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2019年09月18日 18:13:49 | 作者:同城典范 | 来源:新华社
Books and Artts; Book review;How the internet works文艺书评;互联网如何运作Contrary to expectations, the internet has a heart of cable and steel和预期不一样,互联网有一颗由电缆和钢铁组成的“心脏”;Goverments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind.; So begins John Perry Barlow, once a lyricist for the GratefulDead and now a cyber-libertarian, in a tract he penned in 1996, entitled, ;A Declaration of theIndependence of Cyberspace;. It is a poetic summation of the common image of the internet as an ethereal, non-physical thing—an immanent Cloud that is at once everywhere and for ever on the far side of a screen.此书开篇引用了约翰·佩里·巴洛于1996年写的一篇文章中的一段话:“工业世界的统治者们,你们是由实体和钢铁组成的乏味巨物,而我来自思想的新家园——网络空间。”他曾是死之华乐队的作词人,而今则是一位网络自由主义者。他还称此书为“网络空间的独立宣言”。这是对互联网的普遍印象饱含诗意的总结:飘逸、虚无的东西——如一朵浮云,可以即刻无处不在,而又永远在电脑屏幕遥远的另一端。For Andrew Blum, a writer for Wired, that illusion was shattered on the day a squirrelchewed through the wire connecting his house to the internet. That rude reminder of the net#39;s physicality sparked an interest in the infrastructure that makes the internet possible—the globe-spanning tangle of wires, cables, routers and data centres that most users take entirely for granted. His book is an engaging reminder that, cyber-Utopianism aside, the internet is as much a thing of flesh and steel as any industrial-age lumber mill or factory.对于《连线》杂志撰稿人安德鲁·布朗姆而言,在一只松鼠咬断他的网线的那天,这种幻想已被打破。这个对网络实体“无礼”的提醒激起了他对互联网基础设施的兴趣,因为这些满世界绕在一起的电线、电缆、路由器和数据中心使得互联网成为可能,而大多数用户认为这些完全是理所当然。他的书是一个引人入胜的提醒:抛开网络乌托邦主义不谈,互联网和任何工业时代的伐木场或工厂一样,都是由实体和钢铁组成的。It is also an excellent introduction to the nuts and bolts of how exactly it all works. The term “internet” is a collective noun for thousands of smaller networks, run by corporations, governments, universities and private business, all stitched together to form one (mostly) seamless, global, “internetworked” whole. In theory, the internet is meant to be widely distributed and heavily resilient, with many possible routes between any two destinations. In practice, acombination of economics and geography means that much of its infrastructure is concentratedin a comparatively small number of places.该书也是对互联网所有基本要素如何运作的一次精介绍。术语“互联网”是一个集合名词,包括数以千计由公司、政府、大学和私营企业运作的子网络,所有这些交织在一起形成一个(基本上)无缝对接、全球互联运作的网络整体。理论上说,互联网应该是分布广、承载量大、包含任意两点之间许多可能的路径。实际上,说它是经济学和地理学的结合,其意为它将众多的基础设施集中于相对少数的空间内。So when Mr Blum travels to the tiny Cornish village of Porthcurno, he is able to see the landing stations for many of the great transatlantic fibre-optic cables that carry traffic—in the form of beams of pulsating laser light—between Europe and the Americas. A couple of hundred miles up the road is the London Internet Exchange, a building in which individual networks can connect to each other and to the wider internet. London#39;s exchange is the world#39;s third-busiest, behind the ones in Frankfurt and Amsterdam. What happens in such places can affect millions of people: one veteran network engineer in an American exchange recalls “shut[ting] off Australia” when one of that country#39;s big networks was tardy with its bills.所以当布朗姆先生来到波斯科诺的小村康沃尔时,他看到了基站——站内许多横跨大西洋的粗大光纤电缆内部迅速地闪动着一道道激光,并以这种形式在欧洲和美洲之间传递信息。沿着道路方向的几百英里外就是伦敦网络交换中心,通过它,单个的局域网可以相互连通,也可以连接到广域的互联网;论繁忙程度,它只排在法兰克福和阿姆斯特丹之后。这里的所发生的一切可以影响上百万人:一位曾在美国交换中心工作资深的网络工程师回忆到,在澳大利亚的巨大局域网中,曾有某个局域网拖欠费用,该中心就发出了 “切断澳大利亚的网路”的指令。Network engineering is not a glamorous profession, and the physical structures of the greatest network ever built lack the grandeur of a hydroelectric dam or a continent-spanning railway. But they do have their own style: featureless, virtually deserted buildings, full of marching rows of high-tech servers and routers fed by thick bundles of cable, their cooling fans forming a roaring chorus in the chilly gloom. That style is modulated by the local culture of wherever the building happens to be. Thus one American firm goes for a super high-tech, “cyberrific” look in an attempt to impress clients. Frankfurt#39;s internet exchange is a model of cool rationality, whereas London#39;s is grotty and coming apart at the seams.网络工程并非一个光鲜的行业,而且最为庞大网络的实物构造缺乏水电大坝的宏伟壮观,也没有洲际铁路的绵延大气。但它确实有自己的特点:普普通通、几乎废弃的大楼里,整齐地排满了富含高科技的务器和路由器,由厚厚的几捆电缆连接起来,它们的散热风扇在冷清昏暗中组成了一正在高歌的合唱队。无论大楼在哪,这种特点都会受到本地文化的影响。因此,一个追求超高科技风格的美国公司,打造“网络交通”的外观是给客户留下深刻印象的一种尝试途径。法兰克福网络交换中心就是良好理性的一个模板,而伦敦的则是脏乱带着些破裂。And then there are the engineers themselves, a rootless but engaging brotherhood that travels the world from rack to rack, helping to keep the electronic show on the road, and whose interactions and dealmaking does a lot to shape the geography of the electronic spider#39;s web that now engulfs the planet.还有工程师他们自身是一个较为松散但相处融洽的组织,马不停蹄地在世界各地旅行,奔波于电子产品展览会,他们的交际和生意圈如一张电子蜘蛛网正在包围整个世界。Mr Blum#39;s book is an excellent guide for anyone interested in how the global modern electronic infrastructure works. And it is a timely antidote to oft-repeated abstractions about “cyberspace” or “cloud computing”. Such terms gloss over the fact that, just like the pipes that carry water, the tubes that carry bits are reliant on old-fashioned, low-tech spadework, humancontact and the geographical reality in which all that exists.对“世界上的现代电子设施是如何运作的”这一问题有兴趣的任何人,可以通过布朗姆先生这本书得到良好的入门指引。该书也是对被热议的“网络空间”或“云计算”这类抽象概念的及时说明。这些术语掩盖了一个事实:正如水管输送自来水,网路传递着信息。它有赖于老式、低技术含量的基础工作,人们的交往;这些都存在于现实的地理状况之中。 /201209/199937A man in Utah discovered ,000 (pound;28,000) stuffed into tins and boxes in the attic of the new home he had just bought – and gave the money back to the previous owner's six children. Josh Ferrin was exploring the house he had just bought when he made the discovery. Along with his wife and children, they sp out thousands of notes on a table, separating the bundles one by one. They stopped counting at ,000. Despite being tempted to keep the money to help him pay for mounting bills and broken down car, Mr Ferrin sought out the children of the home's previous owner, who had died, and gave them the money. "I'm not perfect, and I wish I could say there was never any doubt in my mind. We knew we had to give it back, but it doesn't mean I didn't think about our car in need of repairs, how we would love to adopt a child and aren't able to do that right now, or fix up our outdated house that we just bought," he said. "But the money wasn't ours to keep and I don't believe you get a chance very often to do something radically honest, to do something ridiculously awesome for someone else and that is a lesson I hope to teach to my children." 犹他州盐湖城的一名男子Josh Ferrin前些天买了一幢二手房,举家搬进去之后,他开始审视旧房,在阁楼上,他发现了一堆塞满了钞票的盒子和罐子。叫来妻子和孩子们后,Ferrin一家开始数钞票,但是钱的数量实在太多,数到4万美元的时候,他们干脆不再数下去。尽管Ferrin先生的经济状况并不宽裕,房子还没装修、车子也破破烂烂,但犹豫再三之后,他还是决定将这笔飞来横财如数归还。——房子的原主人早已去世,Ferrin找到了他的两名也已经年纪不轻的后代,将钱大包小包地送了过去。Ferrin表示,他虽然并不是完人,但不是自己的钱毕竟不能乱拿,能碰到这样的机会,唯有尽力诚实友善,才能做好孩子们的榜样。 /201105/137555流失格雷厄姆格林小说被美国一家犯罪杂志连载来源:Guardian(卫报) 编辑:Vicki流失已久的格雷厄姆格林小说去年在得克萨斯州的档案馆面世,并在下周开始将在美国一犯罪杂志上连载。由于格雷厄姆格林并没有该小说,杂志主编称将会挑选一位作家或者通过选拔找出一名适合的写手来完成小说的结尾部分。Lost Greene novel to be serialised in crime magazine The long lost Graham Greene novel that was unearthed(露面) in a Texas archive(档案馆) late last year is to be serialised (连载)in an American crime magazine from next week.The Empty Chair is an unfinished mystery story written by Greene when he was just 22. Discovered by scholar Francois Gallix in the archives of the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, it casts a new light on the author of Brighton Rock and The End of the Affair as he tackles an Agatha Christie-esque country house mystery, complete with a murder and an eclectic(折中的) cast of aristocrats(贵族)."Alice Lady Perriham had overloaded (负担太重)her piece of toast. She had done so in pure abundance of spirit, because the winter sun streamed in a crisp yellow glow across the breakfast table, and because everyone around her was happy," the tale begins. But breakfast is soon interrupted, as the group realise that one of their number, Richard Groves, is missing, and troop upstairs to find him. "He had flung off the sheets and one arm, with its thick black hair around the wrist, dangled (悬吊着)over the edge of the bed. He might have appeared asleep, if his legs had not been hunched up as though he had made an effort to rise. 'Get back, Alice,' cried Collis, and moved forward to the bed and stood staring with fascination at the brown congealed blood. In Groves's breast at a crazy angle stood the knife which had slain him."The five chapter-long novel – a first glimpse of which was provided in the Times in December - is now to be serialised in its entirety in the Strand magazine from next week. The magazine, which was revived after a half-century hiatus in 1998, can count Arthur Conan Doyle, Christie, Dorothy L Sayers and Greene himself among its former contributors. Its most recent issue features a lost PG Wodehouse story and a previously unpublished Mark Twain tale.With the murder left unsolved by Greene, the magazine's editor Andrew Gulli has said that either a professional writer will be selected to complete the mystery, or a competition will be run for ers to send in a final chapter."To me what is wonderful about all of this is that Greene published a few short stories in the old Strand," he told the LA Times, "so I feel we're continuing the tradition."Keke View:格雷厄姆·格林简介格林1904年出生于英国中部赫特福德郡。曾在牛津大学贝利奥学学院攻读历史。当过记者,信奉天主教,第二次世界大战期间他作为军情六处的官员被派往非洲。战后他创作了大量的间谍小说。被指控的间谍作家。最重要的间谍活动军情六处的情报员,被派往非洲工作。最着名的作品《第三个人》《一出卖的》《密使》《我们的人在哈瓦那》《人性的因素》《荣誉与权力》以间谍生涯为素材的作品《我们的人在哈瓦那》《忧虑重重的内阁》《事情的实质》 /200907/77315

The recent tabloid sting involving the Duchess of York has elicited plenty of schadenfreude in the British press.最近有关约克公爵夫人的八卦消息让英国媒体感到很是幸灾乐祸。The Duchess, it appears, is by her own admission virtually penniless after her divorce from the Duke of York left her with only 15,000 pounds a year. That's a modest income for anyone, but especially so for someone who confesses to an 'overspending disease' and penchant for private jets and luxury goods.据这位公爵夫人自己承认,她在与丈夫离婚后,每年只有1.5万英镑的赡养费,这看来可以说是身无分文了。每年1.5万英镑对任何人来说都只是微薄的收入而已,更何况是对一个承认自己患有“超病”、嗜好私人飞机和奢侈品的人而言呢。In an article on the B News Magazine, U.K. psychotherapist Benjamin Fry, who co-presents B Three's Spendaholics program, says giving up the bling can be traumatic.在B新闻杂志(B News Magazine)上的一篇文章中,英国精神治疗师弗莱(Benjamin Fry)写道,放弃奢侈的生活可能会造成创伤性后果。他是B三台“花钱狂”节目的主持人之一。'It's the change in circumstances that's difficult… She could have accepted she was poor but wouldn't know who she was. The alternative was to do something I'm sure she didn't really want to do.'他说,环境的改变让人难以接受,约克公爵夫人或许可以接受自己穷困的事实,却无法再找准自己的位置。她的变通之道就是做了一些我肯定她并非真想做的事。He says wealth can become an addictive drug, needed most by the insecure.他说,财富可以成为一种成瘾性毒品,是缺乏安全感的人最需要的。'People do overspend because they've got a low sense of self worth. If you feel very small on the inside and present yourself as very big on the outside, it's compensation.'他说,人们大手大脚地花钱,因为他们的自我评价很低。如果你内心感觉很渺小,表面上就会装得很强大,这是一种补偿。'The way to cope is to try really hard to invest in non-material sources of wealth - family, relationships, community or self care.'他说,应对之道就是切实努力投资于非物质的财富来源,比如家庭、人际关系、社区或是自我关爱。Easier said perhaps than done. After all, spending habits die hard - especially among the wealthy.说起来容易做起来难。毕竟,大手大脚花钱的习惯已经根深蒂固,特别是在富人之中。Do you think there are rich (or formerly rich) people in the U.S. being forced to cut back dramatically on spending?你认为美国有富人(或以前曾经富有的人)被迫大幅削减出的事吗? /201006/105347

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