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2019年06月27日 11:18:18来源:快乐频道

  • The most important characteristic of the 21st century is the rise of cities. The world may obsess over whether a “Chinese century” is replacing an American one. But the real action is not in nations — but in their urban centres.21世纪最重要的特色是城市的崛起。全世界可能还在纠结于“中国世纪”是否将取代“美国世纪”。但真正的取代不是发生在国家之间——而是发生在它们的城市中心。For the first time in human history, more people now live in cities than in rural areas. By 2050, 6.5bn people, two-thirds of all humanity, will live and work in cities. In 1950 fewer than one billion did so.在人类历史上,城市居民人数首次超过了农村居民人数。到2050年,有65亿人将在城市生活工作,占总人口三分之二,而1950年时这个数字还不足10亿。But not all cities are equal. Global cities — leaders in commerce, the arts and education — rise above the rest. They have the scope, ambition and clout to shape not just the world’s economy but also its ideas, its culture, its policies and its future.但并非所有城市都一样。在商业、艺术和教育方面领先的全球性城市(Global city)将超越其他城市,它们的视野、雄心和影响力不仅将影响全球经济,还将影响全世界的思想、文化、政策和未来。Big and connected, they transcend borders and disrupt international agendas. They are magnets for business, people, money and innovation.全球性城市的庞大规模以及连通性,使它们超越了国界,也影响了国际议程,它们像磁铁一样吸引着商业、人力、资金和创新力。Today, when we talk about non-state actors, we tend to think of terrorist groups, such as al-Qaeda and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Isis), or global corporations, such as Apple and BP. But it is in cities that the real power beyond the state resides.现如今,当我们谈论非国家行为体时,我们往往会想到恐怖组织,比如基地组织和“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国”(ISIS),或像苹果(Apple)、英国石油(BP)这样的全球性企业。但是,具备超越国家的真实力量的是城市。Indeed, today’s international politics is beginning to resemble the Hanseatic League of medieval cities, with global centres trading and working together to address common problems in ways that large nations do not. While not sovereign, global cities are increasingly independent — driving policies that stimulate wider change.实际上,当今的国际政治正开始像中世纪城市的汉萨同盟(Hanseatic League),全球性中心城市的贸易方式,以及它们协力解决共同问题的方式,是大国无法办到的。全球性城市虽然没有主权,但越来越独立,它们正在推动能够引起更广泛改变的政策。They drive the world’s economy. The 600 biggest cities account for more than 60 per cent of global gross domestic product. The top 20 are home to one-third of all large corporations, and almost half of their combined revenues. Tokyo leads the pack — in population size, economic punch and number of corporate headquarters — ahead of New York, London and Paris.全球性城市推动着世界经济发展。全球前600大城市占全球GDP总和的60%以上。前20大城市是全世界三分之一大型企业的总部所在地,这些企业的收入占全球大企业总收入的近一半。在人口规模、经济活力以及企业总部数量上,东京均首屈一指,领先于纽约、伦敦和巴黎。Cities only cover two per cent of the earth’s surface, but they consume 78 per cent of the its energy and account for 60 per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions. And while nations debate over what to do about climate change the largest and most important cities are getting together and doing something about it.城市的面积仅占地球表面百分之二,但消耗全球78%的能源,温室气体排放量占全球60%。不过当各国还在争论如何应对气候变化时,全球最大、最重要的城市正团结起来共同采取行动。One such effort is the C40, a group of 75 major citiesthat gathers and exchanges data to enable concrete actions to tackle climate change. In thousands of ways, from energy efficient street lighting to improved public transportation, big cities are making a real difference on global warming.C40便是它们的一项努力成果。这是一个由75个主要城市组成的集团,负责收集和交换数据,以便采取具体行动应对气候变化。从节能路灯到改善公共交通,大城市正从多种途径对全球变暖作出真正改变。Cities are also increasingly pursuing their own foreign policies. Shanghai has its own foreign affairs office, while S#227;o Paulo has established diplomatic relations with dozens of states. These nations, in turn, have larger diplomatic representations there than they have in the capital Brasília.城市也越来越追求自己的外交政策。上海有自己的外事办公室,而圣保罗已经与几十个国家建立起外交关系,这些国家与首都巴西利亚的外交交涉反而不如与圣保罗的多。Major capital cities, such as London, Tokyo and Paris, are integral to the foreign policies of their national governments. But global cities that are not national seats of government, such as Chicago or Shanghai, increasingly need to forge foreign policies of their own by co-ordinating the global engagement of its corporations, top academic centres, cultural institutions and civic bodies in ways that benefit the city and its citizens as a whole. Greater strategic direction, more co-operation and better co-ordination of such global engagement would constitute the equivalent of a foreign policy for Chicago.主要首都城市,如伦敦、东京和巴黎等都是本国政府外交政策中不可或缺的一部分。但对于那些不是国家政府所在地的全球性城市来说,比如芝加哥或上海,则越来越需要形成自己的外交政策,通过协调其企业、顶尖学术中心、文化机构和民间团体的国际参与,让城市及其市民能整体受益。更大的战略方向,更多的合作,以及在此类国际参与上更好的协调,这些综合起来就相当于是芝加哥的外交政策。In short, global cities are increasingly driving world affairs — economically, politically, socially and culturally. They are no longer just places to live in. They have emerged as leading actors on the global stage.总之,全球性城市正日益推动经济、政治、社会和文化方面的全球事务。它们不再仅是居住地,它们已经成为国际舞台上的主要角色。The writer is president of the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, which together with the Financial Times is hosting the Chicago Forum on Global Cities注:本文作者是芝加哥全球事务委员会(Chicago Council on Global Affairs)主席,该委员会近日与英国《金融时报》共同主办“芝加哥全球性城市论坛”(Chicago Forum on Global Cities)。 /201506/378336。
  • The heat on McDonald’s just got turned up a notch.对麦当劳的热议愈演愈烈。On Monday the company reported a 2.2% decline in global same store sales for the month of November, with the U.S. market taking the biggest hit (-4.6%). The Wall Street Journal reported that the drop in the U.S. was the biggest in more than 14 years.该公司周一公布,11月份全球同店销售额下降2.2%,美国业务跌幅最猛(下跌4.6%)。《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)报道,这是逾14年来麦当劳美国同店销售额的最大下滑。I detailed McDonald’s woes last month, noting that the pressure was mounting on CEO Don Thompson to turn around the fast food giant. But with no relief in sight, investors may soon turn their attention to the McDonald’s board.上个月我详细介绍了麦当劳的困境,并且指出,为让这家快餐巨擘扭转颓势,首席执行官唐o汤普森正面临巨大的压力。而由于看不到任何缓解的迹象,投资者的注意力可能很快就会转向麦当劳董事会。Leading the group is Andy McKenna, the company’s non-executive chairman since 2004 and a director since 1991. McKenna is a Chicago heavy hitter, who has been called “the power behind the throne” by the hometown press. Chicago Magazine has put him on its list of the 100 Most Powerful Chicagoans, describing him as “a bigwig other bigwigs seek out for advice.” He has chaired the White Sox and Cubs, and is now on the board of the Chicago Bears. He has also sat on countless other civic and corporate boards, including the University of Notre Dame and the Big Shoulders Fund of the Archdiocese of Chicago.作为董事会首脑人物,安迪o麦肯纳1991年当选公司董事,2004年成为非执行董事长。在芝加哥,麦肯纳是个大人物,当地媒体称他为“王座背后的力量”。《芝加哥》杂志(Chicago Magazine)把麦肯纳评为100名最有影响力的芝加哥人之一,并将他描述为“其他大人物寻求建议的大人物”。他是芝加哥白袜(White Sox)和芝加哥小熊(Cubs)棒球俱乐部的董事长,现在又进入了橄榄球俱乐部芝加哥熊队(Chicago Bears)的董事会。他还在众多民间机构和公司担任董事,包括美国圣母大学(University of Notre Dame)和天主教芝加哥总教区Big Shoulders基金。According to company filings, McKenna planned to leave the board in 2003 when he reached McDonald’s mandatory retirement age for directors of 73. But in the interim the company went through a CEO handoff, and the board asked McKenna to stay on to aid in the transition.公司文件显示,麦肯纳原计划于2003年退出董事会,那一年他73岁,到了该公司规定董事退休的年龄。然而,由于当时麦当劳正在更换CEO,董事会邀请麦克纳留任,以协助完成交接。The following year McDonald’s loosened the retirement rule in its proxy, saying that the board “may nominate existing members of the board over the age of 73 as candidates in exceptional circumstances.” McDonald’s was then struck by misfortune in its leadership ranks. CEO Jim Cantalupo died of a heart attack while in the job. His successor, Charlie Bell, was then diagnosed with colon cancer and resigned.2004年,麦当劳放宽了董事退休限制,称董事会“可以在特殊情况下提名年龄超过73岁的现任董事”。那一年,麦当劳高层厄运连连。CEO吉姆o坎塔卢波因心脏病突然离世。继任者查理o贝尔也因诊断出结肠癌而辞职。By 2007, when two additional board members hit 73, the language about mandatory retirement had disappeared. McKenna has now overlapped with the tenures of six different McDonald’s CEOs.2007年,又有两名麦当劳董事到了73岁,而强制退休规定已经了无踪迹。现在,麦肯纳已经和六位不同的CEO共过事。As of the most recently filed proxy, three board members were over 73: McKenna (listed as 84), Walter Massey (76), and Roger Stone (79). MSCI ESG Research, which provides data on governance, found that the average age of a director at McDonald’s is about 63, the oldest in its peer group. Compare the figure with Burger King (about 50), Starbucks (about 58), and Yum Brands (about 59). McDonald’s directors also have a longer tenure (12 years) than those on other big restaurant company boards (eight years).麦当劳提交的最新名单显示,超过73岁的董事有三名,分别是84岁的麦肯纳、76岁的沃尔特o马瑟和79岁的罗杰o斯通。公司治理数据供应商MSCI ESG Research发现,麦当劳董事会的平均年龄为63岁,高于其他任何同类企业,比如汉堡王(Burger King,约50岁)、星巴克(Starbucks,约58岁)和百胜餐饮集团(Yum Brands,约59岁)。和其他大型餐饮企业8年的董事任期相比,麦当劳董事的任期也更长,达到了12年。A similar sp can be found when one compares McDonald’s with an even bigger corporate universe, such as the Samp;P 500. Larry Fauver of the University of Tennessee’s Corporate Governance Center found that the average number of years served by a director at McDonald’s was 12.5 versus 9.5 for the broader index. “That’s a fairly significant difference,” he told me.将麦当劳和更大的企业群体,比如标普500指数(Samp;P 500)成分股公司相比,类似的差异同样存在。田纳西大学企业治理中心(University of Tennessee’s Corporate Governance Center)研究员拉里o福韦发现,麦当劳董事的平均任期为12年半,而这个数字在标普500指数成分股公司中为9年半。他说:“这个差距相当大。”Why does this matter? In a few words: connection to the company’s customers. While octogenarian and late septuagenarian directors may have more seasoning and worldly experience than young Turks, there is an argument to be made that they may not be quite as in touch with the two demographic segments that McDonald’s really needs and is struggling to attract: millennials and young families. “That’s why you need a refreshed board,” says Charles Elson, director of the John L. Weinberg Center for Corporate Governance at the University of Delaware. “You need to take fresh looks.”这一点为什么很重要呢?简而言之就是,这关乎与顾客的联系。尽管和年轻人相比,年逾七八旬的董事可能经历了更多也更有经验,但他们和千禧一代以及年轻家庭的联系也许不像前者那么紧密,而这两个群体正是麦当劳真正需要并且正在竭力争取的目标顾客。特拉华大学John L. Weinberg企业治理中心(John L. Weinberg Center for Corporate Governance at the University of Delaware)主任查尔斯o埃尔森指出:“这就是为什么需要给董事会注入活力,他们需要有崭新的面貌。”Fauver adds another concern: Board members who have been around that long may not have enough distance from management to be objective about the company’s performance and challenges. “How independent are you after 23 years?” Fauver asks.福韦还有另一层顾虑:长期任职的董事会成员和管理层的距离可能不足以让他们客观看待公司的表现及其面临的挑战。他问道:“当了23年的董事后,你还会有多少独立性呢?”I spoke with McDonald’s chair McKenna briefly for my November story, in which he told me that the board is “very supportive” of CEO Thompson. I also asked McKenna about the board and its tenure. He replied that that he didn’t think length of service had deprived any of the directors of their independence. McDonald’s did not respond to a request for comment in time for publication of this story.撰写11月份的文章时,我和麦当劳董事长麦肯纳进行了短暂的交流,他告诉我,董事会“非常持”CEO汤普森。我也向他提出了关于董事会和董事任期的问题。他回答说,他觉得任职时间并不会削弱任何董事的独立性。直到本文发表时,麦当劳没有应要求就此发表。In its proxy, the company notes that 12 of 13 of its directors are independent—Thompson being the exception. But there are a couple of interesting connections between the company’s directors that go beyond the McDonald’s boardroom:麦当劳在名单上指出,除汤普森外,该公司13位董事中有12名独立董事。不过,除了同为董事会成员,这些成员之间还存在一些有意思的关联。–The vast majority of McDonald’s board members are based out of Chicago. (That’s not very geographically diverse for a truly global company.)- 绝大多数麦当劳董事的办公地点都在芝加哥以外(这样的地理分布对一家真正的全球化企业来说并不是非常多元化)。–According to the proxy, in 2013 Inter-Con Security Systems, whose CEO is McDonald’s director Enrique Hernandez, provided physical security systems for the company’s home office campus. McDonald’s payments to Inter-Con totaled .3 million (less than 1% of Inter-Con’s revenue).- 名单显示,由麦当劳董事恩里克o埃尔南德斯担任CEO的安保公司Inter-Con Security Systems在2013年为麦当劳的家庭办公室园区提供了安保系统。麦当劳为此付了130万美元(不到后者收入的1%)。–Jeanne Jackson, a Nike executive, overlapped on the Nordstrom board with Hernandez from 2002-2009. Hernandez became Nordstrom’s non-executive chairman in 2006. They have overlapped on the McDonald’s board together since 1999.- 2002-2009年,耐克公司(Nike)高层珍妮o杰克逊和埃尔南德斯都在零售企业诺德斯特龙(Nordstrom)担任董事。2006年,埃尔南德斯成为诺德斯特龙非执行董事长。两人均于1999年进入麦当劳董事会。–Directors Roger Stone and McKenna at one time both ran companies that were suppliers to McDonald’s, even as they sat on McDonald’s board of directors.- 尽管担任了麦当劳董事,但罗杰o斯通和麦肯纳都曾经营公司作为麦当劳的供应商。–McDonald’s CEO Don Thompson was a director of the utility company Exelon from 2007 to 2013, overlapping with McDonald’s director and Ariel Investments CEO John Rogers. Rogers is a current Exelon director who joined the board in 2000. Exelon’s proxy notes that McDonald’s is a customer, paying Exelon million in 2013.- 麦当劳CEO唐o汤普森曾于2007-2013年在电力公司Exelon担任董事,当时和他一起在Exelon担任董事的还有麦当劳董事、投资公司Ariel Investments首席执行官约翰o罗杰斯。罗杰斯2000年进入Exelon董事会,一直任职至今。Exelon的资料显示,麦当劳是该公司客户,2013年向其付1400万美元。–McKenna served as Aon’s longest-tenured director, stepping down in 2012 after more than 40 years. McDonald’s director Rogers joined the Aon board in 1993, serving also until 2012. Rogers has been on the McDonald’s board since 2003.- 麦肯纳是风险管理及再保险公司怡安(Aon)资格最老的董事,任职时间超过40年,于2012年退出董事会。麦当劳董事罗杰斯1993年进入怡安董事会,也在2012年卸任。罗杰斯从2003年开始担任麦当劳董事。–McDonald’s director Cary McMillan, CEO of True Partners Consulting, is chairman of the Board of Governors for the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Fellow McDonald’s director Walter Massey is president of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.- 麦当劳董事、税务及商业咨询公司True Partners Consulting首席执行官凯瑞o麦克米伦是芝加哥艺术学院(School of the Art Institute of Chicago)监事会主席。另一名麦当劳董事沃尔特o马瑟则是该学院院长。–Director Richard Lenny joined private equity firm Friedman, Fleischer amp; Lowe as an operating partner in 2011 and is now a senior advisor. This September his fellow McDonald’s board member Robert Eckert became an operating partner. They’ve overlapped on the McDonald’s board since 2005.- 2011年,麦当劳董事理查德o伦尼进入私募公司Friedman, Fleischer amp; Lowe担任经营合伙人,目前为高级顾问。今年9月份,另一位麦当劳董事罗伯特o埃克特也成为该公司经营合伙人。两人从2005年起开始在麦当劳董事会共事。Corporate governance expert Nell Minow notes that Chicago has historically had more inbred boards than other cities, and she believes that may very well still be the case. “What you see at McDonald’s is what we expect from boards circa 1990, not circa 2014,” she says. “It’s like McDonald’s hasn’t gotten the message that most boards have about how important it is that you demonstrate a very clear picture of independence to the shareholder community.”公司治理专家内尔o米诺指出,以前芝加哥的“熟人董事会”就比其他城市多,她相信现在很可能依然如此。米诺说:“麦当劳董事会的情况应该出现在1990年前后,而不是2014年。大多数公司董事会已经认识到,非常清楚地向股东表明自身的独立性有多么重要,而麦当劳好像还没有意识到这一点。”Elson of the University of Delaware says that the closer directors get outside of the board room, the more concerning it is. These relationships have the potential to introduce elements into the mix that might make it hard to be objective. He adds, “Any time you see significant length of tenure and interrelationships between directors, it raises questions of effectiveness.”特拉华大学的埃尔森认为,董事们在公司以外的关系越密切,就越让人担心。这些关系有可能把别的因素带进董事会,而这样的因素或许会让董事们难以保持客观。他还说:“只要存在任职时间特别长以及董事之间关系密切的情况,董事会的效用就可能成问题。”(财富中文网) /201412/348280。
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