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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月23日 19:02:53
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If you want to know if your husband will cheat, you may want to take a close look at your father-in-law.如果你想知道自己的丈夫会不会出轨,你可以考察一下你的公公。According to a new study cheating really does run in the family, at least as far as men are concerned。一项新研究发现,出轨确实可以“世代相传”,至少对于男人是如此。The research confirming the old adage #39;like father like son’ will come as no surprise to many a woman scorned...including the wives of womanising celebrities who had cheating fathers such as Tiger Woods and Ryan Giggs。研究实了“有其父必有其子”这句老话,对于许多遭背叛的女人而言,包括那些风流成性的名人的妻子在内,这一结果并不令人意外。像“老虎”伍兹和瑞恩·吉格斯这些出轨名人的父亲都曾出轨。The study carried out by a team of Czech scientists concluded that, while men and women both had affairs, men were more likely to stray if their fathers had been unfaithful as they were growing up。由一队捷克科学家开展的这一研究得出结论说,尽管男人和女人都会出轨,但如果男人在成长过程中父亲有外遇的话,那么男人出轨的可能性更大。Presenting his research, Jan Havlicek told a conference of the European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association, that daughters were not affected in the same way by their mothers#39; infidelity。简·哈夫利切克在欧洲人类行为和进化协会的会议上提交他的研究时说,女儿不会因妈妈的不忠行为而受到同样的影响。Mr Havlicek said as boys grew up by observing the world around them what was appropriate and what they could get away with。哈夫利切克先生说,男孩在成长过程中,通过观察周围的世界得知什么样的行为是合适的,以及他们可以做什么坏事而不会受到惩罚。Their father was an obvious example to follow for good or for bad。他们的父亲显然是一个跟随的榜样,不管是好榜样还是坏榜样。The scientists based at Charles University in Prague, recruited 86 couples for the research。布拉格查尔斯大学的科学家征募了86对夫妇作为研究对象。They questioned the men and women individually and in confidence about their relationships, their attitudes towards sex, their family backgrounds and their infidelities。他们私底下单独调查了每位男性和女性,询问了他们的感情关系、对性的态度、家庭背景和出轨情况。Martie Hasleton, an evolutionary psychologist from the University of California in Los Angeles, said the fact that daughters did not appear to be as affected by parental infidelity in the same way as sons was explained by genetics。来自洛杉矶加州大学的进化心理学家玛蒂·哈斯雷顿说,女儿并不会像儿子一样受到父母不忠的影响,这一事实可以用遗传学来解释。She said good-looking fathers tend to have good-looking sons and those men tend to have more opportunity to cheat。她说,英俊的父亲通常会生出英俊的儿子,而这些男性一般会有更多的机会出轨。Attractive daughters of attractive mothers would behave differently, she said。漂亮妈妈生出的漂亮女儿则会有不同的行为。#39;Girls who are more attractive aren#39;t necessarily going to be unfaithful - they#39;re probably just going to get a higher-quality mate in the first place.#39;她说:“漂亮女孩并不一定会出轨,她们很可能最注重的是找一个优秀的伴侣。” /201211/210760

Men found it twice as hard to guess a woman’s mood than a man’s after being shown pictures of people’s eyes and estimating how they were feeling, researchers found.研究人员让男性通过看照片中人的眼神来猜测他们的心思,结果发现,男性觉得猜女性的心思要比男性的难猜得多。However, the study showed that it is not because of men’s lack of trying - the male volunteers were given brain scans while they looked at the pictures, and the data suggested an unusual reason for the difficulty in ing women’s feelings.而且研究表明,之所以会这样并不是因为男人懒得去猜——通过对男性志愿者看照片时的大脑扫描发现,男性确实很难猜透女性的心思。When looking at male eyes, men related what they saw to themselves, with the parts of their brains linked to past thoughts and feelings lighting up, the Daily Mail reported.据《每日邮报》报道,志愿者在看男性的眼睛时,往往会联想到自己,大脑中相关过去的想法与情绪会随之调动起来。The study suggested that they understood what other men felt by remembering similar moments in their own lives, and then used them to evaluate the image, the researchers said.研究人员说,研究显示,通过联想自己类似的生活经历,男性能够理解同性的感受,并对照片中的人作出猜测。But when they looked at female eyes, the men were baffled, as their brains searched for memories of when they had seen another woman who looked similar to the image, and meant men found it harder to empathise with women’s feelings.但当他们看女性的眼神时,却变得摸不着头脑,大脑不断搜寻自己看过的其他类似女性神情,自然,这样男性就很难在情绪上跟女性产生共鸣。The scientists found that the amygdala, a part of the brain believed to be important for empathy with others, showed more activity when men looked at a man, rather than a woman.科学家还发现,人脑中的杏仁体对情感共鸣起着重要作用。因此,当男性观察男性时,这部分会很活跃;如果是观察女性则不会。The researchers, from the LWL University Hospital in Bochum, western Germany, said the male ability to decipher a woman#39;s thoughts from her expression relates to earlier periods of history when being able to tell what another man was thinking – and whether he posed a threat – was much more important.在德国波鸿市的LWL大学医院,研究人员发现,男性从表情揣女性心思的能力较差也和早期历史有关,对于那时候的男性们来说,能够猜到同性的想法进而判断他是否构成威胁,是更为重要的生存能力。Commenting on the results of the study, published in journal PLoS ONE, the researchers said: “As men were more involved in hunting and territory fights, it would have been important for them to be able to predict and foresee the intentions and actions of their male rivals.”研究人员说道:“因为男性更多从事狩猎和领土争夺 ,因此对他们而言,猜测并预计男性对手的动机和行动就显得非常重要。” 此项调查的结果已经发表在了《PLoS ONE》期刊上。 /201304/236558

  

  MESOPOTAMIA, the ancient name for Iraq, means “land between the rivers”. Today, though, the lines which divide the country, not those which circumscribe it, matter most. In the north and south people are emerging from the deepest of traumas into a world of possibilities. The virtually independent Kurdish region and the oil-rich Shia provinces aly enjoy peace and a fair, or rising, degree of prosperity. Between them, though, the heart of the country is trapped in ethnic and sectarian strife, vicious political factionalism and foreign meddling. Iraq’s prime minister, Nuri al-Maliki, behaves like a mafia don; his bickering rivals look little better.美索不达米亚,伊拉克古时称谓,意谓“两河之间的土地”。可如今,分割伊拉克的线条,而非环绕限定伊拉克的条框,更重要,在北部和南部,人们已远离伤痛,奔向无限可能的世界。事实上已经独立的库尔德地区以及石油丰富的什叶派省份也已尽享和平以及不错的繁荣,而且还在不断走向繁荣。不过,在他们中间,该国的中心地区却饱受民族、宗教冲突,党派纷争以及外国势力干涉。伊拉克总理努里·卡迈勒·马利基表现得如同黑手党头目,其斗争对手也好不了多少。Ten years after the invasion grandly called Operation Iraqi Freedom, and barely 15 months after the last American troops left, the signs of their arrival and passing are scant. Aside from the giant new American embassy in the capital, Baghdad, the monuments of triumph are concrete barriers and checkpoints, fleets of discarded gas guzzlers and the jarring sight of Iraqi soldiers decked out like GIs with sunglasses over their eyes, night-vision gear strapped to their helmets, laser torches and M4 rifles by their sides. Less tangible but more pervasive are the dashed hopes and unfulfilled promises. “They spent a trillion dollars and didn’t leave us a single building,” sniffs an Iraqi politician who once cheered America’s presence.被冠以“伊拉克自由行动”的入侵已过10年,距最后一批美军离开伊拉克也刚过去15个月了,而美军到来与离去标记也明显不足。除了位于首都巴格达新建的巨型美国大使馆,美军胜利所留下的也多见于混凝土障碍、检查站,成堆废弃的燃油机动车,以及那些刺眼的伊拉克士兵,装扮的如同美国大兵,佩戴着太阳镜,头盔上系着夜视装备,身旁还配着激光电筒及M4步。而相比这些有形的,更多的是破灭的希望和不能兑现的承诺。一位曾欢呼美军入侵的伊拉克政客讽刺道:“他们花费了万亿美元却连一栋建筑都没留给我们。”That is a bit harsh. Even Iraqis with bitter memories of the invasion and occupation, the death toll from which has never been definitively established, accept that without foreign armies they could never have toppled Saddam Hussein, the tyrant who dragged the country from calamity to disaster over the three decades to 2003. “They lifted the lid on the tomb we lived in,” says Sarmand al-Taie, a newspaper columnist. “It’s not their fault we haven’t completely climbed out.” The Americans made terrible mistakes, yes, but so have we, is a common refrain.听起来可能有些刺耳。事实上,虽然伊拉克民众回忆起美军的入侵与占领还是怨恨不已,对因此而造成的死亡人数至今没有正式公布而满腹牢骚,不过他们也承认如果没有外国军事力量,他们也不可能推翻萨达姆·侯赛因--在2003年之前的30年这位暴君一步步将伊拉克由不幸拖入到无底深渊。新闻专栏记者 Sarmand al-Taie说,“我们生活在坟墓之中,美军移除了坟墓顶盖。虽然我们没有完全从中爬出来,可这不是美军的错。”美军犯了严重的错误,的确,不过我们也一样, 如此反反复复。The cities, not long after城市,不久以后Baghdad, where just under a fifth of Iraq’s 33m people now live, remains a maze of compounds and security cordons. On a recent Friday, getting from the city’s old bazaar to Firdos Square, just three kilometres (two miles) away, required a 21km detour. Iraqis endure endless checkpoint queues in return for a lower chance of being caught in a blast or shoot-out. The frequency of attacks has fallen drastically since the sectarian bloodletting of 2006-07, and seven of Iraq’s 18 provinces have murder rates lower than Canada’s. But in Baghdad and the provinces around it outrages still recur with numbing regularity. On February 17th a wave of car bombs in Shia parts of Baghdad killed at least 30 people.伊拉克3300万人中,不到五分之一居住在巴格达。如今巴格达俨然成了建筑群与安全隔离区交织的迷宫。上周五,要想从室内的老集市去三公里(2英里)之外的“天堂广场”(Firdos Square),需要绕道走21公里。伊拉克民众忍受着检查站长长的行进人群,只为降低被爆炸和战击中的几率。自2007-2007年的宗派流血以来,暴力事件发生率已急剧下降,伊拉克18各省份中的7个谋杀率比加拿大还低。不过在巴格达及周边省份暴行此起彼伏,令人麻木不仁。2月17日巴格达什叶派聚居区发生新一轮汽车爆炸,造成至少30人死亡The capital has some new buildings and fancy shop fronts. But they are rare, suggesting that private investment remains a timid trickle. Armies of street vendors plying their trade through the traffic jams reflect the fact that less than 40% of Iraqi adults have a job, and that a quarter of families live below the World Bank’s poverty line, statistics little improved since the dark days of crushing UN sanctions in the 1990s. Asked how many students Mustansiriya University has, one of them replies glumly that there are about 12,000, “which means we add 4,000 to the ranks of unemployed every year.”巴格达有些新建筑物和高档商店店面。但是这些还是很稀少,这表明私人投资仍然谨慎量出。街边小贩在拥挤的道路上做起小买卖,这反映出一个事实:伊拉克只有不到40%的人拥有工作,四分之一的家庭生活在世界公布的贫困线以下。自上世纪90年代联合国对伊实施沉重的制裁以来,统计数字并未有明显改善。当问到穆斯坦西里亚大学(Mustansiriya University)有多少学生时,其中一人伤心地说大约12000人,“这也就是说我们每年要向失业大军中输送4000人”。Umm Wafa, who with three daughters shares space among 580 other families in an abandoned military hospital on the city’s tattered outskirts, reckons just 5% of her fellow squatters earn a steady income. The house she was forced to flee in the Dora district, occupied now by hostile Sunni neighbours, stands tauntingly close. She gets no state support, and has yet to win compensation for her property despite seven years of government promises. Some 370,000 other internal refugees crowd Baghdad, half in unserviced squatter settlements.在混乱不堪的市郊,Umm Wafa 和她的三个女儿居住在一座废弃的军事医院,与他们同住的还有另外580户家庭。Umm Wafa估计在此居住的人中,只有5%的有稳定收入。她被迫离开他在多拉地区的房子。该房如今被敌对的逊尼派人霸占,嘲笑般地矗立在旁边。 她没有国家持,没有得到财产补偿,尽管政府已承诺了7年。另有国内还有37万难民涌向巴格达,其中的一半住在无人管理的棚户区。A dozen checkpoints and a 150km of potholed highway to the south the picture looks impressively different. New flyovers lit by solar-powered lamps, multi-storey car parks and flashy hotels ring the centre of Najaf, a focal point of Shia pilgrimage. The city’s biggest attraction, the shrine of Imam Ali, is getting new gilding on its dome. A 0m, 56,000 square metre extension, designed by Iranian architects, will triple its footprint. The chamber of commerce boasts of billion of foreign investment. “I’m optimistic about the future of this city,” says Haidar Salman, a professor at the city’s Islamic University, “but not so much about Iraq.”经过一系列检查站,在凹凸不平的高速公路上向南行驶150公里之后,画面截然相反,给人深刻印象。使用太阳灯能路灯的立交桥,多层停车场和光夺目的酒店环绕着纳贾夫中心--纳贾夫是什叶派的朝圣中心。该市最具吸引力的地方就是伊玛姆阿里的神殿,如今其圆顶也刚被镀上金。而由伊朗设计师设计的扩建项目将是其面积的三倍;该项目造价6亿美元,占地面积达56000平方米。商会声称外资达到70亿美元。该市伊斯兰大学的教授Haidar Salman表示:“我对该市的未来很乐观,不过对伊拉克我就没这么乐观了。”Najaf’s Shia seminaries, historically pre-eminent, were overshadowed during Saddam’s rule by those of the rival Iranian holy city of Qom. Now they have reclaimed their place, says Sheikh Fouad al-Torfi, a mullah imprisoned by both Saddam and the Americans. Najaf’s Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani is accepted by nearly all the world’s 150m Shias as the brightest light of the age. Most Shia religious authorities, Iranians among them, have opened offices here, some attracted by greater freedom compared with Qom.纳贾夫的什叶派神学院在历史上杰出非凡,不过在萨达姆统治时期却在伊朗圣城库姆的竞争下,不禁黯然失色。毛拉(伊斯兰教神学家)Sheikh Fouad al-Torfi说,如今这些学院已重夺其地位。Sheikh Fouad al-Torfi曾被萨达姆和美军曾囚禁过。纳贾夫大阿雅图拉西斯塔尼(Ali al-Sistani)几乎被全球一亿五千万什叶派民众接受为当今最明亮的星光。大多数的什叶派当局,包括伊朗,都在该地设有办公室,其中的因该地比库姆拥有更大的自由而被吸引过来。The Shia Mecca’s revival is fuelled by a dynamic private sector. The same is true of Kurdistan, which is also booming; it even enjoys power 24 hours a day. In the centre, though, creaky bureaucracy, bickering politicians and lingering insecurity stymie Iraq’s progress. The state employs 3.5m people—65% of the workforce—and accounts for 70% of GDP. It relies for its income almost entirely on oil revenues, which now average billion a month. A recent survey by the International Energy Agency suggests exports could double by 2020, though this will not be easy (see box on next page).私营部门的活跃也刺激了什叶派麦加的复苏。同样繁荣的还有库尔德斯坦,那里每天24小时电力供应。尽管在伊拉克中心,腐朽的官僚主义、喋喋不休的政客以及挥之不去的安全隐患都阻碍了该国的发展。国家雇佣了350万人--65%的劳动力--贡献了GDP的70%。国家收入几乎全部依赖石油收入,如今平均月收入达到80亿美元。国际能源署的最新报告显示到2020年,出口将加倍,尽管实现起来并不轻松(见下页图表)In much of the country the private sector is shackled. The World Bank ranks Iraq 165th out of the 185 places rated in its latest index on the ease of doing business; it says that shipping a container in or out of Iraq takes four times as long, and costs three times as much, as it tends to elsewhere in the region. Worse, the bank reports no legislative attempts in the past five years to make access to credit easier or speed the procedures to start a business. Iraq’s lawmakers have been too busy fighting political battles and dividing spoils among parties to attend to such practicalities. The electricity in Baghdad seldom stays on more than a few hours at a time, though new plants are being built.伊拉克大部分地区,私营部门备受束缚。在世界评估的185个国家经商容易度指数中,伊拉克排在第165位。世行表示向伊拉克进出集装箱所花费的时间是向该地区其他国家进出的4倍,花费也是其他国家的三倍。更糟糕的是,世行表示在过去的五年伊拉克并没有进行立法以使信贷更便捷或加快开办生意流程。伊拉克立法员一直忙于政治相斗和分割党派战利品,根本无暇顾及这些事务。巴格达电力供应很难一次维持数小时,尽管新工厂还在不断新建。Najaf and the south are doing so much better than Baghdad largely because the Shia majority there feels satisfied with the post-war settlement. From 1546, when the port city of Basra was captured by the Ottoman empire, to the invasion of 2003, Sunni-led states held sway over the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, although the most thickly populated part of the country, south of Baghdad, is largely Shia (see map). The Shia sense of disenfranchisement peaked under Saddam and his mostly Sunni henchmen, whose notion of nation-building included genocide against Kurds and mass execution for members of Shia religious parties they thought allied to Iran. The regime’s previously indiscriminate brutality took a sectarian turn after a failed Shia uprising in 1991.纳贾夫及南部地区比巴格达表现得如此之好很大程度上是因为两地的主要派什叶派对战后稳定秩序满意。从1546年港口城市巴士拉被奥斯曼帝国占领到2003年美军入侵,逊尼派领导的政府一直统治着底格里斯河和幼发拉底河流域,尽管伊拉克大部分人口稠密的地区,如巴格达南部,逊尼派是主体。什叶派对公民权被剥夺的意识在萨达姆及其主要是逊尼派追随者的统治下达到最高峰,萨达姆建国的计划就包括对库尔德人实行种族灭绝,对他们声称与伊朗有联系的什叶派团体成员实行大规模杀戮。1991年什叶派起义失败后,萨达姆政权先前不分青红皂白的残暴蛮横开始转向宗派上来。Understandably, Shias are tempted to regard their current dominance of Iraqi politics with righteous triumphalism. Since the first democratic elections in 2005, Shia-led parties, many of them with clerical or Islamist roots, have had a majority in Iraq’s parliament, as well as the prime minister’s office. They control local government in nine southern provinces. Ordinary Shias share the Najafi businessman’s contempt for Baghdad’s political logjam. Sunni claims of having become Iraq’s new, marginalised underclass fall on deaf ears.这也就很容易理解,如今什叶派试图捍卫在伊拉克政治的优势地位,坚信正义必胜。2005年伊拉克举行首次民主选举以来,什叶派领导的政党--其中的许多有着教士或伊斯兰根源,如今在伊拉克议会,以及总理办公室都占多数。在南部九个省份,他们也控制着当地政府。普通什叶派民众也和纳贾夫的商人一样,对巴格达政治僵局嗤之以鼻。逊尼派声称已成为伊拉克新一批被边缘化的下层民众,却并未被理睬。After the tables turned局势转变之后,Since mid-December mass protests in the style of the Arab spring have kicked off in Sunni-majority provinces to the north and west of Baghdad. The trigger was the arrest of more than 100 men in the entourage of Rafi Issawi, Mr Maliki’s Sunni minister of finance. A similar move by police units controlled by the prime minister forced Tariq al-Hashemi, a Sunni deputy prime minister, into exile in 2011. In Mr Issawi’s case all but nine bodyguards were soon released, but the arrests still raised simmering Sunni anger to its boiling point.自12月中期以来,在巴格达北部、西部以逊尼派为主体的省份爆发了类似阿拉伯之春的大规模游行示威。导火索就是100多名·埃萨维(Rafi Issawi)的工作人员遭到逮捕。·埃萨维是马利基政府内的逊尼派财政部长。而此前,由总理控制的警察局也有过类似的行动:2011年迫使逊尼派副总统塔里克·哈希米(Tariq al-Hashemi)流往国外。在埃萨维事件中,九名保镖将很快获释,但是其余工作人员依然被关押,这无疑还是会将逊尼派激怒到爆发点。That should have come as no surprise. Diplomats reckon that Iraq’s myriad security services in recent months have held something like 10,000 people, disproportionately Sunnis, in custody on terrorism-related charges. This is similar to the number once held by American forces. The Baghdad government has suspended salaries the Americans paid to Sunni militiamen. The residents of some Sunni parts of Baghdad are subjected to humiliating searches when leaving their neighbourhoods; on Fridays, days of prayer and protest, they are not let out at all.这也在意料之中。外交官员估计伊拉克庞大的安全机构在最近数月拘捕了约10000人,其中的逊尼派比例严重失衡,他们都因与恐怖组织相关连而被收押。这与美军曾关押的数字大抵相当。伊拉克政府也冻结了美军付给逊尼派军事人员的薪水。巴格达部分逊尼派聚居区的民众离开家后便遭到羞辱性的搜查;在周五的祷告日和游行示威期间,他们更是不能出门。Mr Maliki has responded to Sunni protests with concessions, promises and veiled threats. A committee he formed to hear their demands says it has released more than 2,000 prisoners, and resumed or increased salaries for 74,000 militiamen. Despite one incident in January when police opened fire on a mob in Falluja, an ever-restive Sunni city, killing five, security forces have for the most part avoided confronting protesters.马利基在回应逊尼派的抗议时,做出了让步、承诺以及隐含的威胁。马利基组建了一个专门的委员会,倾听示威者的要求。该委员会表示已释放2000多名嫌犯,重新发放并提高了74000名军事人员的薪水。尽管一月份在费卢杰(Falluja)--顽固无比的逊尼派城市,警方朝示威人群开火,造成五人死亡,但是安全部队在大多数情况下一直避免正面对抗示威者。Shia politicians warn that their own constituents are increasingly alarmed by the sight of Baathist slogans and jihadist banners in the Sunni protests. They are terrified that the increasingly sectarian civil war in Syria could create a hostile, Sunni-led post-Assad neighbour. Some speak of the need to rearm and prepare for another round of sectarian conflict.什叶派政客警告称,其本派民众也越来越担心逊尼派示威游行中出现的复兴社会党(Baathist)的口号及圣战组织标语。他们担心叙利亚不断升级的宗派内战会促使产生一个充满敌意的、逊尼派领导的持阿萨德的团体。一些人则指出需要重新武装,为新一轮的宗派争斗做准备。Mr Maliki, who first came to power as a compromise prime minister in 2005 and then patched together a flimsy government in 2010, bears much of the blame for provoking these tensions. The move against Mr Issawi baffled Iraqi and foreign observers, who see Mr Maliki’s grudging response to the subsequent anger as foolishly inadequate. The grievances of the Sunnis who feel ignored go beyond salaries and harsh policing to a more general anger over rampant corruption and resentment of Mr Maliki’s dictatorial tendencies.2005年各方妥协之下马利基首次就任伊拉克总理,随后于2010年拼凑脆弱的新一届政府。如今对局势的不断激化紧张,马利基承担大部分责任。这起针对埃萨维行动使得伊拉克国内及国外的观察者难以理解。他们认为马利基对随之而发生的怨恨回应过于吝啬,愚蠢可笑。逊尼派民众感到备受忽视,他们已由原先对薪水及暴力执法的愤怒,演变为对贪污成风的普遍恼怒,对马利基政府越来越独裁的怨恨。Yet most observers seem to think Iraq can avoid returning to mayhem. Few in Iraq’s political class relish the idea of renewed conflict, says a London-based analyst. He cites as positive signs that Sunni protests have remained peaceful so far, and that calls for the removal of Mr Maliki or scrapping the 2005 constitution, the drafting of which most Sunni politicians boycotted to their later regret, have failed to gain traction. Some Shia politicians, including Muqtada al-Sadr, a young cleric with a strong following who was long branded a dangerous firebrand, have even voiced sympathy with Sunni demands.不过大部分观察家倾向于伊拉克可以避免重返混乱无序的状态。伦敦的一位分析家表示,在伊拉克政治阶层,几乎没有人考虑重挑争端。逊尼派的游行示威迄今和平有序;要求罢免马利基或废除2005年宪法(绝大多数的逊尼派后来后悔抵制该法的起草)的呼声也没能得到响应。他表示这些都是积极的信号。Muqtada al-Sadr是位年轻的牧师,拥有很强的号召力,长期以来一直被视为是危险的煽动叛乱的人。如今他和其他一些什叶派政治家呼吁关心同情逊尼派的诉求。If there is no dire reason to fear things getting worse, though, there is not much hope for improvement either. Iraq’s politics are a mess of micro-parties in ever-shifting alliances. In the 2010 elections a centrist, secular-leaning bloc, Iraqiya, actually won more seats than Mr Maliki’s party, but fell to bickering amid the peculiar reluctance of its leader, Iyad Allawi, to visit parliament. The political class’s rejection of seemingly sensible reforms and proclivity for intrigue and factionalism have strengthened Mr Maliki as much as his determination to divide and rule.如果没有极端的理由担心局势会变得更差,可是,也没有多少希望局势复苏的希望。伊拉克的政治就是些混乱不堪的小党派,党派同盟变化无常。2010年选举时,中间派的、世俗倾向的的政党联盟“伊拉克名单”(Iraqiya)实际上比马利基的政党多两票,但奇怪的是,其领导人阿拉维不情愿访问议会,联盟陷入争吵。政治阶层拒绝看起来合理的改革,不再理会尔虞我诈和党派纷争,巩固了马利基的地位,以及其分而治之的决心。Trouble with the neighbours与邻之争Mr Maliki’s efforts to control military appointments, his use of state perks to woo defections from opposition blocs, his abuse of police power and his increasingly brazen appeals to Shia sentiment are all lamentable. Yet these may also be seen as natural responses to the pressures on him. “I’m not sure that anyone else would act much different, and it’s not as if the opposition are offering any alternative,” says a diplomat in Baghdad.马利基竭力谋求掌控军队任命权,利用国家特权拉拢反对派头程叛变,滥用警力,变得愈发厚颜无耻得迎合什叶派感情。这的确可悲可叹。不过,这也可以看做是马利基深处压力之中的本能反应罢了。巴格达一名外交官员表示:”我不确定其他人会不会有所不同,反对派似乎也不能提供可选方案。”Western diplomats are often irked by the blind eye Mr Maliki turns to Iranian influence in the country—but they also understand that it is inevitable. The Islamic Republic sponsors several armed and virulently sectarian Shia factions. It also, to the annoyance of Western countries and Sunnis, flies regular cargoes over Iraqi airspace to bolster the flailing Assad regime in Syria. But this does not mean that Iraq is fully under Iranian sway. Very few of Iraq’s Shia leaders subscribe to Iran’s state ideology of velayat-e faqih, the guardianship of the jurist. And in increasing its oil exports[做状语,其中的its是指伊拉克] Iraq is clearly pursuing its own interests, not its neighbour’s. The extent to which Iraqi exports have steadied oil prices vexes the cash-strapped and sanctions-crippled regime next door.马利基对伊朗在伊拉克的影响熟视无睹,这使得西方外交官愤怒不已,不过他们也知道这无可避免。因为伊朗这个伊斯兰共和国持了不少武装及危险的什叶派宗教团体。使西方国家及逊尼派愤怒的是,伊朗还定期飞越伊拉克上空,向垂死挣扎的叙利亚阿萨德政权提供货物。不过这并不是说伊拉克完全受伊朗影响。几乎没有伊拉克什叶派领导人赞同伊朗的法基赫的监护(velayat-e faqih)国家理念。伊拉克不断提高石油出口量,很明显其要保护本国的利益,而非邻国伊朗的。伊拉克出口在多大程度上稳定了油价,这使得缺乏现金、饱受制裁之困的隔壁烦恼不已。“We share Iran’s concerns about Syria, but not its strategic interests,” explains Naama Obaidi, a cleric who runs a Najaf think-tank. “And we respect that Iran, which fought a long war with us, and faces big threats, should exert lots of its intelligence effort here.” But while Iraq is willing to accommodate Iran, he says, it will not embrace it fully—unless pushed by fear of its Sunni neighbours.在纳贾夫运营着一家智库的牧师Naama Obaidi说:”我们赞同伊朗对叙利亚的关切,而非赞同其战略利益。”“伊朗曾与我们交战多年,如今也面临巨大威胁。我们认为伊朗应将其才能发挥在这些地方。”他还表示:“尽管伊拉克愿意接受伊朗,但并不会完全敞开怀抱,除非担心被其逊尼派近邻所逼。”One of those is Turkey, which has often appeared to consider Iraq’s Shia-dominated government as a catspaw for Iran and acted accordingly. Turkey’s prime minister, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, has repeatedly clashed with Mr Maliki. Iraqi officials contend that their neighbour to the north, which runs a thriving billion trade with Iraq, has promoted both Kurdish and Sunni obstinacy in dealing with Baghdad. A Western official says that it would be hard to exaggerate Turkey’s recklessness.其中的一个近邻就是土耳其。土耳其常视伊拉克什叶派政府为伊朗的爪牙,并采取相应行动。土耳其总理雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)常常与马利基总理恶语相向。伊拉克官员很高兴看到,其北方近邻土耳其在库尔德人和逊尼派顽固者与巴格达交往中推动作用。土耳其与伊拉克的贸易也蒸蒸日上,达到了170亿美元。一位西方官员表示很难夸大土耳其的轻率鲁莽。Mr Maliki will probably serve out the rest of his current term, which ends in April 2014. That is not good news for Iraq, but not entirely bad, either. Just keeping a lid on things, as oil revenues grow and begin to percolate downwards, may be a realistic ambition for a country divided internally and surrounded by strife. Muwafaq al-Rubaie, a former national security adviser of courtly demeanour who displays the noose that hanged Saddam in his heavily guarded villa beside the Tigris, insists that Iraq’s trajectory is generally upwards, not steeply so but recognisably. “Compromise in Arabic is a bad word,” he says, “but reaching it at the eleventh hour is one thing we have learned.”马利基可能会继续其剩余任期,直到2014年4月。对伊拉克来说,这不是个消息,不过也不是个很坏的消息。随着石油收入增加,并开始流入民间,仅仅控制某些事情,对国内四分五裂、争吵不断的伊拉克来说也许也是一个现实的目标。举止典雅的前国家安全顾问Muwafaq al-Rubaie在底格里斯河旁戒备深严的别墅里展示了绞死萨达姆的绳套,他坚信伊拉克的轨道前进上升的,而非大起大落,很容易辨认。他还说:”妥协在阿拉伯是个糟糕的词汇,但是在最后一刻妥协是我们必须学会的东西。 /201303/232640。

  

  Watching a horror film could burn off a whole bar of chocolate, according to new research released today.根据今天发布的最新研究,观看一部恐怖片让人消耗的热量相当于一根巧克力棒所含的热量。Viewers who put themselves through 90 minutes of adrenaline-pumping terror can use up as much as 113 calories, close to the amount burned during a half-hour walk and the equivalent to a chocolate bar.看完90分钟恐怖片可以使人消耗多达113卡路里的热量,接近于散步半小时,或者一根巧克力棒所含的热量。The movie top of the list of calorie-burners was found to be the 1980 psychological thriller The Shining, with the average viewer using up a whopping 184 calories.位居十大最能燃烧卡路里的恐怖片榜单之首的是1980年的心理惊悚片《闪灵》,平均每位观看者会消耗多达184卡路里的热量。Jaws took the runner-up spot, with viewers burning on average 161 calories, and The Exorcist came third, with 158 calories.排在第二位的是《大白鲨》,观看者平均消耗161卡路里热量;排在第三的是《驱魔人》,平均消耗量为158卡路里。The University of Westminster study measured the total energy expenditure of ten different people as they watched a selection of frightening movies.这项研究由威斯敏斯特大学开展,评估了10名受访者在观看所挑选出的恐怖电影时的总能量消耗。Scientists recorded their heart rate, oxygen intake and carbon dioxide output - and discovered the number of calories used increased by on average a third during the films.科学家记录了他们的心跳、摄氧量和二氧化碳排出量,发现在观看恐怖片时,受访者的卡路里消耗平均增加了三分之一。The research also revealed films featuring moments designed to make viewers jump in terror are the best calorie-burners, as they cause heart rates to soar.研究还显示,设计有极度惊恐场景的电影消耗的热量最多,因为这能让观看者的心跳迅速加快。Dr Richard Mackenzie, senior lecturer and specialist in cell metabolism and physiology at the University of Westminster, said: ;Each of the ten films tested set pulses racing, sparking an increase in the heart rate of the case studies.理查德-麦肯齐士说:“调查选用的十部恐怖片都会使人血脉贲张,使被调查者心跳加速。”麦肯齐士是威斯敏斯特大学细胞代谢与生理学的高级讲师和专家。;As the pulse quickens and blood pumps around the body faster, the body experiences a surge in adrenaline.“随着心跳加快、全身血流加快,体内肾上腺素水平也随之上升。”;It is this release of fast acting adrenaline, produced during short bursts of intense stress (or in this case, brought on by fear), which is known to lower the appetite, increase the Basal Metabolic Rate and ultimately burn a higher level of calories.;“正是由于身体里释放出能迅速起效的肾上腺素,导致基础新陈代谢率上升,最终使身体燃烧掉更多的卡路里。人体突然感受到强烈压力(在该研究中是由于恐惧)暴发时会释放肾上腺素,肾上腺素也会使人降低食欲。”Helen Cowley, editor of the movie rental company LOVEFiLM - which commissioned the University of Westminster study - said: ;We all know the feeling of wanting to hide behind the sofa or grab a pillow when watching scary or hair raising scenes, but this research suggests that maybe those seeking to burn some calories should keep their eyes on the screen.;委托开展该调查的电影租赁公司“爱情影片”的编辑海伦-考利说:“我们都曾有过看恐怖片时想躲到沙发后面或者抱住枕头的经历,但这项研究告诉我们,想减肥的人们应该盯紧屏幕。”The top 10 calorie-burning frightening films were:十大最能燃烧卡路里的恐怖片:1. The Shining: 184 calories1. 《闪灵》: 184卡路里2. Jaws: 161 calories2. 《大白鲨》: 161卡路里3. The Exorcist: 158 calories3. 《驱魔人》: 158卡路里4. Alien: 152 calories4. 《异形》: 152卡路里5. Saw: 133 calories5. 《电锯惊魂》: 133卡路里6. A Nightmare on Elm Street: 118 calories6. 《半夜鬼上床》: 118卡路里7. Paranormal Activity: 111 calories7. 《灵动:鬼影实录》: 111卡路里8. The Blair Witch Project: 105 calories8. 《女巫布莱尔》: 105卡路里9. The Texas Chain Saw Massacre: 107 calories9. 《德州电锯杀人狂》: 107卡路里10. [Rec]: 101 calories10.《死亡录像》: 101卡路里 /201210/206505

  Do you know how old your kids#39; arteries are?你知道自己孩子的动脉有多老吗?It#39;s a potentially important question as scientists increasingly uncover links between healthy habits in childhood and risk for heart disease later in life. And there are growing concerns about the cardiovascular health of millions of children in the U.S. who are considered obese or overweight.这个问题可能很重要,因为科学家们越来越多地发现,人们儿时的健康习惯与日后罹患心脏病的风险之间存在关联。在美国,被视为肥胖或超重的儿童数以百万计,围绕他们心血管健康的担忧正在与日俱增。A new study suggests there is a simple way to assess a child#39;s arterial health with a calculation based on an often-overlooked component of cholesterol: triglycerides.一项新的研究表明,有一种评估儿童动脉健康的简便方法,即以甘油三酯──胆固醇中一个常常被忽略掉的成分──为基础来进行计算。The calculation is the ratio of triglycerides to HDL, or good cholesterol. It can be easily determined from a standard cholesterol blood test. In the study, based on nearly 900 children and young adults, researchers at Cincinnati Children#39;s Hospital Medical Center found that the higher the ratio, the greater the likelihood a child would have stiff and damaged arteries.这就是要算出甘油三酯与高密度脂蛋白(又名有益胆固醇)的比值,这个数值通过一项常规的胆固醇血检便能轻易得出。该研究共涉及近900名儿童及青少年。辛辛那提儿童医学中心(Cincinnati Children#39;s Hospital Medical Center)的研究人员发现,这个比值越高,儿童动脉硬化或动脉受损的可能性就越大。#39;We are demonstrating vascular changes in supposedly healthy adolescents,#39; said Elaine Urbina, head of preventive cardiology at Cincinnati Children#39;s and lead author of the study. #39;Stiff vessels make your heart work harder. It isn#39;t good for you.#39; The study was published in the journal Pediatrics in April.图:如何从小预防心血管疾病该研究的首席作者、辛辛那提儿童医学中心预防心脏病学主管伊莱恩#8226;乌尔比纳(Elaine Urbina)说:“我们正在论那些据称身体健康的青少年的血管变化。血管硬化会加重你的心脏工作负担。这对你并无益处。”这项研究于4月份发表在《儿科学》(Pediatrics)杂志上。The problem is also called hardening of the arteries. In adults it typically arises from a combination of aging and the cumulative impact of blood pressure, cholesterol and other assaults on the walls of blood vessels over decades of life. It carries heightened risk for heart attacks, strokes and sudden death.这个问题也被称作动脉硬化。成年人之所以会出现动脉硬化通常是因为身体老化和血压、胆固醇及其他一些血管壁毛病长年累月影响共同作用的结果。而动脉硬化则会使人们罹患心脏病、中风或突然死亡的风险增高。When it shows up in children, it#39;s a sign of #39;accelerated aging,#39; Dr. Urbina said, and likely raises the risk of dangerous outcomes relatively early in adult life. The good news is that doctors believe health can be restored to young people#39;s arteries with regular physical activity and a healthy diet. This includes cutting back on sugary beverages and foods high in carbohydrates such as potatoes, white rice and pasta.乌尔比纳士说,当这个问题出现在儿童身上时,它就是“加速老化”的迹象,它还可能增高人们在青壮年时期罹患重病的风险。好消息是,医生们相信,通过进行常规的身体锻炼及保持健康的饮食,年轻人的动脉便能重获健康。保持健康的饮食包括要少喝含糖饮料、少吃像土豆、白米饭和意大利面这样的高碳水化合物食品。In late 2011, concern that a generation of children is growing up with aly established heart risks prompted federal health officials with the support of the American Academy of Pediatrics to recommend universal cholesterol screening for kids, preferably between ages 9 and 11.2011年末,出于对一代儿童将会伴随业已形成的心脏病风险成长起来的担忧,联邦健康官员在美国儿科学会(American Academy of Pediatrics)的持下推介了普遍适用于儿童──最适用于那些年龄在9到11岁间孩子──的胆固醇筛查机制。Generally, the focus of attention in such tests is LDL, or bad cholesterol, which at high levels has long been associated with increased chances of heart attacks and strokes. A large body of evidence shows that heart risk can be reduced by lowering LDL with one of a class of drugs called statins.一般来说,这类测试的关注焦点在低密度脂蛋白(又名有害胆固醇)身上。低密度脂蛋白偏高长期以来都与心脏病和中风机率增高息息相关。大量的据表明,通过用一类名为斯达汀(statins)的药物降低低密度脂蛋白可以减少心脏病发病风险。But high triglycerides and low HDL─the other components that are measured in a standard cholesterol blood test─are a hallmark reflection of the poor diets and sedentary lifestyles that researchers say are behind the wide prevalence of obesity among both children and adults. These markers may get less attention because efforts to develop drugs that prevent serious events by manipulating either component have come up short.但甘油三酯偏高且高密度脂蛋白偏低──后者是另一种在常规胆固醇血检可以测量出的元素──是饮食不良、久坐不动生活方式的一个特征体现。研究人员说,它们是众多儿童和成年人变得肥胖的原因。但这些诱因可能不再那么受人关注,因为人们研发药物的诸多努力成效不大──他们是通过控制其中任一元素来研发那些预防严重疾病的药物的。Triglycerides amount to an indicator of both fat and sugar in the blood stream. Dr. Urbina describes them to patients as having a backbone of fat with three (tri) sugars (glycerides) attached.甘油三酯相当于一项能显示出血液中脂肪和糖份含量的指标。乌尔比纳向患者形容说,这就像一根附带了三种糖(甘油脂)的脂肪脊柱。Other research has linked a high triglyceride-to-HDL ratio to arterial stiffness in adults. Dr. Urbina and her colleagues wondered whether a similar correlation existed in children and young people.其他的研究已将成年人甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白比值偏高的情况与动脉硬化联系了起来。乌尔比纳和她的同事想知道,在儿童和青少年身上是否也存在着一种与此相似的关联性。Participants in the study, who ranged in age from 10 to 26, underwent fasting tests for cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar and other heart-risk markers. They also had three different noninvasive tests that measure elasticity in blood vessels.该研究的参与者年龄在10到26岁之间,他们都做了胆固醇、血压、血糖和其他心脏病风险指标的空腹检查。他们还进行了三项不同的、旨在测量血管弹性的无创检测。One third of the participants were found to have stiff arteries based on one of the elasticity tests; 13% had abnormalities on two of the tests and 3% had arterial stiffness according to all three tests.结果发现,有三分之一的参与者在其中一项血管弹性检测中被查出有动脉硬化;13%的人在其中两项检测中被查出指标不正常;有3%的人在经过全部三项检查后被认定为动脉硬化。The researchers found a #39;progressive rise#39; in both heart-related risk factors and stiff arteries as the triglyceride-to-HDL ratio increased.研究人员发现,随着甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白比值增高,心脏病相关的风险因素和动脉硬化状况也均随之“逐步上升”。The study wasn#39;t large enough or intended to establish when a ratio is #39;healthy#39; or when especially aggressive treatment is called for. That will require additional research. But scientists found that the 378 participants whose ratio was in the highest of three groups had an average ratio of 2.7.但该研究涉及范围不够广,或者说它并未打算去设立一个标准:即何时一个比值才算得上“健康”或患者什么时候需要实施特别积极的治疗。所以这就需要再进行额外的研究。但科学家们也发现,在三组当中比值最高的378名参与者的平均比值为2.7。What this shows #39;is that being overweight and the cholesterol problems that often accompany it have an important impact on your blood vessels,#39; said Sarah de Ferranti, director of preventive cardiology at Boston Children#39;s Hospital, who wasn#39;t involved with the study. A direct correlation to damaged blood vessels in kids hadn#39;t previously been shown.波士顿儿童医院(Boston Children#39;s Hospital)预防心脏病学主管萨拉#8226;德#8226;费伦蒂(Sarah de Ferranti)并未参与上述研究,她说,该研究告诉我们“体重超重和常常与之伴生的胆固醇问题会对你的血管产生重要的影响。”但之前的研究并未表明,儿童体内受损的血管与超重有什么直接的关系。Dr. de Ferranti, a pediatrician, said that based on the study, #39;I would worry more about my patients in the realm#39; of 2.7 or higher.儿科医生费伦蒂说,基于这项研究,“我将会更担心我的那些患者中比值等于或高于2.7的人。”The American Heart Association recommends adults maintain an HDL level of at least 40 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) for men and 50 mg/dL for women, and preferably higher. Triglycerides for adults should be below 150 mg/dL, with lower being better. The ratio using these numbers is higher than that found in the study. That is partly because children generally have lower triglyceride levels than those of adults.美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)建议成年男子将高密度脂蛋白保持在至少40毫克/分升的水平,成年女子则为50毫克/分升,最好比这个数值再高一些。而成年人的甘油三酯水平则应低于150毫克/分升,数值再低些会更好。与该项研究中发现的数字相比,用这些数字算出来的比值会更高,部分原因在于儿童体内的甘油三酯水平一般比成年人更低。Dr. Urbina sometimes prescribes a prescription form of fish oil for patients with persistently high triglycerides; neither its benefit in children nor long-term impact among adults and children has been determined. Generally doctors are reluctant to give medications to children with the problem. Lifestyle change, including diet and exercise, is the mainstay remedy, although it poses big challenges.乌尔比纳有时会向甘油三酯居高不下的患者以处方药形式开出鱼油药方。但该药方对儿童是否有所裨益、对成年人和儿童是否会产生长期影响,迄今都尚无定论。一般来说,医生都不太愿意向患有此类疾病的儿童开药。尽管困难重重、充满挑战,但包括饮食和锻炼在内的生活方式的转变才是主要补救办法。A major strategy for doctors is getting kids to avoid or sharply reduce consumption of sugary beverages, including sodas and sports drinks, big contributors to triglyceride levels.医生的一个主要策略就是让孩子们不喝或者少喝包括苏打水和运动饮料在内的含糖饮料,这对改善其甘油三酯水平颇有裨益。#39;It#39;s incredibly difficult to scale a kid down to the recommended 50 grams of sugar when a juice box has 24,#39; said Heather Vanderhaar, of suburban Cincinnati. Ms. Vanderhaar#39;s two boys, Benjamin, 12, and Maxwell, 10, have a genetic condition that results in elevated triglyceride levels. They are working with Dr. Urbina to keep those levels under control.家住辛辛那提郊区的希瑟#8226;范德哈尔(Heather Vanderhaar)说:“一盒果汁就含有24克糖,这种情况下让孩子将饮用量减到推荐的50克,太难了。”范德哈尔太太的两个儿子──12岁的本杰明(Benjamin)和10岁的麦克斯韦(Maxwell)──他们天生的身体条件就会导致甘油三酯水平偏高。为了将体内的甘油三酯水平维持在可控范围内,他们一直在乌尔比纳那儿就医。#39;At this point they#39;re maintaining,#39; Ms. Vanderhaar said. School sports and bike riding are among their physical activities. The boys aren#39;t allowed soda, cookies or junk food. #39;We allow them to have treats but in moderation,#39; she said. #39;The thinking is if you start early, you can reverse any damage done to your arteries.#39;范德哈尔太太说:“他们目前病情稳定。”学校的运动和自行车骑行都在两兄弟的活动范畴之内。但他们不许喝苏打水、不能吃曲奇或垃圾食品。范德哈尔太太还说:“我们允许他们犒劳自己,但要适量。这么做是基于这样的想法:如果你早点行动,你还能修复动脉已受到的损害。”Molly and Kate Cassabon, 18-year-old identical twins from Waterville, Ohio, went for two years putting on substantial weight before their problem was diagnosed at age 10 as genetically high triglycerides that exceeded 800 mg/dL. Their grade school installed an automated external defibrillator out of fear that either of the girls could collapse at any moment from a heart attack.来自俄亥俄州沃特维尔(Waterville, Ohio)的同卵双胞胎莫莉(Molly)和凯特#8226;卡萨(Kate Cassabon)在10岁那年被诊断为先天性甘油三酯水平偏高──比正常值整整超出800毫克/分升,而在这之前的两年,她们长胖了不少。由于担心两中的任何一个人可能会因为突发心脏病而倒下,她们就读的小学安装了一个自动体外心脏除颤器。Dr. Urbina prescribes a prescription form of fish oil pills to help reduce triglycerides. Lately, work at portion control and a weekly session with a personal trainer contributed in March to #39;the most improvement they#39;ve ever shown#39; during a checkup with Dr. Urbina, their mother, Sally Cassabon, said. Their triglycerides dipped below 200 mg/dL, still short of a goal of below 150 mg/dL, but enough to help them each lose at least 25 pounds.乌尔比纳以处方药形式开出鱼油药丸用以帮助减少甘油三酯。双胞胎的妈妈萨利#8226;卡萨(Sally Cassabon)说,最近,孩子们在饮食上的份量控制和每周一次与私人教练的会面使她们在3月份接受乌尔比纳士检查时“表现出有史以来最明显的改善”。她们的甘油三酯已骤降至200毫克/分升以下,虽然还没有达到低于150毫克/分升的目标值,但足以帮她们减掉25磅(约合11.3公斤)。 /201305/240019If you are alone, I#39;ll be your shadow. If you want to cry, I#39;ll be your shoulder.If you want a hug, I#39;ll be your pillow. 如果你感到孤独,我做你的影子。如果你想哭泣,我做你的肩膀。如果你想要拥抱,我做你的枕头。If you need to be happy, I#39;ll be your smile. If you need money...wait for your salary.如果你想要快乐,我做你的微笑。如果你想要钱……等着发工资吧! /201307/247059

  Can man and women ever be “just friends”? Few other questions have provoked debates as intense, family dinners as awkward, literature as lurid, or movies as memorable. Still, the question remains unanswered. Daily experience suggests that non-romantic friendships between males and females are not only possible, but common—men and women live, work, and play side-by-side.异性恋的男女可以做到“只是朋友”吗?没有别的问题可以像这个问题一样引出热烈的讨论了:像家宴一样尴尬,像文学一样动人,像电影一样难忘。而这个问题依然没有得到解答。日常经验表明,男女之间不带浪漫色的纯友谊关系不仅可能,而且十分普遍——男女可以一起生活、工作、并肩玩乐。However, the possibility remains that this apparently platonic coexistence is merely a faccedil;ade. New research suggests that there may be some truth to this possibility—that we may think we’re capable of being “just friends” with members of the opposite sex, but the opportunity (or perceived opportunity) for “romance” is often lurking just around the corner, waiting to pounce at the most inopportune moment.然而,这种柏拉图式的共处可能只是表面现象。新的研究显示,虽然这种可能性也许是有事实依据的:我们可能认为自己有能力和异性“只做朋友”,然而“浪漫”的机会(或者说感觉到的机会)通常就藏在某个角落,等待一个最不凑巧的时刻迸发。In order to investigate the viability of truly platonic opposite-sex friendships, researchers brought 88 pairs of undergraduate opposite-sex friends into a science lab. Privacy was paramount—for example, imagine the fallout if two friends learned that one—and only one—had unspoken romantic feelings for the other throughout their relationship.为了调查单纯的柏拉图式异性友谊的可行性,研究人员将88对异性大学生朋友带入了一间实验室。隐私是最重要的。比如说想象一下,假设两个朋友发现其中一人(单方面)在两人的关系中对另一个人有还没说出口的浪漫感觉,那会很尴尬。In order to ensure honest responses, the researchers not only followed standard protocols regarding anonymity and confidentiality, but also required both friends to agree—verbally, and in front of each other—to refrain from discussing the study, even after they had left the testing facility. These friendship pairs were then separated, and each member of each pair was asked a series of questions related to his or her romantic feelings (or lack thereof) toward the friend with whom they were taking the study.为了确保得到真实的反馈,研究人员不仅遵循匿名和保密的标准协议,而且要求每一对朋友都同意在对方面前不要讨论这项研究,哪怕在他们结束试验后也不行。之后这些朋友被分开,每一对朋友都分别被询问一系列关于他/她对另一人的浪漫感觉(或者没有感觉)的问题。The results suggest large gender differences in how men and women experience opposite-sex friendships. Men were much more attracted to their female friends than vice versa. Men were also more likely than women to think that their opposite-sex friends were attracted to them—a clearly misguided belief.结果表明,男女对待异性友谊的感受存在巨大的性别差异。和女性相比,男性更容易被异性朋友所吸引,也更容易认为异性朋友被自己所吸引——这显然是自我感觉良好。In fact, men’s estimates of how attractive they were to their female friends had virtually nothing to do with how these women actually felt, and almost everything to do with how the men themselves felt—basically, males assumed that any romantic attraction they experienced was mutual, and were blind to the actual level of romantic interest felt by their female friends.事实上,男性对于自己对女性朋友的吸引程度的估计和这些女性的真实感受完全无关,几乎都是这些男性自己的感觉——基本上来说,男性总是假设他们感受到的浪漫吸引是相互的,而对于他们的女性朋友对自己到底有多少浪漫的兴趣视而不见。Women, too, were blind to the mindset of their opposite-sex friends; because females generally were not attracted to their male friends, they assumed that this lack of attraction was mutual. As a result, men consistently overestimated the level of attraction felt by their female friends and women consistently underestimated the level of attraction felt by their male friends.而女性往往也不明白她们异性朋友的心态;因为一般来说女性不会被男性朋友所吸引,她们也假设男性朋友不会被自己所吸引。结果就是,男性始终高估了自己对女性朋友的吸引力,而女性又一直低估了自己对男性朋友的吸引力。Men were also more willing to act on this mistakenly perceived mutual attraction. Both men and women were equally attracted to romantically involved opposite-sex friends and those who were single; “hot” friends were hot and “not” friends were not, regardless of their relationship status. However, men and women differed in the extent to which they saw attached friends as potential romantic partners. Although men were equally as likely to desire “romantic dates” with “taken” friends as with single ones, women were sensitive to their male friends’ relationship status and uninterested in pursuing those who were aly involved with someone else.男性还更愿意让这种错觉下的相互吸引继续下去。不管对方是正在恋爱中还是单身,男女都会被这些异性朋友所吸引;不论他们的感情状态如何,有吸引力的朋友就是有吸引力,没有的就是没有。然而,在何种程度上会把朋友视为潜在的浪漫对象,男女也存在差别。无论是对于已经有另一半的朋友还是单身的朋友,男性都同样希望和她们有“浪漫的约会”,而女性对于她们男性朋友的感情状态比较敏感,她们没有兴趣和那些已经有另一半的男性继续下去。These results suggest that men, relative to women, have a particularly hard time being “just friends.” What makes these results particularly interesting is that they were found within particular friendships. This is not just a bit of confirmation for stereotypes about sex-hungry males and naiuml;ve females; it is direct proof that two people can experience the exact same relationship in radically different ways. Men seem to see myriad opportunities for romance in their supposedly platonic opposite-sex friendships. The women in these friendships, however, seem to have a completely different orientation—one that is actually platonic.这些结果说明,相比较女性而言,男性更难做到“只是朋友”。而这些结果是在特定的友谊中得出的,这让调查结果更有意思。这不仅实了大家对于充满性渴望的男性和天真单纯的女性的固有印象,还直接明了同一段关系中的两个人可以有着完全不同的感觉。在一段应该是柏拉图式的异性友谊中,男性似乎看到了无数的浪漫可能,而女性的视角则完全不同——就是单纯的柏拉图式关系。To the outside observer, it seems clear that these vastly different views about the potential for romance in opposite-sex friendships could cause serious complications—and people within opposite-sex relationships agree. In a follow-up study, 249 adults (many of whom were married) were asked to list the positive and negative aspects of being friends with a specific member of the opposite sex. Variables related to romantic attraction were five times more likely to be listed as negative aspects of the friendship than as positive ones.在局外人看来,很显然,由于男女对于异性友谊中潜在浪漫的看法存在巨大差异,这会带来极大的麻烦,有异性朋友的人们也同意这一点。在一项后续调查中,249个成年人(其中很多人已婚)被要求列出和某位异性交朋友的正面和负面因素。把“浪漫吸引” 列为负面因素的人是将其列为正面因素的5倍。However, the differences between men and women appeared here as well. Males were significantly more likely than females to list romantic attraction as a benefit of opposite-sex friendships, and this discrepancy increased as men aged—males on the younger end of the spectrum were four times more likely than females to report romantic attraction as a benefit of opposite-sex friendships, whereas those on the older end of the spectrum were ten times more likely to do the same.然而,在这个问题上男女依然存在区别。男性比女性更容易将浪漫吸引列为异性友谊的好处,而且这种差异随着男性年龄的增长会扩大。在这项调查中年轻的男性将浪漫吸引列为异性友谊好处的倾向是女性的4倍,而在更年长的男性那里,这个数字是10倍。Taken together, these studies suggest that men and women have vastly different views of what it means to be “just friends”—and that these differing views have the potential to lead to trouble. Although women seem to be genuine in their belief that opposite-sex friendships are platonic, men seem unable to turn off their desire for something more. And even though both genders agree overall that attraction between platonic friends is more negative than positive, males are less likely than females to hold this view.综上所述,这些调查说明男女对于“只做朋友”的含义的理解大有不同——而这种差异可能导致麻烦。尽管女性似乎真的相信异性友谊可以是柏拉图式的,男性似乎难以控制产生更多的欲望。不过男女基本都同意,单纯朋友之间的吸引带来的消极因素多于积极因素,女性比男性更容易持有这种观点。So, can men and women be “just friends?” If we all thought like women, almost certainly. But if we all thought like men, we’d probably be facing a serious overpopulation crisis.那么,男女到底可不可能“只是朋友”呢?如果我们都像女性一样考虑,几乎是肯定的。但是如果我们都像男性一样思考,我们恐怕要面对严重的人口过剩危机了。 /201211/207310

  most of us love to travel, but imagine how much more we would love it if didn#39;t come with the chance of delayed flights, expensive hotels or unexpected fees. Luckily, you can avoid many travel-related hassles if you plan ahead. With a few pointers, anyone can plan a carefree trip, she says.很多人都喜欢旅游,但是想象一下如果没有航班延误、高价酒店和意外花费,我们将会更喜欢。幸运地是,如果你早作安排,你可以避免很多与旅行相关的烦心事。只要做到几点,任何人都能有一次无忧无虑的出行。See it, Buy it看到就买You may mull over a good airplane fare hoping it might get even lower later. Instead of waiting, purchase the ticket. Department of Transportation rules that took effect in January 2012 allow travelers to cancel a booking without penalty 24 hours after the reservation is made, as long as the reservation is made one week or more before departure.你可能在思考购买实惠的机票,希望票价以后还能再低点。与其等待,不如动手买票。2012年1月生效的运输部条例规定,在订票生成后24小时内允许游客取消订票而且不处罚金,只要是在出发前一个星期或更久前预定的机票。Seek Out Empty Middles腾出中间空间If you are traveling with someone else, a good tip is to book one window and one aisle seat in the same row, Freedman says. This increases the chances that no one will purchase the middle seat and you#39;ll have more room when you fly. People are less likely to choose a middle seat when they travel by themselves. If someone does purchase the seat, you can be the hero that offers them one of your window or aisle seats.如果你与他人同行,一条不错的建议是订两张同排的机票,一张靠窗口,一张靠过道。那么就增加了其他人不去购买中间座位的可能性,这样当你坐飞机时你就有了更多的空间。当人们自己出行时,他们很少选择中间座位。如果有人买了中间座位,你可以像英雄一样给他们提供一张靠窗或靠过道的座位。Book Early Flights预定早班机票The first flight out in the morning is always less likely to have a delay. So if you can get up at the crack of dawn, you will probably get to your vacation sooner.清晨首次航班往往较少出现延误。所以如果你能在破晓起床,你就能早点度假。Travel on These Days在这些日子里旅行The days of travel that are generally the cheapest are Tuesday, Wednesday or Saturday. There also tend to be fewer people traveling on those days, which will make your airport and airplane experience more pleasant. The majority of airfare sales also come out on Tuesdays.花销最便宜的旅行日是在星期二、星期三和星期六。在这些日子里,往往出行游玩的人也少一些,这样在机场和飞机上的体验就更惬意了。多数机票也是在周二出售。Think Local Everywhere想想当地Just as you may check out daily deal websites to find good deals in your city, search for local deals in your destination city and you#39;ll have a more authentic experience devoid of tourist trappings. Many sites also offer deals that have a short expiration date. If you sign up for these offers and act fast, you can get some serious bargains.就像你在自己的城市浏览团购网找实惠一样,搜一搜目的地城市当地的贸易情况,你将有一次真正的毫无旅游陷阱的旅行体验。很多网站也提供短期有效交易。如果你马上行动订购,你可以得到相当不错的折扣。Travel on Holidays, Literally在节假日当天出行Christmas Day is actually the cheapest day to fly. So it#39;s perfect if you#39;re OK with missing out on pre-holiday activities. New Year#39;s Day also has some lower rates, she adds. The six weeks after Thanksgiving are also a good time to search for vacation deals, especially to Las Vegas. There#39;s a lull between Thanksgiving and the New Year and historically, there are very low hotel rates in Vegas in these weeks. Early January is also a good time to plan a trip to the Caribbean when resorts try to entice people to visit.圣诞节当天其实是乘飞机最便宜的一天。如果你不介意错过节前活动的话,那是最好的选择。在新年这一天,也有许多廉价机票。感恩节后的那六周时间也是搜索假日航班的好时段,尤其是到。在感恩节和新年之间有段空档,在那几周里的酒店价位会低很多。一月上旬也是计划出行加勒比海的好时段,因为那时度假村在尽力吸引游客前往参观。Book Hotels in the Business District在商业区预订酒店If you are looking for a weekend away, book your hotel in the central business district or a financial district of the city you are visiting. These hotels are busiest Monday to Friday and often try to woo weekend travelers. Plus, downtown hotels generally have a higher number of stars.如果你是想过个周末,在中央商业区或在你要参观的城市金融区里订一家酒店。这些酒店从周一忙碌到周五,常常想吸引周末的游客。此外,市中心的酒店档次通常会高一些。Look for All-Inclusive寻找套餐务Many resorts, particularly in the Caribbean and Mexico, have great all-inclusive deals that include hotel and meals. Many of them also offer free deals for children under 12. If you are traveling with your family, you should also consider booking a condominium resort where you have more space and a kitchen to allow you to cut down on food costs.很多旅游胜地,尤其是在加勒比海和墨西哥,有很多套餐务,包括酒店和饮食。很多地方还为不到12岁的儿童提供免费套餐。如果你是和家人一起,你应该考虑预定公寓式酒店,在那里你能有更多的空间,亲自下厨可以减少伙食上的开销。Be Aware of Hidden Fees当心潜在开销Many travelers don#39;t calculate fees when booking their trips. Baggage fees, transfer fees and public transportation can all add up, so make sure you factor in all travel and transport costs.当预定行程时,很多旅行者都没有计算费用。把行李费、转机费和公共交通费用全加起来,一定要考虑全部的旅行和交通费用。Track the Weather留意天气When booking a trip that has layovers, remember to consider the weather at each locations. Be mindful. Weather in the cities you are traveling through can really impact where you are going.如果要转机,记得考虑每处的天气情况。要留心。你旅行路过的这些城市的天气会影响到你的行程。 /201306/243346。

  After hearing customers complain about the quality of office coffee, brothers David, Adam, and Noah Belanich decided to shut down their Manhattan coffee truck and start a new business.在听到客户抱怨办公室咖啡的质量后,大卫、亚当、Noah Belanich三兄弟决定关闭他们的曼哈顿咖啡车,开始一项新业务。Joyride relaunched in 2011 as a business that provides cafe-quality equipment to offices and delivers freshly roasted coffee every day.在2011年Joyride起步,作为每一天向办公室和咖啡馆提供新鲜烘焙咖啡的质量提升设备。Although brewing their coffee takes a little more work, the quality is clearly better. The brothers claim that their coffee is also cheaper per cup than Keurig.尽管酿造他们的咖啡需要更多一点的工作,品质显然是更好的。弟兄们声称他们的每杯咖啡比Keurig的也更便宜。The company is growing fast, with clients including Foursquare, Twitter, Buzzfeed, and Gilt. They also introduced a ;cold brew kegerator; just in time for summer.公司正在快速增长,客户包括Foursquare、Twitter、Buzzfeed和Gilt。他们也为夏天推出了一个“冷酿造设备”。After Business Insider talked with the Belanich brothers to learn about their business, Joyride shows us what a week in the life of the company is like.在Business Insider与Belanich兄弟交流了解他们的业务后,Joyride向我们展示了该公司一周的生活。 /201307/249636

  A couple of hunters chartered a small plane to fly them to a forest,and made an appointment with the pilot to come back and fetch them in about two weeks. At the end of the two weeks, they had shot a lot of animals that they wanted to load onto the plane. But the pilot said, ;This plane won#39;t be able to take more than one wild buffalo. You#39;ll have to leave the others behind.; Then the hunters protested, saying, ;But last year, another pilot with the same airplane let us take two buffalos and some other animals in the plane as well.;So the new pilot thought about it. He was a little bit skeptical, but finally he said, ;OK, since you did it last year, I guess this year we can do it again.; Then he loaded the two buffalos and a few other animals in, and the plane took off. Five minutes later, it crashed in a neighboring area.The three men climbed out and looked around, and one hunter said to the other, ;Where do you think we are now?; The second one surveyed the area and said, ;I think we#39;re about one mile to the left of the place we crashed last year.;有两个猎人包机前往一座森林,到了以后,他们和飞行员约定好两周后来接。两周后,他们射了许多动物,而且打算把这些动物全部搬上那架小飞机,可是飞行员说:这架飞机除了一头野牛外,没办法再多载了。你们必须把其他的猎物都留下。猎人说:但是去年另一个飞行员开一样的飞机,就让我们带两只水牛,还有一些其他的动物上机!因为他们这样抗议,所以那个新飞行员想了一想后,尽管还是有点存疑,最后还是妥协说:好吧!如果去年可以做到,今年应该也可以。所以他装了两头水牛和一些其他的动物。结果飞机起飞五分钟后,就坠落在邻近的地方。这3个人从飞机爬出来看了看四周,其中一个猎人对另一个说:你认为我们现在在哪儿?那个人瞧了一下,说:我想大概距离去年坠机的地方西边一英哩远! /201303/230695

  

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