looking for fast-moving objects.根据设计,该系统每晚会对天空全面扫描两次,搜寻快速移动的物体。Unlike most astronomers, Dr Tonry presumably hopes he will not find what he is looking for.与大多数天文学家不同的是,通瑞士可能不太希望找到他要找的东西。But if he does, many people who would not otherwise have lived to tell the tale may thank him.但如果他找到了,会有许多人感谢他的—否则他们都无法幸存下来,向他人诉说这次惨遇。 /201311/263425治疗包皮盐城哪家医院最好 Finance and economics财经商业Free exchange自由交易One of the giants巨人Ronald Coase, the economist who explained why firms exist, died on September 2nd, aged 102罗纳德科斯,著名经济学家,于9月2日逝世,享年102岁。他向世人阐明了企业存在原因。I HAVE made no innovations in high theory, was how Ronald Coase modestly summed up his lifes work.罗纳德科斯如是总结他一生的事业:在高层理论研究中,我并没有创新。My contribution to economics has been to urge the inclusion…of features of the economic system so obvious that…they have tended to be overlooked.我对经济领域的贡献在于,将甄选经济指标这一步骤引入人们视野,而之前,人们对此并不重视。Attention to the overlooked helped Mr Coase transform both law and economics.而正是他对这一被忽视的步骤的注意使得他改变了法律与经济。Born in the London suburb of Willesden in 1910 to working-class parents,1910年,罗纳德科斯出生在伦敦威尔斯登的一个工人家庭,Mr Coase had an academic temperament and an interest in science but lacked a taste for mathematics, a flaw that might have kept him out of economics in later decades.他很有学术天赋,对于科学也很有兴趣,遗憾的是他缺少对数学的尝试,也许这就是使得他在接下来的十年中无缘经济的原因。He studied commerce at the London School of Economics, a course tailored to those destined for middle management.科斯在伦敦经济学院学习贸易,这一学科是给将来的中层管理者量身定做的。The degree included instruction in economics, and he quickly fell for the dismal science.该学科包含了经济介绍,科斯很快便迷上了政治经济。A one-year travelling scholarship gave him the chance to apply what he had learned.一年的旅行奖金给予了科斯将所学应用于实践的机会,He chose to tour Americas industrial cities in the hope of answering a question that troubled him:他来到美国工业城市,希望能在这找到一直困扰他的问题:why did companies exist?企业为何存在。Economists of the time were enthralled by the special magic of the price mechanism.时下的经济学家都被价格机制的神奇魔力吸引。In a free market, prices should adjust to allocate resources where they are most valued.在自由市场,通过价格的变动来分配资源,使尽其用。A certain price for wool, for example, encourages farmers to raise sheep and bring wool to market to meet consumer demand.例如,如果羊毛价格高,农民就会更多的喂养羊群,将羊毛销往市场以满足需求。As more is produced and demand is sated the price falls, discouraging farmers from wasting time and resources producing unwanted goods.当生产的羊毛越来越多,需求被不断满足,价格就会下降,这就使农民减少生产,避免将时间跟精力浪费在非需商品上。Yet whereas some parts of the economy rely on prices to guide materials and labour to their best uses, others do not.经济在某些方面依靠价格来引导资源和劳力发挥最大作用,而其他方面又并非如此。Within firms tasks are doled out by fiat and strategies are set by the Politburo of the corporate board. Mr Coase wanted to know why.在企业里,高层向下布置任务,企业董事会制定政策。科斯想知道为什么是这样的模式。As he watched American car plants in action, he realised that the existence of the firm compensated for a critical flaw in the price-setting mechanism.就在科斯观察美国汽车工厂运行时,他意识到企业的存在正好弥补了价格生成机制中最严重的漏洞。In the real world it is often costly for buyer and seller to arrive at a final price.现实生活中,让买家跟商家达成最后的交易价格很费力。Transaction costs, like the need to negotiate or draw up contracts, prevent the price mechanism from working smoothly.交易成本,例如协商,签合同,这些都会使价格机制无法平稳运行。Firms would exist, he reckoned, when it was cheaper and easier to co-ordinate activity within a centrally planned organisation than to spell out contract details for every step in the production process.科斯猜想,当在一个有中心规划的机构里,协调各部门行动比在生产过程中为每一步都签订详细合同的成本更低更便捷,企业就出现了。Mr Coase first presented his proposition in a lecture in Dundee in 1932, at the tender age of 21.科斯首次提出这样的主张是他1932年在英国敦堤的一次演讲中,当时他才21岁。In 1937 he published The Nature of the Firm, an article based on the Dundee lecture.1937年,他以在敦堤的演讲为基础出版了《企业的性质》。An entire field of research would eventually be built on this paper, but it garnered scant attention at first.后来整个领域的研究都是以科斯在敦堤的演讲内容为基础,只是一开始并未引起很多人的注意。Mr Coase bounced around British academia in the 1930s and 1940s, from Dundee to Liverpool and back to the LSE, researching the workings of public utilities as he went.上个世纪30跟40年代,科斯在英国学术界十分活跃,从敦堤到利物浦,然后又回到伦敦经济学院,科斯一路研究公共事业公司的运行机制。In 1951 he migrated to America and proved similarly itinerant, until an article on radio-spectrum property rights caught the eye of scholars at the University of Chicago.1951年,他移民到美国,并不断地继续明类似的理论,直到射频频谱的知识产权一文的发表才吸引了芝加哥大学学者们的眼球。In 1959 he was invited to Chicago to air his views.1959年,科斯受邀到芝加哥去阐明他的观点,His audience included future Nobel prizewinners like George Stigler and Milton Friedman:底下的观众包括像未来诺贝尔得奖者乔治·施蒂格勒,弥尔顿·弗里德曼。confident, room-commanding men sceptical of Mr Coases conclusions.他们自信对科斯的结论表示怀疑。Over the course of a two-hour discussion the measured Mr Coase won them around.在两个小时的讨论之后,科斯终于得到他们的认可。He was asked to write up his arguments and in 1961 produced The Problem of Social Cost, another landmark text.科斯尽数写下他的观点,并于1961年出版了另一代表作《社会成本问题》。By 1964 Mr Coase was on the University of Chicagos faculty.从1964年起,科斯一直在芝加哥大学任教。His debates with the Chicago academics centred on market externalities:科斯与芝加哥的学者们围绕市场外部性进行了讨论:economic choices that impose social costs or benefits on others.经济选择会带来利益或需要社会成本。Factory pollution may disturb or poison nearby residents, for example.例如,工厂污染会影响或者危害周围的居民。Earlier generations of economists diagnosed a market failure that governments could set to rights.以往的经济学家得出政府能调整市场失败的结论。The polluting factory does not face any costs from spouting black smoke over a town: the costs are external from its perspective.污染性工厂对于向城镇释放黑烟的成本表示无压力,因为这个成本在他们的估算外。A tax on pollution would internalise the cost, however.但是征收污染税能将这个成本内部化,The price mechanism would work once more, as the tax encouraged the factorys managers to reduce pollution to socially optimal levels.于是价格机制再一次生效,因为税收能迫使工厂管理者将污染物的排放减少到社会最优水平。Mr Coases work suggested another answer.科斯的成果又暗示了另一个结论。In the world of theory, without transaction costs, no government intervention would be needed to address externalities.理论上说,如果没有交易成本,就不需要政府干预来强调外部性。The factory owners and the residents could work out side-payments on their own.工厂拥有者跟居民他们自己就能达成赔偿协议,Residents might pay the factory to emit less or the factory might pay the town for leeway to pollute more.居民能弥补工厂,让他们少排放,工厂也能赔偿给居民,使自己多排放,Either way an efficient outcome should result without government help. This Panglossian view became known as the Coase Theorem.其中任一有效的办法都不需要政府的帮助。这种趋于至善的观点就变成了科斯理论。Yet Mr Coase himself recognised life is more complex than theory.但是科斯本人也意识到现实远比理论复杂。Neither private bargaining nor a pollution tax can make a market perfectly efficient given transaction costs like the expense of monitoring a factorys emissions.如果考虑到像监控工厂排放这样的交易成本,不管是私下解决或者立法征税,都不能使市场最有效。Mr Coase reckoned the law had a critical economic responsibility: to minimise the disruptive effect of these costs on markets.于是科斯想到法律负很大的经济责任:法律能最小化交易成本对市场的负面影响。A system of clear and easily transferable property rights can play a role like that of the firm, allowing useful economic activity to take place that might otherwise be gummed up by the hassle of negotiating and enforcing contracts.一个清晰并且容易转让的产权体系能扮演一个类似企业这样的角色,它可以保那些可能被协商跟强加协议弄砸但其实有利可寻的经济活动的正常进行。His insight revolutionised policy.科斯这般的洞察力使政策发生了变革。Tradable emissions permits, which helped eliminate acid rain as an environmental problem in America, are a direct application of his work.可议的排放许可就是科斯理论成果最直接的应用,这项应用帮助降低了美国酸雨这样的环境问题。Almost 70 years after that first Dundee lecture Mr Coase won the Nobel prize for economics.大概在科斯第一次敦堤演讲70年后,他获得了诺贝尔经济学奖。A scholar must be content with the knowledge that what is false in what he says will soon be exposed, he noted in his speech.他在他的演讲中提到:一个学者应该有他话语里的错误会很快被揭露的意识,并且要对此感到满意,As for what is true, he can count on ultimately seeing it accepted, if only he lives long enough.因为只要他活得够长,他就能寄希望于看见那些正确的道理被人们接受。 /201309/258154盐城医院治疗包皮

盐城/输卵管造影疼不疼Euro-zone economies欧元区经济Mirabile dictu说也奇怪A recovery at last, but no revelation终于有所复苏,但是也不出乎意料Aug 17th 2013 |From the print editionTHE prayed-for recovery in the euro area has finally come to pass. After a dismal 18 months in recession, euro-zone GDP rose by 0.3% (an annualised rate of 1.1%) in the second quarter from its level in early 2013. That outcome was a bit stronger than expected, although the outlook for growth remains weak.欧元区祈求已久的复苏终于来了。经历了十八个月低沉的衰退之后,相比2013年第一季度,欧元区的GDP在第二季度增加了0.3%(年化增长率为1.1%)。这个表现强于预期,尽管增长的前景仍然堪忧。The upturn was led by Germany, whose GDP increased by 0.7%. France did surprisingly well, with output up by 0.5%. There was also some encouraging news from southern Europe. Output continued to fall in Italy and Spain but the rate of decline slackened to 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. And there was a sharp rebound in Portugal, which has suffered a deep recession: its GDP grew by 1.1%.这次回升由德国主导,其GDP增长了0.7%。法国的表现有点出乎意料,增长了0.5%之多。南欧也有好消息。尽管意大利和西班牙的GDP继续下滑,但是各自只下滑了0.2%和0.1%。而葡萄牙则有一个剧烈的反弹,之前经历了很严重的衰退,而现在GDP增长了1.1%。The pickup still leaves GDP across the euro area 0.7% lower than a year ago. The output declines since the second quarter of 2012 have been biggest in tiny Cyprus, where GDP is down by 5.2%, and in Greece, where it has fallen by 4.6%. Despite its performance in the second quarter, the Portuguese economy is 2% smaller than a year ago.欧元区经过此次回暖之后,GDP总量仍然比去年低0.7%。自去年二季度到现在衰退最严重的是小国塞浦路斯,GDP下降了5.2%,而希腊也下降了4.6%。尽管葡萄牙这次表现不错,但是其经济总量与一年前相比也缩小了2%。The record of the euro-zone economy since the peak reached before the global financial crisis five years ago is even more depressing. Output is 3% lower; in America it is more than 4% higher (see chart). Among the big euro-zone economies only German GDP now exceeds its pre-crisis peak, by 2%. The economies on the periphery of the single-currency club have suffered drastic falls, although Greece is in a league of its own with a shrinkage of 23%.五年前全球金融危机前欧元区的经济达到峰值,从那时到现在的记录更让人失望。工业产出比当时低了3%之多,而美国则高出了4%。在欧元区的经济体中,只有德国现在的GDP总量超过了金融危机前的峰值,比峰值多了2%。欧元区非核心经济体GDP严重下降,虽然只有希腊下降了23%之多。Even with so much lost ground to make up, the medium-term outlook is for a lacklustre recovery in the euro area, which will continue to be held back by its dodgy banks. Forecasters recently surveyed by the European Central Bank expected on average that euro-zone GDP for the whole of 2013 would be 0.6% lower than in 2012; and that it would grow by only 0.9% in 2014. A tepid recovery is unlikely to do much for the unemployed, especially those in southern Europe where joblessness rates are extraordinarily high. The end of the recession will give fresh heart to European leaders, who can (again) proclaim that the worst of the crisis is over. But weak growth will still leave the euro area vulnerable to social and political discontent.尽管经济需要重振雄风,但是欧元区的中长期复苏乏力,这其中运转不佳的是主要原因。欧洲央行最近调查预测欧元区今年的GDP增量为0.6%,低于去年,而明年的增长率也仅为0.9%,微弱的复苏似乎不能使就业状况好转,尤其是在欧洲南部失业率居高不下的国家。衰退的结束会鼓舞欧盟的领导人,但是谁敢说危机结束了呢?疲软的增势仍然让欧元区极易陷入社会不满与政治不满中。 /201308/253041 Finance and economics商业报道Tax breaks税收优惠Bribing the taxpayer讨好纳税人Wasteful tax perks are sadly common遗憾的是,税收优惠经常被浪费ANY talk of tax reform in America quickly turns to tax expenditures, meaning the codes myriad exemptions, deductions and credits.一谈到美国的税收改革,很快就能转向税式出这个话题,这意味着大量的税收减免和政府收入减少。These now cost 7% of GDP. Economists deride many of them as handouts for influential firms and middle-class voters.现在这些优惠占到了GDP的7%。经济学家嘲笑他们受惠者中许多人都是颇有影响力的企业和中产阶级选民。But for just that reason, politicians are reluctant to curb them.但也就是这个原因促使政客不愿意减少相关优惠。A new paper from the IMF suggests other countries have much the same problem.国际货币基金组织的一篇新文章表明,有很多国家存在同样的问题。America, it turns out, is not the most profligate provider of tax breaks.事实明,美国在税收减免优惠方面并不是最大方的。Australia and Italy spend more on them, as a proportion of their GDP.澳大利亚和意大利的税收优惠所占GDP份额更高,Britain and Spain are not far behind.英国和西班牙的税式出紧随其后。The bulk of the spending goes on individual income-tax relief for things like saving for pensions and interest payments on mortgages.大部分个人所得税被养老保险和抵押贷款利息抵免。That Europe still spends lavishly on tax discounts in spite of its fiscal problems is especially striking.尽管欧洲财政问题举世瞩目,但其在税收优惠方面依然大手笔。Italy gives away 1.8 billion each year on tax breaks for farmers alone.意大利政府每年对农民的税收优惠金额高达18亿欧元。Germany spends over 2 billion a year subsidising bonus payments for working evenings and weekends—an incentive first introduced by the Nazis to boost munitions production during the second world war.德国每年耗费超过20亿奖金补贴给那些上夜班和周末加班的人士——这项奖励首次使用是在第二次世界大战期间,是时纳粹为了提高弹药生产率而颁布了这项优惠。The financial crisis has been a missed opportunity to cut this sort of outdated largesse, says Pierre Leblanc of the OECD.经合组织工作人员Pierre Leblan表示金融危机是缩减税收优惠的绝妙机会,但是却被错过了。While some countries have trimmed them to help cut their deficits, others, like Britain and France, have introduced new ones to encourage investment.虽然有些国家为了削减赤字而减少了税收优惠,像英国和法国也已经为了鼓励投资而另辟蹊径。Overall, they remain at a similar level to before the crisis.但是,总的来说他们的税收优惠仍处于危机前水平。The IMF argues that now is the time to roll back tax breaks to help cut budget deficits.IMF认为,现在是时候削减税收优惠了,以达到削减预算赤字的目标。Regular review would increase scrutiny of outdated perks.定期审查将增加对过时津贴的安全性。Many could be replaced with more targeted measures: most of the benefit is currently enjoyed by the rich rather than those needing help.许多优惠可以更换为更有针对性:就目前而言,大多数优惠项目都是大而广泛的,而税收优惠的受惠者多为有钱人而不是那些真正需要的人。For instance, over half of income-tax breaks in America go to the richest 20% of households, according to the Congressional Budget Office.根据国会预算办公室数据显示,例如,美国20%的最富有家庭的所得税减免超过所得税额的一半,The poorest 20% are left with just 8% of the pie.而20%的最穷家庭的税收优惠却只有其所得税额的8%。Spain is reviewing its tax expenditures as part of its austerity drive. But Italy is a more typical case.西班牙政府正在审阅其税式出的紧缩计划。但意大利在方面更快一步。The IMF sees scope for making savings of up to 61 billion.国际货币基金组织认为该计划的实施能至少节约610亿欧元。Yet the latest budget law, passed last month, requires tax breaks to be pruned by just 10 billion by 2017.然而上个月通过的最新预算法案要求,仅需到2017年以前,缩减100亿欧元的税收优惠便可。Even that proved politically unpalatable: on January 21st the government was reported to be rescinding the planned cuts.而即使这样也带来政治上的不快:1月21日,意大利政府宣布取消削减计划。Higher taxes, it seems, are unpopular everywhere.更高的税负,似乎到处都是不受欢迎的。 /201402/275476盐城/百度在线医生妇科咨询盐城的那个妇科医院好

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