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Bello贝约I, the Supreme我,至高无上Latin America needs term limits. But how strict should they be?拉丁美洲需要任期限制。但是这一限制需要多严格呢?NO SOONER had Juan Manuel Santos, Colombias president, secured himself a second term in a run-off election in June than he announced that he wants to prevent such a thing happening again. He will propose a constitutional change barring immediate re-election and lengthening future presidential terms, from four to five or six years. Why didnt he think of that before, cynics might ask? He might reply that it was in Colombias interest to give him more time to complete peace talks with the FARC guerrillas, for which a single four-year term proved too short.哥伦比亚总统胡安·曼努埃尔·桑托斯刚刚在6月的大选中获得连任机会,便立即发表声明声称他希望防止这样的总统连任事件再次发生。他将提出一个宪法修正案以防止总统再次参与竞选,并将总统任期从4年延长至5或6年。不满的愤世嫉俗者可能会问,为什么他之前就没有想到这么做呢?桑托斯会回答,事实已经明四年的任期并不足以让他完成与哥伦比亚武装力量游击队的和平谈话,为了哥伦比亚的利益他需要更多的时间来完成这一使命。Mr Santoss move runs counter to the regional trend. In country after country in Latin America, term limits have been loosened over the past two decades. The latest to seek to abolish them altogether is Ecuadors president, Rafael Correa. He declared last year that his current term would be his final one, only for his supporters to unveil a bill in July allowing indefinite re-election for all public offices. Since Mr Correa commands a large legislative majority, Ecuador is likely to follow Venezuela and Nicaragua in allowing a presidency for life.Santos先生的做法与拉美整个的地区趋势相悖。在拉丁美洲的各个国家,任期限制在最近的20年里已经一再放松。最近一位想要完全废除任期限制的是厄瓜多尔总统拉斐尔·科雷亚。他去年声称只要他的持者在六月推出允许所有公共政府机关职位的无限期再次竞选的法案,他当前任期将是他最后的任期。由于Correa先生掌握着大多数立法投票席位,厄瓜多尔很有可能和委内瑞拉与尼加拉瓜一样允许终生总统任期。Not coincidentally, these countries are among a handful in Latin America in which presidents now exercise near-absolute power. Mr Correa, the late Hugo Chávez in Venezuela and Nicaraguas Daniel Ortega deployed their electoral majorities to crush the independence of the judiciary, curb the media and hamper opposition. In the extent of their power, if not in the route by which they obtained it, they resemble the regions 19th-century dictators—whose absolutism is captured in the title of a classic Paraguayan novel by Augusto Roa Bastos called “Yo, el Supremo”.并不是巧合,因为这三个国家均是拉丁美洲少数几个总统拥有近乎绝对统治权的国家。厄瓜多尔总统拉斐尔·科雷亚将是下一个委内瑞拉总统乌戈·查韦斯。他和尼加拉瓜总统丹尼尔·奥尔特加部署了大多数选举席位以便遏制司法独立、控制媒体以及遏制反对派的行动。除了获取权利的路线不同,他们的权利范围与该地区19世纪的独裁者有极大的相似之处。这些独裁者的专制统治在巴拉圭作家奥古斯托·罗亚·巴斯托斯的经典小说的标题中体现的淋漓尽致—《我,至高无上》。The trend to looser term limits goes far beyond these three countries. Daniel Zovatto of the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, an inter-governmental organisation, points out that in the 1980s the norm in Latin Americas restored democracies was to restrict presidents to a single term. Of the 15 Latin American countries with no plans for indefinite re-election, four now allow two consecutive terms and seven permit former presidents to run again after an interlude. Only four—Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Paraguay—still confine their presidents to one term only.放松任期限制的趋势并不仅在这三个国家中存在。国际民主与选举援助组织在拉丁美洲和加勒比海的区域主管丹尼尔·组瓦特指出,拉丁美洲于20世纪80年代恢复的民主政治正是为了将总统职位限制为单任期。在15个尚没有允许无限期再次竞选的拉丁美洲国家中,4个国家现在允许2期连任,有7个国家允许前任总统们在他人担任总统之后再次竞选总统,只有墨西哥、危地马拉、洪都拉斯以及巴拉圭这4个国家依旧将总统限制为单任期。Critics of this trend say that incumbents have an even greater advantage over opponents than they have in, say, the ed States. Only twice since 1990 have candidates who were sitting presidents lost elections in Latin America. Several incumbents have also managed to anoint their chosen successors, who in the case of the late Néstor Kirchner of Argentina was his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.这种趋势的批评者认为,现任总统相比于其反对者的优势很大,且这种优势甚至还大于北美总统的优势。自1990年以来,现任总统再次竞选失败的事情在拉丁美洲只发生过两次。有些在位者也会神话他们选定的接任者,比如阿根廷前任总统内斯托尔·卡洛斯·基什内尔便扶持他的妻子克里斯蒂娜·费尔南德斯·德基什内尔成功接任总统。But the recent success of incumbents owes much to their good fortune in presiding over a golden decade of commodity-fuelled economic growth, and in their distribution of some of this windfall to the poor. Now that economic growth has slowed, presidents have become less popular. A test of whether incumbents remain near-invincible will come in Brazils election in October, in which Dilma Rousseff faces a tough fight for a second term.不过在位者们的近期成功主要应该归功于他们幸运地处在大宗商品经济蓬勃发展的黄金时期,他们只要将一部分“上帝的馈赠”分发给穷人便可以获得持。而现在经济的增长速度放缓,总统们变得并没有那么受欢迎。今年10月,在巴西的选举中将会有一个关于在位者是否依旧无可匹敌的测试进行,在这次选举中迪尔玛·罗塞夫为了自己的第二任期将会面临一场艰难的竞争。There are, in fact, some sound reasons for allowing re-election—though not indefinitely. If a president is popular and has done a good job, surely voters should have the right to choose him or her again? A four-year term, as eight countries have, is too short to do much. Indeed, it is not all that long ago that political scientists fretted that Latin American presidents were too weak rather than too strong.事实上,还是有一些合理的理由允许总统再次参加竞选的,虽然不是无限再次竞选。如果一个总统很受欢迎并且工作出色,选民们难道不应该有权利再次选择他或者她吗?现在拉丁美洲有8个国家依旧维持4年为一任期的规定, 4年时间确实不足以让一个总统完成太多事情。而且就在不久之前,政治学者们甚至认为拉丁美洲的总统们太脆弱而不是太强大。What matters is not whether a president can run for re-election, but whether countries possess the countervailing institutions required to curb the abuse of executive power and the advantages of incumbency. Strong and independent judiciaries, electoral authorities, media and political parties are all vital.问题的关键点不在于总统是否可以再次竞选,而在于国家是否有足以遏制滥用行政权力和在位者优势的对抗制度。强大而独立的司法机构、选举委员会、媒体以及政党都是必不可少的。Paradoxically, Colombia is fairly well-served in this regard. Its constitutional court knocked down an attempt by álvaro Uribe, Mr Santoss popular predecessor, to run for a third consecutive term. Mr Santos told Bello during the campaign that he thinks Colombians dislike re-election, initiated in 2006 by Mr Uribe. That may be one reason why he barely squeaked to a second term, winning the run-off by less than six percentage points. It seems that Mr Santos has come up with a solution to a problem that Colombia doesnt really have. Perhaps he should export it to Ecuador.反常的是,哥伦比亚在这一点上做的很好。其宪法院成功粉碎了Santos先生的上一任总统乌里韦谋求3连任的企图。在此次竞选中,桑托斯先生告诉贝约,他认为自乌里韦于2006年连任总统以来,哥伦比亚不喜欢总统再次参加竞选。这恐怕也是本次竞选中他以少于6%的微弱优势艰难胜出的原因之一。看上去桑托斯已经想到了解决问题的方法,虽然这个问题在哥伦比亚并不存在。或许他可以将这个方法推荐给厄瓜多尔。 /201408/319478The cold climate conifer forests of the north displaced broadleaved woodlands. Plants and animals were gradually pushed south to find a warmer climate. Florida became a refuge from the cold. Down here is where the Ice Age north met the subtropical south. Today in a cool wooded part of the Sunshine State, you can still see some of these northern refugees. 北方生长在寒冷气候的针叶树林取代了大面积的森林。为了找到更温暖的气候,植物和动物都逐渐向南部转移。佛罗里达成为了逃避北方寒冷气候的避难所。这里成为了北方冰河时代气候与南方亚热带气候交界的地方。如今,在这个“阳光州”阴凉的树林里,你还是能看见这些来自北方的“难民”。The valleys along the Apalachicola River are home to many species that were forced here in the Ice Age and now remain far away from their populations further north, like the copperhead snake and an astonishing variety of amphibians. 阿巴拉契科拉河沿岸的峡谷是很多物种的栖息地,他们在冰河时代被迫来到此处,他们距离他们北方的亲戚十分遥远,这些动物包括铜头蛇以及一大系列的两栖动物。During the Ice Age, Florida was crucial to the survival of many such mild-weather species. They couldnt have withstood the cold of north, and without this refuge, they would simply have become extinct. Another leftover, but one that arrived from the opposite direction.在冰河时代,佛罗里达对于许多温和气候动物的存活起到了至关重要的作用。如果没有佛罗里达,他们不能抵抗北方的严寒,他们可能已经灭亡。还剩下一种动物,但是这种动物是从相反的方向来的佛罗里达。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201308/252330Leaders头条关注Genetically modified crops转基因作物Fields of beaten gold遭受捣毁Greens say climate-change deniers are unscientific and dangerous. So are greens who oppose GM crops  环保主义者表示,气候变化否认者是不科学和危险的。反对转基因作物的环保主义者也同样危险.IN AUGUST environmentalists in the Philippines vandalised a field of Golden Rice, an experimental grain whose genes had been modified to carry beta-carotene, a chemical precursor of vitamin A.8月,环保主义者在菲律宾蓄意破坏了一片金大米田地, 金大米是一种实验性的谷物,其基因被修改为维生素a的化学前体b胡萝卜素。Golden Rice is not produced by a corporate behemoth but by the public sector.金大米不是由企业巨头,而是公共部门种植的。Its seeds will be handed out free to farmers.它的种子将免费发放给农民。The aim is to improve the health of children in poor countries by reducing vitamin A deficiency, which contributes to hundreds of thousands of premature deaths and cases of blindness each year.用于改善贫困国家儿童的健康状况,缓解这些儿童的维生素A缺乏情况, 每年都会10%以上的人因缺乏维生素过早死亡和失明。Environmentalists claim that these sorts of actions are justified because genetically modified crops pose health risks.环保人士声称,此类捣毁行为是合理的, 因为转基因作物对健康构成风险。Now the main ground for those claims has crumbled.  现在,此类声称的理由已被击破。Last year a paper was published in a respected journal, Food and Chemical Toxicology.去年,一篇论文在权威杂志《食品与化学毒理学》上发表。It found unusual rates of tumours and deaths in rats that had been fed upon a variety of maize resistant to a herbicide called Roundup, as a result of genetic modification by Monsanto, an American plant-science firm.它发现在老鼠中出现不寻常的肿瘤和死亡状况,而这些老鼠被喂食过一种玉米,此种玉米是, 美国植物科学公司生产的转基因作物,对草甘膦农药具有抵抗力。Other studies found no such effects, but this one enabled campaigners to make a health-and-safety argument against GM crops—one persuasive enough to influence governments.其他研究并没有发现此种的影响。然而,此文章致使倡议人士以健康与安全问题为理由反对转基因作物,甚至对政府也产生了影响。After the study appeared, Russia suspended imports of the grain in question. Kenya banned all GM crops.这项研究发表之后, 俄罗斯暂停进口存在疑虑的粮食。肯尼亚禁止了所有的转基因作物。And the French prime minister said that if the results were confirmed he would press for a Europe-wide ban on the GM maize.法国总理表示, 如果结果得到实, 他将敦促欧洲禁止转基因玉米。But the methodology of the study, by Gilles-Eric Seralini of the University of Caen and colleagues, was widely criticised and, on November 28th, the journal retracted the paper.但是卡昂大学的塞拉利尼和他的同事们这项研究的方法论,被广泛批评。 11月28日,《食品与化学毒理学》撤销该论文。There is now no serious scientific evidence that GM crops do any harm to the health of human beings.。现在没有足够的科学据表明,转基因作物对人类的健康有任何危害。There is plenty of evidence, though, that they benefit the health of the planet.然而,却有大量的据表明,转基因作物可以造福于人类的健康。One of the biggest challenges facing mankind is to feed the 9 billion-10 billion people who will be alive and richer in 2050.人类面临的最大挑战之一是到2050年,人们有粮食可吃以及有充足的食物。This will require doubling food production on roughly the same area of land, using less water and fewer chemicals.这将需要在大致相同面积的土地上使用更少的水和更少的化学物质生产出高达两倍的粮食。It will also mean making food crops more resistant to the droughts and floods that seem likely if climate change is a bad as scientists fear.这也将意味着倘若气候变化如科学家们担心的那样糟糕,粮食作物要更耐旱和洪涝。Organic farming—the kind beloved of greens—cannot meet this challenge. It uses far too much land.有机作物-环保主义者钟爱的作物,不能承受这种挑战。它需要太多的土地。If the Green revolution had never happened, and yields had stayed at 1960 levels, the world could not produce its current food output even if it ploughed up every last acre of cultivable land. 如果绿色革命从未发生过, 粮食产量一直停留在1960年的水平, 人类即使利用每一英亩的可耕种的土地,也不能产生出目前的粮食产量。In contrast, GM crops boost yields, protecting wild habitat from the plough.相比之下,转基因作物可以提高粮食产量,保护野生栖息地不遭受开垦。They are more resistant to the vagaries of climate change, and to diseases and pests, reducing the need for agrochemicals.他们更能承受变幻莫测的气候变化,疾病和害虫,减少对农药依赖性。Genetic research holds out the possibility of breakthroughs that could vastly increase the productivity of farming, such as grains that fix their own nitrogen.遗传研究给大大提高农业的生产力带来了突破的可能性, 例如谷物可以修复自己的氮。Vandalising GM field trials is a bit like the campaign of some religious leaders to prevent smallpox inoculations: it causes misery, even death, in the name of obscurantism and unscientific belief.捣毁转基因试验田和一些宗教运动的领袖防止天花接种有点像: 它以蒙昧主义和信仰不科学的名义会造成痛苦,甚至死亡。Follow your principles遵循你的原则America takes little notice of this nonsense.美国需要很少关注此类无稽之谈。But green groups in Europe, with the support of influential figures such as Prince Charles, have succeeded in shaping policy.但在欧洲,环保组织在查尔斯王子等具有影响力的人士的持下,已经成功地塑造了政策。Governments have hedged genetic research around with so many restrictions that much of the business has fled a continent that could be doing more than most to feed the world.政府限制了遗传研究, 大部分业务已经逃离欧洲大陆。Some developing countries—Kenya, India and others—have turned their backs on technologies that could literally save their peoples’ lives.一些发展中国家肯尼亚、印度等国也对此项能够挽救人民的生命的技术嗤之以鼻。And European governments spend taxpayers’ money financing groups encouraging them to do so.欧洲政府花纳税人的钱资助团体鼓励他们这样做。The group in the Philippines that trashed the rice trials, MASIP, gets money from the Swedish government.菲律宾的组织,破坏了瑞典政府出资的MASIP水稻试验田。On moral, economic and environmental grounds, this must stop.无论是从道德、经济和环境上来说 ,此类举动都必须停止。 201401/272963

When I started seeing the news clips, the day he died, my heart sank.当我开始看新闻报道,他死的那一天,我的心为之一震。Michael was the most exciting performer I had ever seen in my life. 迈克尔是我在自己的生命中曾经见过的最令人激动人心的表演者。He was the ultimate pop superstar. 他是曾经最棒的流行巨星。He wanted more than anything for his legacy to be. 他想要自己留下的东西超过任何事物。He is the greatest performer of all time and thats what he became.他一直是最伟大的表演者之一而且他真的就是这样。A kid, 11 years old, singing that song with that much emotion, 一个11岁的孩子饱含那种情绪,唱着那首歌,it was incredible.太不可思议了。He had a dream. 他曾经怀揣梦想。He had direction and he stuck with it.他有前进的方向而且他坚持下来了。201306/244800

New fiction新小说The self stripped自我剖析A novel masquerading as a tell-all memoir看似自传,畅所欲言;实则小说How Should a Person Be? By Sheila Heti.《应该如何做人?》作者:希拉·海蒂。THE confessional tale of depravity redeemed goes back at least to St Augustine. Sheila Heti, a Canadian writer, plays with this legacy in “How Should a Person Be?” out now in Britain following a rapturous reception in America. A novel masquerading as memoir, it is a sharp and unsentimental chronicle of what it is like to be 20-something now.自我救赎的忏悔故事至少可以追溯到圣奥古斯汀时代。加拿大作家希拉·海蒂的《应该如何做人?》戏谑地沿用此法。之前该书在美国受到狂热追捧,现已在英国上市。表面上它是一部自传,实则编年体小说,以犀利而冷静的文风,讲述了现在二十出头的人是何处境。The story spans a year in the life of Sheila, a blocked playwright in Toronto. She is recently divorced and unable to finish a commissioned play. Convinced that other people “do not feel like they were raised by wolves”, Sheila sets out to probe the “ugliness” she feels inside. She feels she should seek fame, yet she finds relief shampooing clients in a hair salon. “It was work I could believe in: making people look and feel their best.” The flat tone is at once sincere and disingenuous: Ms Hetis deadpan, naked voice is what makes Sheilas journey so engaging.故事讲述了郁郁不得志的多伦多剧作家希拉的一年生活。她刚刚离婚,又无法完成受人委托的剧本。希拉确信其他人“不会认为自己是被狼带大的”,所以决定从自身出发,探索内心体会到的“丑陋”。她觉得自己应该追名逐利,然而她却在美发店给顾客洗头中得到解脱。“工作就是我的信仰:我在美发店的工作能让别人容光焕发,精神抖擞。”这种平淡的语调立刻就产生一种既真挚诚恳、又惺惺作态的感觉:正是因为海蒂女士故作冷酷、毫无感情色的语调,希拉之旅才会让人如此着迷。Ms Heti also captures the malaise of young, creative types. Again and again Sheila asks if making art is merely narcissistic. But just as self-absorption threatens to swamp the tale, a crisis causes her to look squarely at her own sexual and debased life. Her friendship with Margaux, a painter, provides redemption of a kind. Throughout, the er is beguiled by blunt, sly observations: “Smiling only encourages men to bore you and waste your time.” “The world is full to brimming with its own shit. A little more from me wont even make a difference.”海蒂女士也捕捉到了富有创意的那一类年轻人身上莫名的不安。希拉总是在思考一个问题:艺术创作是否只是一种自恋?但是,正当她过于自我投入、故事几乎要失控时,一场危机让她开始正视性的问题和自己堕落的生活。她和画家马尔戈的友谊就给她带来了某种救赎。纵观全文,读者会始终陶醉在坦率而狡黠的文字描写之中:“浅浅一笑只会招蜂引蝶,浪费自己的时间。”“这个世界充斥着自己的胡言乱语,都快装不下了。所以,多我一句不多,少我一句不少。”Written sometimes in the first person, sometimes in the third, this novel can make for uncomfortable ing. Yet Ms Hetis mordant take on modernity encourages introspection. It is easy to see why a book on the anxiety of celebrity has turned the author into one herself.小说有时候用第一人称、有时候又转为第三人称,读起来并不畅快。然而,海蒂对现代生活的尖酸调侃却引人反思。不难看出,为什么一本讲述成名带来的焦虑的书却让作者自己出了名。 /201406/303365Mike: Amanda, Im dying to see that new Jim Carrey film that came out on Friday. I hear its one of his best performances ever.迈克:阿曼达,我真想去看电影,金·凯利新拍的电影周五就上映了。我听说那是他演艺生涯最精的一次表演。Amanda: Mike, you know Im not a fan of slapstick. If I were, Id watch Tom and Jerry cartoons instead. Can we go see something else, like a nice romantic comedy or even a thriller?阿曼达:迈克,你知道我对喜剧不感冒。如果我喜欢,我宁愿看卡通片汤姆猫和杰瑞鼠。要不我们去看其他电影,比如浪漫喜剧或者惊悚片?Mike: Jim Carrey is hilarious! Hes one of the most talented comedians alive today. Gosh Amanda, wheres your sense of humor?迈克:金·凯利太搞笑了!他是我这辈子见过的最有天赋的喜剧演员。哎呀,阿曼达,你的幽默感哪去了?Amanda: I honestly cant stand his manic acting and the silly faces he makes. Id rather stay at home and watch sitcoms on TV, or I could just pop in a DVD from my ;Friends; box set.阿曼达:说实话,我不能忍受他的演技和愚蠢的表情。我宁愿呆在家里看电视,或者我会去看爆笑的《老友记》。Mike: Oh, can I come over to your place? We can watch it together. ;Friends; is one of my favorite shows, too. Ive seen nearly every episode from all ten seasons. I think its the best show ever aired.迈克:哦,那我能来你的住处吗?我们可以一起看。《老友记》也是我最喜爱的一部电视剧。我已经把十季全部看完了。我觉得那是播出的最棒的电视剧。Amanda: Me too! My favorite character is Chandler—his one-liners always make me crack up. Actually, now that I think about it, you remind me of him sometimes.阿曼达:我也是!我最喜欢的角色是钱德勒——他的俏皮话总让人忍俊不禁。事实上,我想起来了,有时你会让我会想到他。Mike: Funny, I was about to say you remind me of Monica from ;Friends;—youre a neat freak just like her, and you love cooking!迈克:真有趣,我正要说你让我想起《老友记》里的莫妮卡——你和她一样干事井井有条,而且都喜欢做饭!原文译文属!201305/239648

In books and movies like Call of the Wild, huge, vicious huskies pull sleds for hundreds of miles over the Alaskan tundra. A Moment of Science wonders, what kind of dogs are sled dogs?在书里或者在像《野性的呼唤》之类的电影里,巨型凶猛的哈士奇在阿拉斯加的冻原上可驰骋数百英里。《科学一刻》栏目想知道,到底什么样的是雪橇呢?Most champion sled dogs are not pure husky: in fact, the “Alaskan Husky” isn’t really a breed at all: it’s a mix of various breeds. Although not pure bred, every sled dog must be carefully bred for life on the trail.大多数冠军雪橇都不是纯种哈士奇:事实上,所谓的“阿拉斯加哈士奇”根本就不是一个品种,而是由多个品种杂交而成。尽管并非纯种,每条雪橇在其拉雪橇的生涯中都需精心喂养。The dogs need heavy coats to protect them from the cold, and tough feet to prevent injuries. Unlike the tough dogs in the movies, dogs with softer feet wear booties when they run.们需穿戴厚重的保暖以免受寒,以及拥有强健的足部以防止受伤。与电影里面强壮的不同, 足部柔软的在奔跑时会穿上短靴。The dogs also need compact bodies to maximize endurance. The sled dogs’ remarkable endurance is thanks to their large heart-to-body ratio, and their ability to carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, which is about three times that of a human being们需要结实的身躯以使自身耐力最大化。雪橇耐力持久,主要是因为它们的心脏对比其身体而言相当之大,并且它们将肺部的氧气供给给肌肉的能力是人类的三倍。On film, large dogs seem powerful, but their size decreases their ability to use oxygen efficiently. In competitive dog-sledding, dogs usually weigh less than 55 pounds and can comfortably trot over 70 miles a day.在电影里,体型巨大的看起来很强壮,而事实上它们的体型弱化了它们利用氧气的能力。在雪橇竞技当中,通常体重在55磅以下的每天能够轻松地慢跑70英里。A sled dog also needs the right temperament. They must love running and be sociable and obedient. Like wild dogs, each team has a hierarchy, but the dogs struggle for position by taking aggressive or submissive postures such as squealing and rolling. Real dogfights are rare because the dogs are carefully introduced and trained before going out on the trail.雪橇需性情温和。他们必须热爱奔跑,温顺友好。正如野一样,每个群都有头,但是们通过极具侵略性的长吠或者表达顺从的滚地等动作来获取位置。们混战的机率较小,因为在进入雪橇队之前他们就已经受到了良好的引导和训练。The careful crossing of northern dogs, like Malamutes, with southern breeds like Greyhounds produces dogs with the right stuff to be sled dogs.北方的爱斯基与南方品种如长腿猎等交配得当,那么他们的后代将具备成为雪橇的优良基因。 /201306/245609Business商业报道Johnson amp; Johnson强生公司Out of the mire?走出困境了吗?The Justice Department may spoil the drugmakers fresh start司法部可能会毁了这家药厂的新开始FOR the past few years Johnson amp; Johnson has stumbled clumsily through the legal and reputational swamps of contaminated pills and faulty fake hips.过去几年,强生官司不断,毒药丸、假臀缺陷等丑闻频出,公司步履艰难。Under a new chief executive, it is supposed to be taking a confident stride onto firmer terrain.在新掌门的领导下,公司有望重拾信心,大踏步向更高的目标迈进。On April 26th Alex Gorsky, a senior manager who joined the company as a salesman in 1988, was due to take charge.4月26日,1988年就进入强生从事销售工作的公司高管亚历克斯?高斯基走马上任。Yet the ground is still worryingly soft.但令人担忧的是,公司境遇依然艰难。Americas Justice Department wants Mr Gorsky to testify about alleged fraud.美国司法部想要高斯基先生为公司的欺诈指控作。Jamp;J says he has nothing to do with the case.强生方面表示,高斯基先生与该案无关。The governments request, made on April 11th, is the latest stage of a long dispute.政府4月11日作出的请求不过是这场长期纠纷的最新进展。The departments lawyers filed their suit in 2010, alleging that Jamp;J made improper payments to boost prescriptions of its drugs.司法部律师于2010年提请诉讼,他们宣称,强生为了推销他们的药方进行了非正常的付。Jamp;J can at least take solace in not being alone.令强生公司得到慰藉是至少它不是‘孤军奋战,The Justice Department has sued almost every big drug firm.几乎所有的大药厂都受到过司法部的指控。Most suits are brought under the False Claims Act, which since 1986 has encouraged citizens to sue firms that defraud the government.大多数诉讼的依据是1986年生效的《虚假申报法案》,该法案鼓励公民对那些欺骗政府的公司进行起诉。Whistleblowers are fortified not only by righteousness but also by a share of damages.一些人踊跃揭露黑幕,一是出自正义,二是可以获得一份赔偿。They and the department have forged a model public-private partnership.他们和司法部共同打造了一个公私合伙的典范,Since 1986 the team has won more than 30 billion.1986年以来,这队伍的收入超过了300亿美元。Billions have been wrung out of drugmakers.制药厂被迫缴纳数十亿美元,The firms have been charged with marketing drugs for unapproved uses, paying illegal kickbacks to raise sales,他们被处罚的理由是未经批准销售药物,为扩大销售付回扣,or both, cheating the public-health programmes that foot the bill.或者二者兼而有之,有的公司对付患者医药费用的全民医疗保险项目进行欺瞒。In the last quarter of 2011 Abbott said it had reserved 1.5 billion to pay penalties for its marketing practices,2011年最后一季度,雅培表示,他们已为公司的营销行为准备了15亿美元的罚款。Amgen said it had reserved 780m for a similar purpose,安进表示为同样的目的他们也保留了7.8亿美元,and GlaxoSmithKline announced a staggering 3 billion agreement with the department.葛兰素史克宣布他们们与司法部之间达成了一个金额高达30亿美元的协议。The department says that Jamp;Js questionable antics took place between 1999 and 2004.司法部表示,强生的不轨行为发生在1999年至2004年间,It alleges that the company used rebates, grants and other kickbacks to encourage Omnicare, a pharmacy for nursing homes, to recommend its drugs to patients.他们称,强生使用返利、补贴等回扣方式鼓励一家专供养老院的药店“Omnicare”向患者推荐他们的药品。Prosecutors say that Jamp;J continued to push sales of a drug even after warnings that it had not been properly studied in old people.检查官说,在被告知尚不明确这些药物是否适用老年人的情况下,强生依然我行我素,继续推销他们的药品。On April 11th the governments lawyers asked a judge to compel Mr Gorsky, who oversaw the implicated business at the time, to testify.4月11日,政府律师要求法官迫使当时负责相关业务的高斯基先生出庭作。If the judge agrees, Jamp;J may find a settlement attractive.如果法官同意,强生可能会更希望庭外和解。Such a deal would not be the last.这样的交易不会是最后一笔,Settlements show no sign of abating, for two main reasons.问题的解决并不表明这种情况有所减少,这有两个主要原因,First, whatever the merits of the case against Jamp;J, it is not clear that companies are changing their ways.第一,不管这起针对强生的案件价值几何,我们都弄不清楚这些公司是否已改邪归正。The benefits of aggressive marketing often outweigh the cost of settlements.积极的营销带来的利益常常超过解决争端的成本,Aaron Kesselheim of Harvard University tracked sales of Neurontin, a drug approved for epilepsy but prescribed for much more.哈佛大学的阿伦?凯泽尔海姆对批准为治疗癫痫、实际上用途更广的处方药“镇顽癫”进行了跟踪后发现,By 2004, when Pfizer paid 430m in penalties, annual sales had reached 2.7 billion.到2004年,辉瑞付的罚款为4.3亿美元,而这种药每年销售已达27亿美元。Second, there is ample appetite to sue.第二,上诉者往往会狮子大开口且乐此不彼,Barack Obamas health-care law included new measures to fight fraud.奥巴马的保健法为打击欺诈增添了新的内容。For every 1 spent in such cases, the Justice Department boasts it gets 7 in return.在类似案例中,每出一美元,司法部就会得到7美元的回报。Whistleblowers keep coming forward:报料揭丑者前赴后继:last year they tooted in record numbers.去年,他们战果空前。And states are getting fiercer:各州也愈加猛烈,a judge in Arkansas recently ordered Jamp;J to pay 1.1 billion for violating the states version of the False Claims Act.最近,因违反州颁发的《虚假申报法案》,阿肯色州的一位法官要求强生付11亿美元。Drug executives may find one penalty especially scary.不过有一项处罚条款会让制药公司的老总们吓出一身冷汗。In March Eric Holder, the attorney-general, said the Justice Department would go after people as well as companies.三月份艾立克·胡尔德总检查长表示,司法部将在处理此类案件时,不仅对公司,也会对当事人追查到底。For example, they might be banned from business with any government health-care programme.例如,他们可能被禁与政府“公共健康计划”有关的所有业务。In a country where spending on health is nearly 18% of the economy, that could finish some amply remunerated careers.在一个健康出占经济收入18%的国家,这可能会终结一些具有可观报酬的职业。 /201308/251231

This trail leads to the cave and the freshly dead bison, just out of reach.这条路通向凹陷的洞穴,洞穴里的是刚死不久的北美野牛,短面熊够不到尸体。Hunger makes the bear risk everything. He falls and joins the bison in its tomb. Now he can eat his fill. but after that theres no way out.饥饿使短面熊可以不惜一切。它掉了下去,进入了这个北美野牛的“坟墓”当中。现在它可以饱食一顿了,可过后,它却没有办法爬出洞穴。ln time hell be just one more ice age specimen. 不久后,它就会变成另一个冰河时代的“标本”。Outside, another group of predators head for their cave at dusk, pack hunters even more effective than the lion or the wolf.在洞穴外,另一群捕猎者们在黄昏下朝着他们的洞穴行进着,这群猎人们在捕猎上甚至比狮子和狼更有效率。Still relatively new here, theyll eventually transform the ice age plains, and build their own future by exploiting the herds of the American Serengeti. Even the giants that now dominate this ice age world will soon be gone. But theyll leave clues behind, and one day distant generations will pick up their trail and tell their story. 虽然和动物们相比,他们还算是初来乍到,但是他们将最终改变冰河时代的北美大平原。通过在北美大平原上发展畜牧业,他们创建着自己的未来。即使是现在正在配这个冰河时代世界的猛犸象也将会消失。但是他们会留下痕迹,未来的某一天,会有人类找出这些痕迹并讲述他们的故事。Next week on Wild New World, we discover why mammoths didnt make it through to modern times.在下周的B野性新世界,我们将探索为何猛犸象没能存活至今。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属.201307/246089The obvious risk of this happening to crowded passenger planes in British airspace was enough for the UKs Civil Aviation Authority to enforce a total ban on flights-a move which was mirrored by other northern European countries.发生在英国领空拥挤乘客的飞机中最为明显的风险足以让英国民航执行全面禁飞,其他北欧国家可以借鉴此举。The dangers of flying through volcanic ash were demonstrated in 1982 when a British Airways flight from Malaysia to Australia lost power in all four engines after flying into a cloud of dust spewed out by an eruption of Mount Galunggung in Indonesia.飞过火山灰的危险之旅出现在1982年从马来西亚飞往澳大利亚的一架英国航空公司航班在飞入一片印度尼西亚加隆贡火山喷发出的火山灰云层后所有四个引擎失去动力。After 15 minutes of gliding in a controlled descent from 37,000 feet to 12,000 feet, the pilot, Captain John Moody, managed to restart the engines once enough of the molten ash in the engines solidified and broke off.15分钟后滑翔从37000英尺控制降至12000英尺,飞行员,队长约翰?穆迪曾经试图启动引擎,但融化的火山灰在其中已经凝固并且造成机器停止运转。The plane went on to land safely in Perth.飞机最终安全降落了在珀斯。Speaking to the B last week, Captain Moody demonstrated the typically phlegmatic attitude of his profession.上周对于B发表讲话时,队长穆迪展示了他职业般冷漠示人的态度。;It was, yeah, a little bit frightening,; he said.“是,是的,是有一点害怕,”他说道。201309/258384

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