上海市皮肤病医院开双眼皮多少钱搜医对话

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月16日 09:00:17
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Business.商业。Italian payment practices.意大利的付习惯。Unhealthy delays.有害的延误。Late payments are an Italian speciality-particularly in health care.延迟付是意大利的特色——尤其在医药保健领域。IN MEDICINE speed is of the essence. If the ambulance arrives a minute late, the patient may be dead. Italian paramedics are no doubt as swift as those in other countries. But Italys health-care authorities are shamefully slow when it comes to paying suppliers-making it difficult for them to survive.在医药领域,速度就是核心。如果救护车晚到一分钟,病人就可能死亡了。意大利的护理人员无疑同其他国家一样行动迅速。但谈到向供应商付时,意大利的医疗机构就慢的令人羞耻了——简直让供应商们难以生存。;Were still waiting to be paid for goods sold in ,; says Stefano Rimondi, the managing director of Bellco, a maker of equipment for dialysis with revenues of more than /201209/199730

Osteoporosis骨质疏松症Today’s word is: osteoporosis!今天的词是:骨质疏松症!Yep, osteoporosis. Now, you’ve heard this word before, and you know it has something to do with bones. But can you actually explain what it is?是的,骨质疏松症。你以前听说过这个词,也知道它与骨头有关,但是你能解释它到底是什么吗?The answer is straight-forward. It comes down to the fact that we human beings need calcium in our blood–it allows us to do all sorts of neat things, from contracting muscles to conducting nerve impulses. Where to get some calcium? Food is a good idea. But what if there isn’t always calcium-rich food to be had, as was probably the case for most of our long evolutionary history?很简单。它可以归结为一个事实,人类的血液里必须有钙,那样我们才能做各种事情,从收缩肌肉到神经冲动。钙从哪儿来呢?食物是不错的主意,但如果以后没有含钙丰富的食物,我们的后代应该怎么办?Best to store some for a rainy day. Store it where? The skeleton works! Then, when the blood runs low on calcium, a signaling device called the parathyroid gland can activate a process by which calcium is taken from the skeleton and put back into the blood.我们要未雨绸缪,但是要储存在哪儿呢?骨骼上。那么,当流动的血液中钙含量过低,一个叫做甲状旁腺的发信号装置就会激活一个流程,致使骨骼中的钙流失到血液里。Which is just what happens. This is a great short-term fix, but what about the poor skeleton? Eventually it will suffer from the loss of its own calcium–bones will become brittle.那就是会发生的。这只是一种短期的修复,但是可怜骨骼怎么办呢?最后就会因缺钙,骨头会变得脆弱。What can we do? Two things. Help your body get more calcium by eating fatty fish and vitamin-D rich dairy products. Why vitamin D? Because that causes the small intestine to increase its calciumuptake, bypassing the need to grab extra from the bones. Under a doctor’s supervision, calcium tablets might also be helpful, along with the old standard–more exercise. Weight-bearing exercise helps keep bones strong and less likely to fall prey to the body’s own mechanisms in later age.我们能做些什么?两件事。多吃富含脂肪的鱼和含有丰富维生素D的乳制品,帮助身体得到更多的钙。为什么是维生素D呢?因为它会使小肠增加它的钙摄取量,就不需要从骨骼中获取。在医生的监督下,钙片也可能是有用的,同时要多做运动。负重运动能够使骨骼强壮,在老年时期就不会为人体自身机制所折磨。 /201303/228021

  

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  Science and Technology Cancer and obesity Malignant flab科技 癌症与肥胖 恶性松弛At last, an understanding of how overeating causes cancer吃得过多如何导致癌症OVERWEIGHT women are more likely to develop breast cancer than lean ones.超重的女人相比偏瘦的女人更容易得乳癌。Why has been a mystery.原因一直以来都是个迷。But it is now less mysterious thanks to the work of Kevin Gardner, a researcher at Americas National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland.但由于马里兰州美国国家癌症协会研究院KG研究员为此做出的努力,现在并没有之前那么神秘了。Dr Gardner and his colleagues have found that processing calories affects the activity of BRCA1, a gene that encodes a well-known tumour-suppression protein.KG士和他的同事们发现合成卡路里的过程会影响BRCA1基因的活性,该基因为一种著名的抗肿瘤蛋白质编码。Mutations of this gene are strong predictors of breast and ovarian cancer—so strong that the genes DNA sequence is the subject of litigation in America about whether natural gene sequences can be patented, and thus the market in tests for these mutations cornered.BRCA1基因的突变是乳癌和卵巢癌的强烈预报器---如此强烈以至于在美国,常常就有关自然基因序列是否可以申请专利这样的问题发生诉讼,因此测试这些突变的市场被垄断了。Dr Gardners discovery is that a substance called C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) helps regulate BRCA1.KG士发现了一种能够调节BRCA1基因的蛋白质CtBP。Since the activity of CtBP is, itself, governed by the processing of calorie-rich molecules, the more of those molecules the body processes, the more at risk of cancer it becomes.因为CtBP蛋白质本身由加工富含卡路里的分子的过程控制着,所以身体处理越多的这类分子,患癌症的风险就越大。Previous work has shown that CtBP senses the amount of energy in a cell by binding to a small molecule called NADH.之前的工作表明,CtBP蛋白质通过结合一种叫做NADH的小分子来感知每个细胞中的总能量。This chemical is a by-product of metabolism, and cells that are processing an excessive amount of energy for storage have a superabundance of it compared with the amount of a related molecule called NAD+. As the ratio of NAD+ to NADH falls, CtBP combines with NADH.这种化学物质是新陈代谢的副产物,并且那些处理并存储过剩能量的细胞拥有过剩的NADH分子,和与之有关叫做NAD+的分子比起来。This changes CtBPs shape and enables it to form complexes with several other proteins.这改变了CtBP的形状并使之形成一种带有其他蛋白质的联合体。These complexes control the activity of DNA by shutting off certain genes.这些联合体通过切断某些基因控制DNA活动。Dr Gardner and his team report in the latest issue of Nature Structural amp; Molecular Biology that one of the genes so controlled is BRCA1.KG士和他的团队在最新一期的《自然结构和分子生物》上宣称,其中这么被控制的基因中就有BRCA1。The protein encoded by BRCA1 is involved in DNA repair.被BRCA1基因编码的蛋白质与DNA修复有关。Cells that lack a working version of it gradually accumulate genetic changes.缺乏它的一个工作版本的细胞们渐渐引起了基因的改变。Though most of these changes either have little impact or will lead to the cells death, some may promote the formation or progression of tumours.尽管多数改变要么影响不大,要么会导致细胞(自身)死亡,但有些可能会刺激肿瘤的形成或恶化。A low NAD+/NADH ratio, according to Dr Gardners work, has a similar effect to a BRCA1 mutation.据KG士的研究工作,低水平的NAD+/NADH对BRCA1突变会产生类似作用。It leads to less DNA repair and more mutations.这导致了DNA修复的减少却增加了基因的突变的可能性。That, unfortunately, combines with another effect of too much fat, which is that it stimulates the production of oestrogen by cells that are involved in the storage of fat.不幸的是,这和另外一个过多摄入脂肪的影响就结合起来,过多摄入脂肪通过那些储存脂肪的细胞会刺激雌激素的产生。More oestrogen means more cell proliferation in hormone-sensitive tissues—a category that includes the breasts and the ovaries.更多的雌激素意味着荷尔蒙细胞增殖---这是一种非常敏感的组织---包括乳房和卵巢。Therefore, just when those cells are being told to undergo the error-prone process of replication and division and need their DNA-repair system most, CtBP slashes that system to ribbons.因此,当这些细胞被通知经历可能会出错的复制和分裂过程并需要他们的DNA修复系统时,CtBP就会将此系统破坏。Though this is the first clear link between calorie intake and cancer that has been seen at the molecular level, Dr Gardner says his result is consistent with numerous past experiments.尽管这是摄入热量和癌症之间联系的首次清晰描述,该联系是在分子水平下被发现的,但KG士说,他的研究结果与之前的大量实验一致。For example, breast tumours are more aggressive and less genetically stable in heavily fed mice than in animals confined to a calorie-restricted diet.例如,与那些吃热量受限制食物的老鼠相比,不加限制的老鼠的乳房肿块更恶性且基因更不稳定。So, along with all the other reasons to keep trim, there is a new one: it may help to keep you free of cancer.因此,和其他保持苗条的所有理由一道,今天多了一条:保持苗条有助于远离癌症。 /201301/220833

  Books and Arts; Book Review;Racism in sport;文艺;书评;运动场上的种族歧视;The black white hope;黑白的希望;The Longest Fight: In the Ring with Joe Gans, Boxings First African-American Champion. By William Gildea.《最漫长的比赛:与首位美裔黑人拳击冠军——乔甘斯同行》威廉姆吉尔迪亚著。“THE whitest black man that ever entered the ring,” said a famous American sports writer a century ago in praise of Joe Gans. Given the place and the time, the comment was unexceptional. It is Ganss reaction to the insulting words that still astounds. Far from being offended, the first American-born black boxer to win a world title regarded it instead as a compliment. So, less remarkably, did his numerous white fans.一百年前,某位著名的美国体育记者曾这样赞赏乔甘斯:“他是拳击场里最受白人拥戴的黑人。”彼时彼地,这绝不是一条普普通通的评价。甘斯对别人的侮辱有着惊人的忍耐力。对于首位赢得世界第一的美国本土黑人拳击手来说,这样的评价绝不是冒犯,而是褒扬。就连他不计其数的白人粉丝听后也感到甘之如饴。Against enormous odds, as William Gildea recalls in his episodic biography, Gans had by 1906 achieved the seemingly impossible. He actually left the ring a popular winner in successfully defending his title against Battling Nelson, a Danish-American, in Goldfield, Nevada. Even grizzled prospectors whooped when, after two hours and 48 minutes, the longest championship fight of the 20th century, Nelson was disqualified for a deliberate low blow.威廉吉尔迪亚在传记里回忆到,虽然困难重重,但是甘斯在1906年做到了似乎不可能做到的事情。他挫败了来自内华达州金矿市的美裔丹麦选手贝特林纳尔逊,成功地捍卫了自己世界第一的称号,以最受拥戴的胜者姿态告别了拳击场。这场耗时两小时四十八分钟的比赛是20世纪最漫长的拳击赛,当纳尔森因蓄意打在甘斯的腰下部位而被判出局时,就连头发花白的老矿工也大声呐喊起来。Extraordinary stoicism earned Gans his lasting popularity in America. Born and brought up in Maryland, a state bordering on the old Confederacy, he had to put up with the everyday humiliations suffered by all African-Americans there. And, on top of these, he had also to tolerate the particular horrors suffered by Americas black sportsmen.超凡的忍耐力为甘斯赢得了美国人民经久不衰的爱戴。乔甘斯生在马里兰,长在马里兰,这个州紧挨着老联盟,他每天都要忍受当地所有美裔黑人都会遭受的羞辱。除此之外,他还要忍受美国黑人运动员都会遭受的恐吓。Gans, a naturally polite and cheerful man, was tutored always to show restraint by Bob Fitzsimmons, a world champion at three weights, who argued that you should do as you would be done by. In consequence, Gans learnt to remain impassive in the face of the most egregious provocations: even, for instance, when one opponent called him “133 pounds of black meat” and when another spat in his face as they squared up in the centre of the ring.乔甘斯天性谦和开朗,世界冠军鲍勃费茨西蒙斯教会了他忍耐,因为鲍勃主张“己所不欲,勿施于人”。后来,甘斯学会了对于种种恶意挑衅漠然视之,就算有对手戏谑他是“133磅的黑肥肉”,就算在拳击场角斗时对手向他脸上啐唾沫,他也绝不动怒。Like other black boxers, Gans was exploited by the low-life types that inhabited professional boxing. Promoters paid him less than his white rivals, even when he was the main draw. His sleazy manager, Al Herford, bet heavily against Gans in two fights and then ordered him to lose. Gans eventually sacked his manager, confessed to the fixed fights, won international recognition as a fine champion and was mourned by thousands, white and black, at his funeral in Baltimore, when he died from tuberculosis at the then typically early age of 35.和其他黑人拳击手一样,甘斯也要遭到职业拳击行业里手段卑鄙的剥削。虽然双方打平,赞助商付给甘斯的酬劳却比付给他白人对手的要少。他下作的经纪人阿尔赫福德下了大注赌乔甘斯输,于是他便命令乔甘斯必须输。甘斯最后解雇了他的经纪人,并向公众坦承自己操纵了比赛,甘斯因此赢得了全世界的肯定,成了人们心目中最受尊敬的冠军。但是甘斯却在35岁是因罹患肺结核而英年早逝,在他巴尔迪的丧礼上,成千上万的粉丝,无论白人黑人全部为其默哀。Mr Gildea, a talented sports journalist with a y following among American ers, is nostalgic for the days when crowds of 125,000 jammed into wooden stadiums to watch prizefights although not, of course, for the racism that then infected this and other sports. He is also nostalgic for the days when Goldfield was a rip-roaring, hard-drinking, sinful boom town. Those times, too, have gone. On a day trip to Goldfield, he saw several empty shops and houses, only four other people and a petrol station with a sign ing: “OPEN EXCEPT WHEN CLOSED”. This is a memorable book about a time that should not be forgotten.才华横溢的体育记者吉尔迪亚将和众多拭目以待的美国读者一起缅怀那段熙熙攘攘的125000人涌进木质体育场里观看职业拳击赛的光辉岁月,当然他们的缅怀的绝不包括当时影响了拳击和其他体育比赛的种族歧视。吉尔迪亚怀念的还有当年热闹喧嚣,酒鬼遍地,罪恶却繁荣的金矿市。那些日早已一去不返。吉尔迪亚花了一天时间故地重游,商铺和住宅已经人去楼空,只看见聊聊四人和一个加油站,上面写着:“关门大吉”。这是一本关于一段值得铭记的岁月的回忆录。201207/190936Blackcaps are small songbirds that breed in Central Europe. Fifty years ago, most blackcaps went south for the winter to Spain or Portugal. But since the 1960s more and more blackcaps have started wintering in Britain and Ireland. By 2003, blackcaps were seen perched at one in every three backyard bird feeders in Britain! But why did so many blackcaps change their winter vacation location?黑头莺是一种体型较小的鸟类,主要生活在欧洲中部。50年前,大多数黑头莺每到冬季就会迁徙到南部的西班牙或者葡萄牙。但是自20世纪60年代起,越来越多的黑头莺开始飞往英国和爱尔兰过冬。到2003年,有三分之一的英国家庭后院里的喂食器上出现过黑头莺。然而是什么促使如此多的黑头莺另择越冬地呢?The direction birds migrate is coded in their genes. Each population of birds has an average direction they will go, but individuals can vary as much as forty degrees from the average. Although historically, the average direction for blackcaps was towards Portugal, a few birds genes pointed them in a slightly different direction and they ended up in Britain.鸟类迁徙的方向由基因决定。每个鸟群迁徙时都有个平均方向,但个体可以在偏离这个方向40度范围内活动。尽管历史上黑头莺迁徙的平均方向是朝着葡萄牙,但还是有不少黑头莺定位稍有偏差,结果就来到了英国。But for the numbers of blackcaps wintering in Britain to change so dramatically, there must be some significant advantage to fly north rather than south. Perhaps the benefit is simply from the shorter, less taxing flight to Britain. Or maybe it’s because Britain has many bird lovers that stock backyard birdfeeders.在英国过冬的黑头莺数量激增,至于它们选择飞往北方而不是南方,其中肯定有一些显著的优势。也许是因为英国比较近,不必大费周折飞那么远,也许是因为英国有许多鸟类爱好者,在后院到处悬挂喂食器。But researchers from Germany and the UK believe the key difference is the shorter winter days in Britain. Shorter days affect migration and breeding behavior, so British birds return to summer breeding grounds about ten days earlier than birds that went south.但来自德国和英国的研究人员认为关键区别在于英国冬季的白昼较短。白昼短这一点可以影响到鸟类的迁移和繁殖行为,所以,在英国过冬的鸟类会比飞往南方的鸟类提前十天返回夏日的繁殖场所。This ten-day head start lets British migrants claim the best territories and start breeding sooner. Females paired with British males laid more eggs and hatched more chicks than those mated to southern birds. Each year, blackcaps with genes orienting them towards Britain pass on those genes to more chicks. And so the number of blackcaps with the disposition to fly to Britain steadily increases.开头的十天会保这些候鸟们占领最好的领地,迅速开始育下一代。并且,与在南方配对的雌鸟相比,与英国的雄鸟配对的雌鸟产蛋更多,孵出的雏鸟也更多。年复一年,黑头莺会把向英国迁徙的基因一代代传下去。因此,飞往英国过冬的黑头莺数量急剧增长。原文译文属!201212/215976

  Business Bookselling Spine chilling商业 售书业前景 令人胆战心惊Mass-market retailing changed publishing before the e-bookE书时代近在眼前,纸书商改出版策略SNAZZY technology is a twist in a narrative aly several chapters long. Mass-market retailing has changed the publishing industry: these days books are as likely to be found beside steaks and saucepans as they are to be bought in specialist stores. The story turns on whether broader changes in bookselling will stifle literature. Dan Brown will survive. Would Dante?先进科技已经在小说故事中纠结了好几个章回。图书市场零售业改变了自己的出版业策略:现如今,人们在牛排、炖锅旁找到售书点的概率就如在专门店买到书的概率一样小。故事发展成售书业的变化日益扩大,它是否会扼杀文学这一问题。丹布朗能够幸免于难,但丁也会么?For most of the past century, governments across Europe protected book prices; many still do. Even in America, apart from dime-store romances, few titles were sold outside bookshops. But in the 1970s stores like Borders and Barnes amp; Noble applied a supermarket maxim to print: pile them high and watch them fly. Waterstones did the same thing in Britain and top titles started selling in the hundreds of thousands, even millions.在前一世纪大部分的时间里,欧洲的政府都在保护图书的价格,很多国家依然这么做。甚至在美国,除了小商品店里的言情小说,其他种类的图书在书店以外的地方几乎绝迹了。但在20世纪70年代,诸如鲍德斯、巴诺这样的书店却都奉行着超市售书箴言:只要把书摞高,人们就会抢光它。英国的华特史东书店也这样做,这使得畅销书开始了以成百上千甚至是百万册的数量销售的历史。Just as book superstores forced out many independents, so supermarkets and other mass retailers have since crowded the book chains (see chart). In Britain, when price regulation was disbanded in 1997, supermarkets rushed in and now sell a quarter of all books, according to the way that Nielsen, a market-research outfit, calculates it. Belgium and Finland mimicked this trend.就像超级书店独立出来很多自立门户的店铺一样。超市还有其他的零售商业也开了很多图书连锁店。(见图),根据市场调研机构Nielsen的统计,在英国,97年价格管制被撤消的时候,超市蜂拥而入并开始销售市场1/4的图书。比利时以及芬兰也纷纷效仿这一趋势。This has been good for ers: in Britain the average price of a book has fallen by 15% since 2003, reckons BML Bowker, a book-marketing consultancy. And demand has grown: consumers spend the same amount on books, so they must be buying more. Those independent bookshops that survived the chain war in America and Britain have held sales and prices steady. Meanwhile, mass retailers find books such a draw that they lure in customers by selling some titles at a loss.这对于读者来说是个好消息。图书市场顾问鲍克出版社的数据显示,03年英国图书的平均售价下降了15%。而图书需求量也上升了:消费者在图书上花费同样多的钱,图书的价格降了,这样他们购买的书更多了。那些在美国、英国连锁店之战中幸存的个体书店,久维持着图书的销量还有价格的稳定。同时,销售商发现一个赚钱的方法,他们以亏本地销售一些图书来吸引顾客购书。Higher turnover should also be positive for publishers. But mass retailers demand discounts of up to 60% for bulk orders, shrinking margins. All sides prosper when books sell quickly. But, unlike groceries, if books dont sell, retailers return them to the publisher—and do not pay. So, when a book with a large print run flops, publishers end up with an expensive pile of recycling. That is why some publishers have stopped doing new deals with the likes of Costco, an American warehouse retailer, which likes to order very large print runs.按理说出版商应该也得到更高的利润。但大批订货的商家向出版商索要高达60%的数量折扣,这反而使得利润减少了。只要书卖得快,各家都会得利。但是,与日常用品不同,如果书籍卖不出去的话,零售商就把书返回给出版商——并且不付返回的书费。这样,当一本大量印刷的书籍不好买,出版商就得最终以高价来回收它。这就是为什么一些出版商停止与类似于美国的科思科这样的连锁店做生意的原因。因为这些商店喜欢订购大宗的货物。Few people will mourn publishers losses from increased price competition and new technology like e-ers. The question is whether these trends undermine the quality of books which are being published, by breaking a business model that has let firms focus on variety and range. Publishers have good reason to shiver at the decline of traditional bookshops. To fund the discovery and promotion of new authors, they have relied on books that sell steadily over a number of years. Yet mass retailers stock a few hundred new blockbusters.像e书读者一样,很少有人来吊唁出版商因日趋激烈的价格竞争以及日益发达的科技而导致的损失。问题是,这些趋势会不会扰乱商业模式——使出版商不再专注于扩大图书规模增加图书种类,从而降低出版的书籍的质量。在传统书店数量减少的情况下,出版商感到害怕是正常的。为了资助发掘和宣传新作家,出版商们依靠那些很多年来都销售平稳的书籍来维持运营。但是,零售书商们也储存着几百个新的畅销巨作。At first sight there is no reason for concern. New works are abundant—40% more titles came out in Britain in 2010 than in 2001. But this obscures a starker trend: ;mid-list; titles are selling in smaller numbers in America and Britain. This matters for cultural life, because most literary fiction and serious non-fiction falls into that bracket and much of it could become uneconomical to publish.乍一看,图书业没什么让人担心的问题——新作品很多——英国10年出版的新作品数量比01年高出了40%,但是它掩盖了一个严峻的趋势:;销售量居中;的图书,在美国和英国的销售量少了。这会影响到人们的文化生活,因为大部分的文学小说还有严肃类非小说作品都属于这一范畴,以至于很多这种书出版起来可能毫无利益可言。 /201301/222008What time is it?现在是什么时间?Game time! Whoop!游戏的时间!喔!From North Carolina, at guard, six-six, Michael Jordan!从北卡罗莱那州,他在防守,六对六,迈克尔bull;乔丹!Day after day that I stepped on the basketball court, even though I was on top of the world, I felt like I had something to prove.一天又一天,我出现在球场上,尽管我已经位于世界之巅,但我觉得自己想去明些什么。After Michael Jordans final season, the NBA gave him yet another Most Valuable Player Award, and said the reason is simple:After 13 seasons, you still go out every night, and play like Michael Jordan.迈克尔bull;乔丹的最后一个赛季后,NBA颁发给他另一个最有价值球员奖,并且颁奖原因很简单:13个赛季后,你仍然每天晚上都出现,就像以前的迈克尔-乔丹一样。注:听力文本来源于普特166731

  

  If you’ve ever driven in LA, you know that people don’t cooperate terribly well. Traffic jams, folks cutting folks off, people shouting at you out their windows . . . it’s a real headache. We’d all do a lot better–at least, we’d all move through congestion a lot faster–if we were ants.如果你在洛杉矶开过车,你就会知道那里路上人们配合得不是很好,致使交通阻塞,水泄不通,人们透过车窗口大嚷大叫,真是让人头痛!如果我们能效仿蚂蚁,那么,至少拥堵的交通移动地可以更快些!Why ants, you ask? That’s what Ian Couzin of Princeton University wanted to know. You may have seen films of huge numbers of South American Army Ants zooming across the grass on raids and coming back with all sorts of goodies to eat. So why don’t they crash into each other and suffer ant-gridlock the way humans do? One answer: Couzin found is that army ants follow a simple procedure: everybody coming home has the right-of-way.你可能会问:为什么是蚂蚁呢?普林斯顿大学的Ian Couzin也曾经疑惑过。你可能曾看过电影里成群结队的南美洲军蚁 “行军”穿过草丛,而后满载而归。那么,为什么他们不会撞上对方,像人类一样,交通阻塞呢?Couzin 发现有个原因能解释:军蚁行进的方式很简单,所有蚂蚁回家都有“优先权”。Even a simple rule like that: if you going out, same-phrase side; if you coming home, don’t same-phrase side; works terrifically. It results in a stream of home-going ants passing unobstructed through the center of a crowd of out-going ants. Among other things, this means raiding parties can go any direction from the anthill, because nobody has to remember some complicated rule about turning left or turning right. Also, the guys bringing home the goodies will always be protected on both sides by out-going ants. Simple!很简单的守则:出门就走同向边;回家就走逆向边,屡试不爽。这样一来,回家的一群蚂蚁会畅通无阻地穿过成群结队的出门蚂蚁群。这样,蚁冢中的蚂蚁群可以自由行进,因为无须忌讳向左或向右的复杂规则。两侧要出门的蚂蚁也会保护背着东西回家的蚂蚁群。再简单不过了!So, would this work in LA? Probably not. Thousands of human beings just can’t be made to follow a behavioral rule like that. Somebody would try to get a little bit ahead, then somebody else would see that and get angry, and pretty soon, you’re back to LA traffic. For better or worse, people just don’t think like ants.那么,洛杉矶能借鉴吗?也许不行,成千上万的人是不可能遵守蚂蚁群的规则的。有些人想方设法在更前面,其他人看到了就会生气,不一会儿,又会回到洛杉矶交通的状态。不管怎样,人们是无法像蚂蚁般思考的。 /201303/231708。

  

  The theme of todays rally is very clear.今天这个集会的主题很明确。Thousands of people are gathering inside the Lu Ri Nicky Stadium, the Olympic Stadium.上千的俄罗斯民众聚集在奥运体育馆—卢日尼基体育馆。They are waving flags in the big pretty well-cated for this, free food, entertainment, its really being built, some sort of wins at festival.他们在这个又大又豪华,准备有丰盛食物的体育馆里挥舞着旗帜,这里有免费的食物,好看的节目,真是应有尽有啊!就好像普金已经赢得选举了。But of course, its all about showing, the numbers like these you can see--in the stands, a willing to turn out on the national holiday to support Vladimir Putin.当然在国庆日这天,你在看台上看到的所有人都表明了他们持普金的决心。A boundless screen here that have been shown in the march, people walking through the snow, another mile away from here, making their way to the stadium.正如镜头拍摄的那样,游行队伍一望无际。还有不少人从雪地的数英尺那头走向这座体育馆。And its been a party atmosphere that certainly been what theyve been trying to portray this holy date that people are here to not only support Putin but to celebrate here next expecting around the hundred thousand, now people weve spoken to, generally say,;Of course were here because we love Putin.;当然,这样也营造出了一种派对的氛围。他们在努力描绘这个神圣的日子,人们聚集在这里并不仅仅是为了持普金,也是为了在这里庆祝这样盛况。被采访的民众基本都会说“当然,我们来这儿是因为我们爱普金。”A few have been less sure about why theyre here. Something can it was just a festival, a consert of some kind that not seeing it as something that with political.还有少数人不确定他们来这儿的目的,也许是出于节日的缘故,也许把这次集会看作是不掺杂任何政治因素的某种音乐会。People weve spoken to in the past have suggested that this kind of gatherings are something that theyre ordered to go to.过去被采访过的民众感觉这种集会多少带有强制性。One teacher told us that she lost her job because she refused to send herself to a pro-Putin rally.一位老师告诉我们,她因为不愿意去参加“挺普金”集会而丢掉工作。But overall, people say that its very clear why theyre here, they were made this bound themselves, they havent been told to come and theyre here because they support Vladimir Putin in his quest to become president again.但是总体来看,人们都把来这儿的理由说得很明白,他们是自发组织参加,而非被别人拉过来的。他们来这里因为他们持普金,持他连任俄罗斯总统。注:本译文属原创,,!201205/180549

  He worked as a substitute teacher in short jobs in various towns.他曾在不同的城镇从事短期代课老师的工作。Einsteins father applied on behalf of Einstein for academic positions and he wrote to a very famous professor and asked him whether he could use Einstein as research assistant but there was no positions available. 爱因斯坦的父亲代表他申请学术职位,他写信给一位非常著名的教授,问他爱因斯坦是否可以作为研究助理,但没有职位空缺。His father passes away thinking that young Albert is a total disgrace to the family.他父亲直到去世前都认为年轻的爱因斯坦对于整个家庭来说是一种耻辱。In 1902 the depressed and disappointed young Albert moves to Bern Switzerland capital and begins a career far from science. 在1902年,沮丧和失落的年轻爱因斯前往坦瑞士首都伯尔尼开始了远离科学的事业。One of his friends arranges for Einstein to get a job as a lonely patent clerk in the Swiss patent office. 一个朋友给爱因斯坦找到了份在瑞士专利局任职孤独的专利局职员的工作。In this office on the third floor, Einstein spend 6 days a week reviewing applications submitted by all kinds of inventors to the Swiss government. 在这个办公室的三楼,爱因斯坦每周花6天的时间审查瑞士政府发明者的各种申请。Given a patent you have all this information and he had to strip it down to the essence. In that whole interested skills as a physicist he would very quickly all the patents that he had to analyze.专利表上有各种各样的这些信息,他不得不挨个仔细审查。在遇到那些身为物理学家的申请表时,他才会感兴趣的进行分析。He didnt find the work very strangers that was not so interactually demanding. 他发现这份工作对于陌生人的要求也不是很高。And that gave him ample time to contemplate the universe.这给他充足的时间来思考宇宙。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174861

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