时间:2019年06月26日 08:52:10

隧道与广播How come we can hear FM longer in a tunnel than AM?为什么在隧道中调频广播比调幅广播的信号要好一点?Its because FM stations transmit at higher frequencies. They generally go from eighty-eight to one-hundred-and-eight megahertz. Thats over a hundred million cycles per second.这是因为调频广播台的传播频率要频繁些。通常在88到108兆赫。即每秒转1亿圈。As a result, a single radio wave from an FM station is only a few meters long, about the size of a car. An AM station is putting out radio waves that are hundreds of times as long!因此,调频广播电台发出的一个电波的长度只有几米,大概是一辆车的大小。而调幅广播站发出的电波长达几百米。Long wavelengths tend to be absorbed or blocked as they try to enter the smaller tunnel. The higher-energy and shorter-wavelength waves from an FM station arent absorbed or blocked as much. Instead, they tend to bounce around and get reflected off of surfaces, much like the inside of a tunnel.在穿越隧道时,长的波长会被吞并阻碍。而来自调频广播高能量,波长又短的电波则不会被吞并或阻碍。相反的,它们会被隧道表面反射回来。Of course, they only bounce so far. If the tunnel is long enough, even FM stations fade out until you come out the other end.当然,它们只会在某个区域内反弹。如果隧道太长的话,即使是调频广播也会逐渐变弱直到驶出隧道。 /201211/208746

Business商业Fine-wine fraud伪造的美酒Chateau Lafake法国酒庄拉法克红酒The fine-wine boom is attracting forgers美酒追捧热潮催生造假者WINE buffs are like art collectors. Few can tell the difference between a well-made fake and the real thing.葡萄酒爱好者与艺术品收藏者相同,他们中很少人能分清真品与制作精良的赝品有什么区别。Yet whereas counterfeit art has been around for centuries, wine forgery is relatively new.但艺术品伪造已经有几百年历史了,酒类伪造却还只是近几十年的事。It started in the late 1970s when the prices of the best wines—especially those from Bordeaux—shot up.20世纪70年代末期,由于精品美酒尤其来自法国波尔多的葡萄酒价格飙升,名酒伪造应运而生。Today, with demand from China fuelling a remarkable boom, counterfeiting is rife.现在,中国对尊贵名酒的需求推动了名酒市场的繁荣,假冒伪劣酒也开始盛行。By some estimates 5% of fine wines sold at auction or on the secondary market are not what they claim to be on the label.据估计,拍卖会或二级市场出售的美酒有5%货不对板。The simplest technique is to slap the label of a 1982 Chateau Lafite (one of the most prized recent vintages) onto a bottle of 1975 Lafite (a less divine year).伪造名酒最简单的方法是将1982年产法国酒庄拉法克红酒(最近年份最珍贵的葡萄酒之一)的标签贴到1975年(不太吉利年份)产的(Lafite)红酒空瓶上。Another trick is to bribe the sommelier of a fancy restaurant to pass on empty bottles that once held expensive wine, along with the corks. These can be refilled with cheaper wine, recorked and resealed.另一个伎俩是贿赂高级餐厅的调酒师,将盛装过昂贵名酒的空瓶和瓶塞一起拿到手,然后将空瓶重新灌装廉价酒,重新装塞,重新密封就完成了造假过程。Empty Lafite and Latour bottles are sold on eBay for several hundred euros.在eBay网上,Lafite和Latour红酒的空瓶通常价值几百欧元。The margins are fruity. A great wine may cost hundreds of times more than a merely excellent one.酒类伪造有可观的利润。一瓶尊贵名酒的价格可能比一瓶单纯的优质酒贵上几百倍。Small wonder that oenophiles are growing more vigilant.难怪鉴酒专家们越来越趋于谨慎。Bill Koch, an energy tycoon and avid wine collector, currently has five lawsuits pending against merchants, auctioneers and other collectors.能源巨头比尔.科赫(Bill Koch)热衷于名酒收藏,他近来提起5宗涉及酒类的法律诉讼,分别状告酒商,拍卖师和其余酒类收藏家,案件至今未有裁决。His grape-related gripes began in 2006, when he filed a complaint against a German wine dealer who sold bottles of Lafite he claimed had once belonged to Thomas Jefferson. The case is unresolved.科赫先生对买红酒的抱怨始于2006年,当时他从一名德国酒商手中购买了很多据称是托马斯杰斐逊收藏过的红酒,后来发现有假而投诉了这名德国酒商,案子至今未果。;There is a code of silence in the industry,; says Mr Koch, who owns 43,000 bottles of wine and estimates that he has spent m-5m on fakes.科赫先生说:;业界存在着一套潜规则,即买到假酒也要毫不声张;。他拥有43000瓶上好葡萄酒,但用于购买假酒的钱估计也在4-5百万美元左右。Some collectors are too proud to admit that they have been duped.有些收藏者觉得承认被骗不是件光的事。Others fear sullying a vintages reputation and thereby reducing the value of their own collections.另一些则担心玷污了葡萄酒的声誉会降低自己拥有葡萄酒的收藏价值。So instead of speaking out, ;they dump their fakes into auctions or sell them to other private collectors,; says Mr Koch.因此他们不会将事情张扬,而是;将假酒转手到拍卖会或出售给其它私人收藏者;,科赫先生如是说。Wine merchants and auction houses say they are doing everything they can to filter out the fakes.酒商及拍卖行表示他们正尽一切所能筛选出假货。Simon Berry, the chairman of Berry Brothers amp; Rudd, a British wine merchant, says his firm never buys wines from before 2000 unless they come from its own cellars. (Berry Brothers stores nearly 4m bottles on behalf of its customers.)英国酒商贝瑞兄弟与陆克文(Berry Brothers amp; Rudd)主席西蒙贝里(Simon Berry)称他的公司从来不购买2000年以前的葡萄酒,除非它们真的来自出产的酒窖。(贝里替客户存放了将近4百万瓶葡萄酒)。Christies, an auctioneer, says all the wines it auctions are inspected three times by different people, using detailed checklists for condition and authenticity.拍卖商佳士得(Christies)称,它拍卖的所有名酒都要经过不同人反复检验三次,对他们出具的葡萄酒情况和真实度详单逐一对比验。Fear of fakery has not stopped the boom.对伪造名酒的担忧并没有阻止名酒的市场繁荣。But the wines that win the best prices at auction are those whose provenance is certain.在拍卖会上竞得高价的名酒其来源也是真实可靠的。In May, Christies sold an impériale (six-litre bottle) of 1961 Latour for 6,000 in Hong Kong. It came directly from the cellars of Chateau Latour.五月份,佳士得在香港以21.6万美元拍售了一瓶1961产的impériale葡萄酒(6升装),它直接来自于产地Chateau Latour的酒窖。 /201211/209659

NOW almost five years old, the economic crisis rumbles on. In order to assess how much economic progress it has undone, The Economist has constructed a measure of lost time for hard-hit countries. It shows that Greecersquo;s economic clock has been turned back furthest: it has been rewound by over 12 years. Elsewhere in the euro area, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain have lost seven years or more. Britain, the first country forced to rescue a credit-crunched bank, has lost eight years. America, where the trouble started, has lost ten (see left-hand chart).经济危机与我们的如影相伴已经有5年时间了。为了了解它对经济发展造成的损失有多大,《经济学人》建立了一个衡量标准来显示那些经济危机严重的国家浪费了多少时间。我们可以看到希腊的经济退步最多:倒退了12年。欧洲的其他国家,爱尔兰、意大利、比利时和西班牙倒退了至少7年。英国,这第一个被迫向丧失偿还贷款信誉的伸援手的国家,经济也倒退了8年。美国,这一危机的始作俑者,倒退了10年(可见左边图表)。Our clock uses seven indicators of economic health, which fall into three broad categories. Household wealth and its main components, financial-asset prices and property prices, are in the first group. Measures of annual output and private consumption are in the second category. Real wages and unemployment make up the third. A simple average of how much time has been lost in each of these categories produces our overall measure.我们的这个度量表用到了经济健康发展的7个指标,可以分成三大类。家庭财富和其重要组成部分,金融资产和房产价格作为家庭财富的主要组成部分,算在第一组里。年产出和私人消费的分配时第二类。工资和失业人数是第三类。对三类损失的时间之和进行简单平均,就得出了我们总体的结论。Stockmarkets give some of the starkest results. American equities lost a quarter of their value in the month after the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008. Shares are an important component of householdsrsquo; pension-fund wealth, and in that month alone five years of gains were eradicated. The main indices have improved markedly since then: the Samp;P 500 is back to around 90% of its peak value. But they were at these levels back in the late 1990s, too, so some investors will have made no capital gains in 13 years. Greek stocks were higher in 1992 than today: 20 years have been wiped away.股市更是将一些结果裸地摆在我们面前。美国股票市值在雷曼兄弟2008年9月垮台之后的一个月下降了25%。股票是当时家庭养老基金的重要组成部分,而在那一个月里,近五年的积蓄毁于一旦。从那以后,各大主要指数得到明显提高:标准普尔指数回到了其峰值的90%,但也只是达到了20世纪90年代末的水平,所以一些投资商将在未来13年内将没有资本收益。希腊股票1992年的市值要远比现在高:20年的时间就这么白白被抹去了。Recent performance is actually quite good from a historical perspective: five years on from both Wall Streetrsquo;s 1929 crash and Japanrsquo;s 1989 asset bust, equities were at just 50% of their peak values in real terms. But history also offers a warning: it took 25 years for American stocks to regain their 1929 highs and Japanese stocks have never made it back to their peak.从历史角度看最近的市场表现其实已经算不错了:在1929年华尔街危机和1989年日本的资产泡沫破裂后的5年,股票实值都只能达到峰值的一半。但是历史也发出警告:美国股市花了25年才重返1929年的高点,而日本股市却永远回不去了。House prices have gone backwards, too. The average American homeowner is living in 2001, judging by inflation-adjusted property values. Britain has suffered less dramatic drops in house prices, but has still lost seven years. The costs of this lost time are huge: British householdsrsquo; property wealth, in todayrsquo;s prices, is around pound;500 billion (5 billion) short of its peak; American households have lost a whopping .2 trillion.房价也走下坡路了。扣除通胀因素,一般的美国房主还像是生活在2001年。英国的房价下滑倒没有那么严重,不过也倒退了7年。倒退这几年的代价是惨重的:英国有房居民的房产价值,以现如今的价格来看,比峰值时少了5000亿英镑(7850亿美元);美国则丧失了庞大的92000亿美元。How quickly economies make up lost time will depend on where they have ceded ground. Some indicators may bounce back quickly: share prices are forward-looking measures of expected returns that are constantly being reassessed. Just as they can crash down they can jump back up, boosting wealth.经济恢复的快慢取决于它们在哪里反弹。一些指标可能会迅速反弹:股票价值就是对期望回报率不断地重新评估的前瞻性标尺。它们可以摔倒,也就能爬起来,继续向前。Other indicators are more sluggish. Measures of output tend to crawl, not jump. One such measure, nominal GDP, is a vital metric of governmentsrsquo; debt sustainability. Since debts are set at past values, growth and inflation tend to make the burden of borrowing more manageable; a shrinking economy makes the problem worse. There are 14 countries that have gone back in time, according to the nominal GDP indicator. This group includes eight members of the European Union, all of which have to repay their debts from an eroded tax base. Portugal and Spain have been sucked back to 2008 on this measure; Ireland was richer in 2006.另外一些指数就有些迟滞了。产出的走势是爬行的,而不是跳跃的。名义国民生产总值,这个指数就是对国家债务可持续性的重要度量工具。由于债务是以过去的值作为基准,借贷增加和通货膨胀会使借款的负担更容易得到控制;不过经济的下滑会使问题更严重。根据名义国民生产总值来看,有14个国家经济出现倒退,其中包括欧盟的8个成员国,这些国家需要靠不健全的计税基数来偿还贷款。葡萄牙和西班牙退回到2008年;爱尔兰则稍好于2006年。A different measure of GDP is needed to see how well consumers are doing. Inflation needs to be stripped out since it is higher output, not higher prices, that make people better off. Population growth also needs to be taken into account, since living standards are best measured on a per-person basis. Measured by real GDP per person a third of the 184 countries the IMF collects data for are poorer than they were in 2007. These 61 countries have each lost at least five years.我们需要用GDP的另一种衡量方式来评判消费者的生活水平。因为是高产出,而不是高物价才让百姓生活更好,所以我们应该剔除通货膨胀因素。人口增长也需要放入考虑范围之内,因为生活水平在个人基础上才能得到很好的体现。实际人均国民生产总值显示,世界货币基金组织在184个国家采集的数据中有三分之一都比在2007年的情况要差。这61个国家每个都退后了至少5年。The type and location of the economies still underwater on this measure are striking (see right chart). The EU has done very badly: 22 of its 27 members have lost time. Of the G7 group of large economies, only Germany has not gone backwards. The Caribbean and eastern Europe also have their fair share of submerged countries. Asia has performed much more strongly.以这一标准衡量所显现出经济体们的不同表现和地域差别是惊人的(可见右边图表)。欧盟的表现极其差劲:27个成员国中的22个经济都有倒退现象。经济大国组成的七国集团中,只有德国经济没有退步。加勒比海地区和东欧也在退步国家之列。只有亚洲的表现很优异。Our labour-market indicators provide more estimates of lost time. The OECD, a think-tank, publishes wage data for 25 rich countries. In ten of them real wages were lower in 2010 than previously, with four years lost on average by those that went backwards. Workers in Greece and Hungary had lost six years, with pay below its 2004 level.我们的劳动力市场指标提供了更多表现经济倒退的数据。智囊团;;经济合作与发展组织公布了25个发达国家的工资数据。其中的十个国家2010年的实际工资要比之前低,相当于平均倒退了4年。希腊和匈牙利的工人的工资倒退了6年,低于2004年的水平。Unlike income and GDP, there is no reason why unemployment statistics should improve year on year. But many advanced countries had managed to reduce joblessness to new lows in the years before 2007. The crisis blew all those gains away. In America the unemployment rate stands at 8.3% of the labour force, its 1983 level. In Britain it is at its worst for 17 years. In the euro area job prospects diverge hugely: unemployment is falling in Germany but Greece, Ireland and Portugal have joblessness rates not seen since the early 1990s (see bottom chart).收入和国民生产总值是逐年攀升,而失业率却没有得到改善的理由。虽然许多发达国家设法将失业率降低到2007年之前的新低,但经济危机让这些努力前功尽弃。在美国,失业率占到了劳动力的8.3%,相当于1983年的水平。在英国,则是17年最差劲水平。在欧元区,就业前景差距很大:德国的失业率下降,但在希腊、爱尔兰和葡萄牙,失业率都创下了20世纪90年代以来的新高(可见底部图表)。These measures are the most worrying of all. Growth will reset the economic clock, providing new jobs and the resources to pay down debts. The IMF predicts that in three years Italy will be the only G7 country with real GDP lower than in 2007. Within this group, America, which is aly growing again, is in a better position than Britain, which is not. But periods of unemployment scar workers even after economies have crawled back to health. For some, the time lost to the crisis will never be recovered.这些度量标准是最让人担忧的。发展将会通过提供工作岗位和资源还清债务,来重置经济周期。世界货币基金组织预计三年后,意大利将是七国集团中唯一一个实际国民生产总值低于2007年水平的国家。在这个集团中,经济已经重返发展轨道的美国会比英国更占优势。但是失业的时间即使在经济恢复后仍会给工人们造成损失。对于一些国家来说,经济危机给经济倒退带来的创伤将永远不会抚平。201203/173667

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