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来源:国际专家    发布时间:2019年10月15日 11:05:08    编辑:admin         

Experts say eating a range of fruit and veg is best, as part of a balanced diet, to protect against illness专家说吃各种水果和蔬菜,作为平衡饮食的一部分,是以防生病的最好方法。Research suggests eating at least seven portions of fruit and vegetables a day is more effective at preventing disease than the government#39;s current five-a-day recommendation.研究表明至少每天吃七种水果或蔬菜能比目前官方说的每天吃三份蔬菜及两份水果更有效地预防疾病Is five a day enough?每天吃三份蔬菜及两份水果就足够了吗?The government says yes - but people should eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. The advice is based on World Health Organization guidelines, which are 25 years old.官方回答是足够的,但是人每天应该吃至少五种水果或蔬菜。该建议是基于世界卫生组织二十五年来的标准。Dietitians say eating five a day is enough to get the protective benefits of fruit and veg - although eating more may be additionally beneficial.营养师说,尽管吃的更多可能会更有益,但是三份蔬菜及两份水果已经足够得到水果和蔬菜中的防护效益。What counts as a portion?最重要的部分?For an adult, a minimum of 400g of fruit and veg should be eaten every day, or five portions of 80g.对于一个成年人来说,每天最少吃四百克的水果和蔬菜或者每天吃五份,每份八十克的不同的水果和蔬菜。The amount varies for children, based on activity levels and age, but a rough guide is that one portion should fit in the palm of their hand.儿童的摄入量则多样,基于活动的强度水平和年龄大小而不同,但一个粗略的摄入指南是摄入份额与他们的手掌心大小相同。Fruit and vegetables do not have to be eaten on their own and can be cooked in dishes such as soups, stews or pasta meals.水果和蔬菜不必生吃,你可以做成食物后吃如汤煮,炖饭或下面条。Can#39;t I just munch on five carrots and be done?我就不能只吃五根胡萝卜吗?No. Although carrots count towards your five-a-day, to get the most benefit your five portions should include a variety of fruit and vegetables.不行。尽管胡萝卜算在你的三份蔬菜及两份水果中,但是为了最有益于你的身体,五种水果和蔬菜应该多种多样。This is because different fruits and vegetables contain different combinations of nutrients and vitamins.这是因为不同的水果和蔬菜中含有的营养成分和维生素不同。What#39;s best to eat then?什么是最好的吃的呢?Almost all fruit and vegetables will count. Generally, raw vegetables and fruit will contain the most nutrients because cooking can remove some nutrients. Likewise, fresh fruit and vegetables are thought to be more nutrient dense than preserved ones. But frozen fruit and vegetables are still good, and dried fruit, such as currants, dates, sultanas and figs.几乎所有的水果和蔬菜都是算在内的。一般来说,生的蔬菜和水果将包含大多数营养,因为烹饪可能破坏某些营养元素。同样的,新鲜的水果和蔬菜被认为比腌制的更有营养。但是,冷冻水果,蔬菜和干果还是拥有好的营养价值的,如葡萄干,日期,葡萄干,无花果。Those in y-meals and shop-bought pasta sauces, soups and puddings are also included, but advice urges ;only to have them occasionally; or in small amounts as they are often high in salt, sugar and fat.那些已熟食物和商店买了的意大利面酱汁,汤、布丁也包括在内,但我建议主张“只让他们偶尔或少量的吃他们,因为他们往往高盐,糖和脂肪。Do tinned fruit and fruit juice count?水果罐头和果汁算在内吗?Fruit juice Fruit juice counts towards one portion of the recommended five portions per day一部分果汁算在内Yes, says the government (although the latest study did not find this). Juice should be unsweetened, and only counts as one portion a day, as it contains less fibre than whole fruits and vegetables.是的,官方说道(尽管最新研究没有发现这个结论)。果汁不应该加糖,只算一天的一种水果或蔬菜,因为它含有的纤维比整个水果和蔬菜少。Fruit must be tinned in natural juice, or water, with no added sugar or salt, and not in syrup, otherwise it will not be as healthy.罐头水果必须在天然的果汁,或水中,不添加糖或盐,不放在糖浆中,否则将很不健康。Beans and pulses also count, but again only as one portion as they contain fewer nutrients than other fruits and vegetables.豆类也算,但是只算一种,因为它们含有的营养成分比其他水果和蔬菜少。Smoothies may count towards more than one portion if they contain all the edible pulped fruit or veg, and depending on their ingredients.果汁可以算作一个以上的种类,如果它们根据其成分,包含的所有食用果肉的水果或蔬菜。What about potatoes?土豆呢?potato dish Potatoes do not count towards one of the five-a-day, but sweet potatoes do土豆不计入三份蔬菜及两份水果中,但甜土豆算。Potatoes are not one of the five-a-day items. This is because they mainly contribute starch to a healthy diet, which is a good source of energy and helps digestion.土豆不在三分蔬菜及两份水果的项目中。这是因为它们产生的主要是淀粉——一种健康饮食,这是一个很好的有助于消化的能量。They are classified in the same group as b or pasta by the government.他们被官方的分在面包或面食的一个集体中。Skins should be left on when cooking as they are a good source of fibre.表皮在烹饪时应被留下,他们是一个很好的纤维来源。But sweet potatoes, parsnips, swedes and turnips do count as five-a-day foods, as they are usually eaten as well as the starchy bit of the meal.但是,甜土豆,萝卜,瑞典甘蓝和芜菁作物算是三份蔬菜及两份水果中包含的食品,因为它们通常作为餐位食用淀粉。How about superfoods?食品怎么样?While its tempting to believe that eating a single fruit or vegetable containing a certain nutrient, vitamin or antioxidant will be the answer to our health needs, this is not borne out by science. It#39;s best not to concentrate on any one food in the hope that it will work miracles.虽然它很值得相信的是吃一种水果或蔬菜中含有一定的营养物质,维生素和抗氧化剂可以解决我们健康的需求,但这并没有科学明。最好不要期望任何一种食物会创造奇迹。Instead, dietitians say we should aim for a well-balanced and varied diet that includes plenty of fruit and vegetables.相反,营养师说,我们的目标应该是一个均衡和多样化的饮食包括大量的水果和蔬菜。What about other countries?其他国家呢?Many countries - including Germany, the Netherlands and New Zealand - recommend five portions a day.许多国家,包括德国,荷兰和新西兰推荐一天吃五种水果及蔬菜。Some others - including Canada and Japan - recommend seven or more.一些人——包括加拿大和日本,推荐吃七种或更多。France goes as far as recommending 10 portions of fruit and vegetables a day.法国人推荐每天吃十种水果和蔬菜。In Australia, they say the emphasis should be on eating more vegetables than fruit and recommend five portions of vegetables and two of fruit per day.在澳大利亚人们说重点应该在于吃蔬菜和水果,以及每天吃五种水果和蔬菜。 /201411/342585。

Sara Frisk never thought about traveling to Mexico City until a stranger named Pilar Mu#241;oz invited her. Ms. Mu#241;oz, a publicist for designers, lives in a 4,300-square-foot penthouse apartment with glass walls and luscious green views. The home has richly grained wood floors, trim modern sofas and a kitchen island you could sacrifice an ox on.萨拉·弗里斯克(Sara Frisk)从没想过去墨西哥城,直到一个叫皮拉尔·穆尼奥斯(Pilar Mu#241;oz)的陌生人邀请了她。穆尼奥斯是一名为设计师务的公关人员,居住在一套4300平方英尺(约合399平方米)的顶层公寓中。这套公寓里有玻璃墙,坐拥令人舒心的绿色景观,铺设着纹理丰富的木地板,配备了精致现代的沙发,还有一个厨房岛台,你甚至可以在上面献祭一头公牛。“If I was going to Mexico, I wanted to be on the water, but that house is completely amazing,” said Ms. Frisk, a graphic designer and design consultant in the West Town neighborhood of Chicago.“我要是去墨西哥的话,就想去水上玩,但是那套房子太惊艳了。”弗里斯克说。她是一名平面设计师兼设计顾问,住在芝加哥的西镇(West Town)社区。She had lost her heart on Behomm, an 18-month-old home-exchange website that has the comeliness of a shelter magazine, with one big difference: Viewers don’t just drool over beautiful properties; they stay in them.她已经迷上了住宅交换网站——Behomm。该网站已有18个月的历史,和家居杂志一样充斥着精美的图片,但又与杂志有一个重大区别:访客不只是对着美宅流口水;他们还可以入住其中。Ms. Frisk had planned to travel over Thanksgiving and couldn’t make the timing work for the Mexico City dream loft (she ended up in the Berlin abode of two architects). Now she’s trying to arrange to stay there with a group of friends.弗里斯克本打算在感恩节出门旅行,但是匀不出时间去墨西哥城的梦幻之屋了 (结果她入住了两位建筑师在柏林的住所)。现在,她正试图组织一帮朋友跟她一起住到那去。“It feels a lot more spontaneous planning a vacation around the home than doing all the research about where you want to go,” she said.“我觉得,以住处为中心来计划旅行,比漫无目的地研究自己想去哪儿要自然多了。”她说。Like other home-swapping sites, Behomm (pronounced “be HOME”) allows its members to trade properties, simultaneously or at different times. No money changes hands, as with Airbnb. The conditions for bartering are worked out in advance, and the reciprocal arrangement helps visits run smoothly.和其他住宅交换网站一样,Behomm(发音为“be HOME”,寓意宾至如归)允许会员交换房屋,无论是同时还是错时。在此过程中没有金钱易手,就和Airbnb的模式一样。以物易物的条件已经预先制定,而互惠互利的安排有助于创造良好的入住体验。Arriving at their destination, guests may find wine chilling in the refrigerator, a car at their disposal and a pet waiting to be fed. The principle is mutually assured protection: Do unto another’s Bamp;B Italia sofa as you would have someone do unto yours.到达目的地以后,客人可能会发现酒水已经放入冰箱冰镇,有一辆汽车可供使用,有一只宠物嗷嗷待哺。交换住宅的原则是基于共识的保护:你要爱护别人家的B&B Italia(意大利家具品牌——译注)沙发,正如你希望别人爱护你家中的物品一样。What makes Behomm different (and a likely harbinger of home-exchange sites to come) is its peer-to-peer network. All its members are visual artists, designers or allied professionals. To join, they must work in one of 98 creative disciplines listed on the application, from animator to window dresser.Behomm的与众不同之处在于它的同类人圈子(这或许代表着住宅交换网站未来的发展趋势)。所有会员都是视觉艺术工作者、设计师或同类的专业人士。要想加入会员,申请者的职业必须在网站列出的98个创新门类之内,包括动画师、橱窗设计师等等。And they must have a great-looking place. The landing page at behomm#173;.com features, among other beauties, a fashion designer’s Danish beach cottage, a photographer’s 1920s Milanese flat and an architect couple’s rustic (but not really) house in the Iron Horse neighborhood of Tucson.而且,申请者必须拥有一个漂亮的住处。在behomm.com的登录页面上,该网站主打的特色美宅包括:一位时装设计师在丹麦海边的小木屋、一位摄影师在米兰的上世纪20年代公寓,以及一对建筑师夫妇在图森(Tucson)铁马(Iron Horse)社区的原木(并非真木)住宅。Given the expertise of Behomm’s members, such stylishness is almost a foregone conclusion. Or so the founders believe.鉴于Behomm会员所具备的专业素养,他们能提供如此有品味的住宅,几乎也是必然的结果。或者说,网站的创始人就是这么认为的。 #173;#8226;·Behomm was created by Eva Calduch and Agust Juste, both 48-year-old graphic designers in Barcelona, Spain. The couple, longtime home exchangers, had become tired of slogging through the tens of thousands of entries on popular sites like HomeExchange#173;.com.Behomm的创始人是伊娃·卡尔杜奇(Eva Calduch)和奥古斯特·胡斯特(Agust Juste)都是西班牙巴塞罗那的平面设计师,现年48岁。这对夫妻长期以来经常与人交换住房,他们厌倦了在HomeExchange.com这类大众网站上,从成千上万的房源里大海捞针。“We were wasting hours and hours,” Ms. Calduch said. Then one day they found an architect’s stunning apartment overlooking a seaport on the Balearic island of Minorca and realized that they ought to concentrate on the residences of their peers.“我们浪费了大把的时间,”卡尔杜奇说。后来有一天,他们从一位建筑师那里发现了一套令人惊艳的公寓,从屋里就可俯瞰巴利阿里群岛(Balearic island)的米诺卡岛(Minorca)上的一个海港。由此,他们意识到,以后应该专门从同行那里寻找住处。They began swapping with landscape architects, photographers and interior designers, and a network started, one that became the foundation of Behomm.他们开始与景观设计师、摄影师和室内设计师交换房屋,一个网络渐渐成型,为Behomm打下了基础。The first 300 people to join were offered free lifetime memberships (like many home-exchange sites, Behomm charges annual dues). Even now, new members have a year’s free trial before they pay a fee of 95 euros (about 3).前300名加入会员的人,都被免费授予了终身会员资格(和许多住宅交换网站一样,Behomm也收取年费)。即使是现在,新会员也有为期一年的免费试用期,试用期满后便需付95欧元(约合113美元,人民币702元)的费用了。The site has some 1,200 members, with Spain and the ed States supplying the most — about 200 each. The locations are as far-flung as Bali and Florianópolis, Brazil. Even Japan has four subscribers. (A remarkable number, Ms. Calduch said, considering that a Japanese colleague told her, “We don’t even invite friends over.”)Behomm网站大约有1200名会员,其中以西班牙和美国的会员为主——两国人数均为200人左右。用户的分布远至巴厘岛和巴西的弗洛里亚诺波利斯(Florianópolis)。就连日本也有四位用户(卡尔杜奇说,这个数字很可观,毕竟,一位日本同事曾经告诉她,“我们甚至连朋友都不邀请过来住的。”)。Around 10 to 20 percent of applications are rejected, often because the homes are shown to be messy or dirty. As for the rest, choices are based on “subjective aesthetics,” in Ms. Calduch’s words. Those decisions have nothing to do with size or luxury, she added: “A tiny place with very little can be nicer or more tasteful than a castle.”大约有10%到20%的申请会遭到拒绝,这往往是因为申请者展示的住宅显得脏乱。至于其他原因,用卡尔杜奇的话说,取舍标准是基于“主观美学”,与房子的大小或豪华程度无关。卡尔杜奇还说:“朴实的弹丸之地也可能比一座城堡更好、更有品味。”Nathalie Golliet, a designer in Paris who organizes culinary events, was one of the first to join. “I remember well, because I have the number 26,” she said.巴黎设计师娜塔莉·戈列(Nathalie Golliet)经常筹办美食活动,她是第一批加入的会员。 “我记得很清楚,因为我的编号是26号。”她说。She has made four swaps since becoming a member, including one in Marrakesh, Morocco, with Fran#231;oise Lefebvre, who shares her interest in food.自从成为会员后,她交换过四次房子,其中有一次换到了位于洛哥马拉喀什(Marrakesh)的房子,业主是弗朗索瓦·列斐伏尔(Fran#231;oise Lefebvre),她和戈列一样对美食感兴趣。Each woman was impressed with the other’s well-equipped kitchen. Ms. Golliet even learned how to prepare Moroccan dishes from a cook Ms. Lefebvre sent over while Ms. Golliet was staying at her house.两个人都对彼此设备齐全的厨房印象颇深。戈列甚至从列斐伏尔派来照顾她起居的厨师那里,学会了如何烹制洛哥菜。#8226;#173;·Behomm is not the only home-exchange network to streamline its membership. A site called Seniors Home Exchange is limited to people older than 50. The rationale is that this age group isn’t hampered by school-age children with disruptive vacation schedules. What’s more, the site insists, “Our experience has been that mature people tend to take better care of things when they are not theirs.”Behomm并不是唯一一个给会员设立门槛的住宅交换网站。一个名为“老人住宅交换”(Seniors Home Exchange)的网站将会员年龄限定在50岁以上。理由是,这个年龄段的人不会被学龄儿童混乱的假期安排所困扰。更重要的是,该网站坚持认为,“依照我们的经验,成熟人士更懂得爱护别人的东西。”Trust is fundamental to home exchange, and it is easier to come by in small communities with common interests.在住宅交换的问题上,信任是至关重要的。志同道合的小群体更容易达成信任。Arun Sundararajan, a professor at the Stern School of Business at N.Y.U., who researches the digital sharing economy, said social media platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn, and tools that verify one’s real-life identity, now allow us to vouch for a person’s credibility and good intentions.阿伦·孙达拉拉詹(Arun Sundararajan)是纽约大学斯特恩商学院(Stern School of Business)的教授,研究数字共享经济。他说,如今,Facebook和领英(LinkedIn)这类社交媒体平台,以及一些验个人真实身份的工具,都能够让我们为一个人的信誉和善意担保。Trust can be cultivated even in high-stakes situations like “letting a stranger into your bedroom,” he said, or in the case of long-distance ride-sharing programs like carpooling#173;.com, “letting a stranger drive you to a strange city.” This makes the time ripe for a peer-to-peer home-swapping venture that draws new people in.孙达拉拉詹说,信任是可以培养的,即使在高风险的情况下,比如“让陌生人进入你的卧室”,或是像carpooling.com这类长途搭车项目,“让一个陌生人开车送你去一个陌生的城市”。这就促使了创建同类人群住宅交换项目的时机成熟,吸引着新人的加入。For their part, Behomm’s members spoke of the comfort they found in their intimate network, the novelty of stepping into one another’s shoes and the value of acquaintances that bloom into friendships or business opportunities.就Behomm的会员而言,他们谈及自己在这个亲密的小圈子里体会到的舒自在;还有住在他人家中体会到的新奇感;以及从与人结交中发展出来的友谊或业务机遇。“It goes way beyond sharing a home — you share your lives,” said Alex Trochut, a graphic designer and illustrator who lives in New York and Barcelona. Mr. Trochut described the Behomm experience as the “very opposite of Airbnbn, because you feel entitled to things when you pay for them. This is about giving and not receiving.”“这远非共享住宅那么简单——你还分享了自己的生活经历,”亚历克斯·特罗许(Alex Trochut)说。特罗许是一名平面设计师、插画师,现居纽约和巴塞罗那。他表示,Behomm给人的体验和Airbnb“截然相反,因为如果一样东西是需要付钱的,你就会觉得这是自己应得的。而在Behomm,你所做的就是不计回报地给予。”Can it really be that good? Ms. Calduch said that she has refereed only two small conflicts in the last year and a half. One involved cleaning. “There was a misunderstanding,” she recalled. The other had to do with confusion over which of a member’s multiple homes was being offered.Behomm真的有他说的那么好吗?卡尔杜奇说,在这一年半里,她只调解过两次小矛盾。其中一次事关房屋的清洁问题。“他们之间有些小误会。”她回忆道。另一次的起因是,其中一方搞不清楚对方与他交换的是哪套住宅(对方有多套住宅)。To fend off squabbles, she supplies forms that allow users to specify all the terms for an exchange, including stipulations for purging cat hair and sharing toys. Still, conversations with some Behomm members suggested ample room for dispute.为避免纷争,她提供了表格,让用户列明某次交换的全部条件,包括清理猫毛和分享玩具的具体规定。尽管如此,通过采访一些Behomm会员我们发现,产生分歧的机会还是很多。For instance, Wendy Rommers and her husband, Bas van Schelven, often swap their primary residence near Amsterdam, which is a houseboat.举个例子,温迪·罗默斯(Wendy Rommers)和丈夫巴斯·凡·谢尔万(Bas van Schelven)经常交换他们靠近阿姆斯特丹的主要居住地,那是一座船屋。Ms. Rommers, who is a multidisciplinary designer (Mr. van Schelven owns the company that makes the boats), said that the vessel doesn’t have particular maintenance needs, though she advises keeping the water running on freezing nights. As for safety, there are life jackets, “and things you can throw into the water” that a drowning person might grasp. She made no mention of liability insurance.罗默斯是一位跨领域的设计师(而凡·谢尔万掌管着一家造船公司),她表示,这艘船并没有特别的维护需求,只不过她建议,在严寒的夜里要保持水的流动状态。至于安全问题,屋里备有救生衣,“还有一些可以扔到水里的东西”,以供溺水者抓住。她没有提到责任保险。Indeed, one of the few negative anecdotes came from Mr. Trochut, and he was the cause of havoc. While he and a girlfriend were staying in Copenhagen in 2008, his companion had an asthma attack that put her in the hospital.事实上,在Behomm屈指可数的几件负面轶事中,有一件的当事人就是特罗许,而且,他还是罪魁祸首。2008年,他和一位女朋友在哥本哈根逗留期间,他的同伴因哮喘发作住了院。His hosts were so helpful in advising the couple on medical care that Mr. Trochut decided to repay them by washing the bed linens. Eager to finish before they returned home, he set the washer at the highest speed, which produced vibrations that caused the machine to tumble onto the adjacent bathroom sink, crushing the perfume bottles lined up there.他的房东为两人就医提供了很大帮助,特罗许决定清洗亚麻床单来报答他们。由于急于在房东归来前完成洗涤,他将洗衣机的转速设在了最高档,谁知由于振动太猛,机器翻倒在旁边的浴室盥洗池上,将那里一字排开的香水瓶击碎了。Mr. Trochut discovered the carnage just as his hosts walked in. “We got to an agreement,” he said. “I paid for everything.”特罗许在发现这一惨状时,房东刚好进门。“我们达成一个协议,”他说,“东西都由我赔。” /201502/359164。

How one company is using artificial intelligence to develop a cure for cancer人类能否在两三年内治愈癌症?Could we be just two or three years away from curing cancer? Niven Narain, the president of Berg, a small Boston-based biotech firm, says that may very well be the case.我们是否真的在两三年之后,就能实现治愈癌症的愿景?波士顿小型生物科技公司Berg的总裁尼文·纳雷因表示,可能真是这样。With funding from billionaire real-estate tycoon Carl Berg as well as from Mitch Gray, Narain, a medical doctor by training, and his small army of scientists, technicians, and programmers, have spent the last six years perfecting and testing an artificial intelligence platform that he believes could soon crack the cancer code, in addition to discovering valuable information about a variety of other terrible diseases, including Parkinson#39;s.凭借亿万富翁、房地产业大鳄卡尔·伯格和米奇·格雷提供的资金,纳雷因和他带领的科学家、技术人员和编程人员团队耗时6年,完善并测试了一个人工智能平台,纳雷因认为,这个平台可能很快就会解开癌症的密码,同时为治疗包括帕金森症在内的一系列严重疾病提供有价值的信息。Thanks to partnerships formed with universities, hospitals, and even the U.S. Department of Defense, Berg and its supercomputers have been able to analyze thousands of patient records and tissue samples to find possible new drug targets and biomarkers.凭借着跟多所大学、医院甚至美国国防部建立的合作关系,伯格公司及其超级计算机系统已经分析了成千上万的病历和组织样本,以找到有可能全新的药物靶标和生物标志。All this data crunching has led to the development of Berg#39;s first drug, BPM 31510, which is in clinical trials. The drug acts by essentially reprogramming the metabolism of cancer cells, re-teaching them to undergo apoptosis, or cell death. In doing so, the cancer cells die off naturally, without the need for harmful and expensive chemotherapy.经过庞大的数据计算,伯格公司开发出第一款新药--BPM 31510,目前该药已经进入临床测试阶段。它可以重组癌细胞的新陈代谢,重新教会癌细胞如何死亡。在这个过程中,癌细胞就会自然死亡,使患者不必经历对身体伤害极大又十分昂贵的化疗过程。So far, Berg has concentrated most of its resources on prostate cancer, given the large amount of data available on the disease. But thanks to recently announced partnerships, the firm is now building a new modeltargeting pancreatic cancer, which is one of the deadliest forms of cancers with a survivorship rate of only 7%.到目前为止,伯格公司的主要资源都集中在前列腺癌上,因为目前有大量关于前列腺癌的数据可供研究。不过拜一项最新合作所赐,该公司现在已经开始构建针对胰腺癌的新模型了。胰腺癌也是最凶险的癌症之一,目前的存活率只有7%。Ambitious as that may be, it is really just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to mapping out prostate and pancreatic cancer, Berg hopes to analyze data from a whole host of other diseases, including breast cancer. Additionally, Berg thinks his company#39;s artificial intelligence platform can also revolutionize drug testing by creating individualized patient-specific treatment options, which he believes will ultimately reduce the risk of adverse drug interactions in clinical trials and hospitals by a significant degree.这个目标本身可谓雄心勃勃,但它还只是冰山的一角。除了治疗前列腺癌和胰腺癌之外,伯格公司还希望分析多种其它疾病的数据,包括乳腺癌。另外,伯格公司还认为,它的人工智能平台可以根据病人的特异性制定专门针对个别患者的治疗方案,从而将掀起一场药物测试的革命,并显著降低药物的负面作用在临床实验和医疗实践中的风险。I sat down with Berg and Narain to discuss how the company works and what they hope to accomplish in the next few years. The following interview has been edited for publication.我采访了卡尔·伯格和纳雷因,探讨了该公司的工作机制,以及他们在未来几年内的目标。以下是采访摘要。Fortune: Carl, why did you decide to move from real estate into healthcare and has it panned out like you thought it would?财富:卡尔,你为什么选择从房地产业转向医疗行业?它的进展是否符合你的预期?Carl Berg: I have been in the venture capital business for 40 years but I never once touched biotech because I was concerned about the risk associated with government approval - it#39;s bad enough when you#39;re doing venture capital but adding one more equation, like getting approval from the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] makes it a lot harder. But about eight years ago I said, instead of getting into a whole bunch of small companies, I am in a position now where I can do something really big in a hope that it changes the world. So that#39;s what motivated me, and then I met with Niven, and that#39;s what got it started.卡尔·伯格:我已经在风投界干了40年了,但我从来没有触碰过生物科技领域,因为我担心与政府审批有关的风险。做风投本身就不容易,又要多花一番工夫去获得美国食品药品监督的认,那就会更难。但大概8年前我曾说过,现在我不必再做一堆小公司了,而是有能力做一些影响力足够大甚至有希望改变世界的事。这个目标激励了我,然后我认识了尼文,我们就是这样开始这项事业的。Did Niven convince you to go into biotech or did you find Niven?是尼文说了你进入医疗行业,还是你找到了尼文?CB: I was considering a skin care product investment and I was introduced to Niven at the University of Miami. Niven was the project manager and about a couple months into work on this product, Niven called me and said ;Carl, this skin care product appears to have an effect on cancer.; To which I said ;Sure, whenever you cure somebody, let me know.;卡尔·伯格:当时我正考虑投资一款护肤产品,然后我在迈阿密大学经人介绍认识了尼文。尼文当时是那个项目的经理,那个项目开始大约一两个月后,尼文给我打电话说:;卡尔,这款护肤产品似乎对治疗癌症有效。;我说:;好吧,如果你治好了谁,记得让我知道。;You didn#39;t sound very convinced.你听起来好像不太相信。CB: Everybody knows that every cancer is different, so how could this one thing work? That didn#39;t make any sense to me. And Niven said, ;Can I fly out to California and show you my results?; And he came out, and we talked, and I got convinced that the technology he was using and the approach he was taking, could revolutionize the pharmaceutical market.卡尔·伯格:人人都知道,每种癌症都是不一样的,那么这个东西怎么会有效呢?在我看来根本就说不通。这时尼文说:;我能飞到加州向你展示一下我的成果吗?;然后他就来了,经过一番交流,我相信他使用的技术和方法真的有可能在医药市场掀起一场革命。Niven, what did you say to convince Carl Berg that your work on skin cream could possibly lead to a cure for cancer?尼文,你是怎样让卡尔·伯格相信,你那款护肤产品上有可能治愈癌症?Niven Narain: When I met with Carl we were aligned philosophically that there has to be a better way to create a more efficient healthcare system - one that really matches the right patients to the right drugs in a very precise manner. So Carl supported taking this concept to the next level. Instead of treating humans with chemicals, that are screened to become drugs, we actually started with human tissue samples and work to understand the biology and develop drugs based on that. Using AI [artificial intelligence] instead of hypotheses.尼文·纳雷因:当我见到卡尔时,我们原则上同意,肯定有办法建立一个更高效的医疗系统,它能够以非常精确的方式,将病人与正确的药物进行匹配。卡尔持我们将这个理念引向深入。我们不是利用筛选过的化学制品治疗病人,而是从人体的细胞样本入手去了解人体生物学,然后据此研发药物的。我们使用的是人工智能,而不是各种假设。 How exactly does artificial intelligence come into play here?人工智能究竟在这个过程中起了什么样的作用?NN: When you start with a hypothesis, you are dismissing a lot of other areas that might actually have an impact on whatever you are trying to figure out. How many times do we see drugs get to late stage trials and fail because the early science either wasn#39;t robust enough or focused on the wrong target?尼文·纳雷因:如果你从一个假设入手,你就排除了很多其他可能产生真正效果的领域。有多少次药物在晚期测试的失败,是因为它的早期科研不够扎实,或是选择了错误的靶标?At Berg, we use AI to create over 14 trillion data points on only one tissue sample. It is actually humanly impossible to go through all this data and use the traditional hypothesis inference model to glean any value out of all of it. So early on when we built what we call an interrogative biology platform using AI to go through all that data. AI is actually able to take all the information from the patient#39;s biology, clinical samples, and demographics and really categorize which ones are similar and which ones are different and then stratify those in a way that helps us understand the difference between the healthy and diseased.在伯格公司,我们只针对一个组织样本就建立了超过14万亿个数据点。无论是使用人力,还是使用传统的推理假设模型,要想从所有这些数据中摘取有价值的信息,都是不可能的。所以当我们构建我们所称的疑问型生物平台时,我们使用了人工智能来分析所有数据。人工智能可以从病人的生物数据、临床样本和人口统计资料中摘取所有的信息,并且可以根据类似性和差异性进行分类和分层,从而帮助我们了解健康细胞和病变细胞之间的差异。Fourteen trillion data points sounds like information overload.14万亿个数据点听起来有点超负荷的感觉。NN: So there are two components: the upfront biological and there is something called omics. We go much deeper than just analyzing the genome, we look at all the genes in that tissue sample, all the proteins, metabolites, lipids, patients records, demographics, age, sex, gender, etc. We combine the 30,000 genes in the body with about 60,000 proteins and a few hundred lipids, metabolites. Then we take those components and subject them to high order mathematic algorithm that essentially learns, uses machine learning, to learn the various associations and correlations.尼文·纳雷因:所以它有两个组成部分:首先是生物信息,然后还有所谓的;组学;。我们不仅仅是分析基因组,而是研究一个组织样本的所有基因、蛋白质、代谢分子、脂质、病历记录、人口统计学资料、年龄、性别等等信息。我们把人体的3万个基因与6万种蛋白蛋和几千种脂质、代谢分子的信息综合起来,然后把这些成分用具有机器学习功能的高阶数学算法进行计算,以了解它们的各种关联性和相关性。Omics - it#39;s a fairly new term. It means you#39;re going beyond just the genome. It means all the omics - proteomics, metabolomics, and proteins. So we may be born with 30,000 genes, and those genes were born with certain mutations, but that#39;s not the end of the story. You live in New York City, you are exposed to different things in the environment, your diet is different than someone who lives in Alabama and your sleeping habits are different from some who lives in Utah. We believe all of these things have to be put together to tell the whole story of your omics - the full profile of you.组学是一个相对较新的术语,它意味着你不能仅仅盯着基因组,而是所有的;组;--比如蛋白质组、代谢组等等。虽然可能我们出生就带着3万个基因,而且这些基因可能还有某些天生的突变,但这并不是故事的结尾。你住在纽约市,暴露在环境中的不同物质里,你的饮食与阿拉巴马州的某个人不一样,你的睡眠习惯也与犹他州的某个人不一样。所以我们认为,这些东西应该综合起来,才能完整描绘你的;组学;,即你的整体资料。   But how does all of this get us to a cure for anything? Seems like a bunch of number crunching.但是这些东西怎样让我们治病?看起来只是一堆数据分析而已。NN: I know you cover the airline industry pretty intently, so you are probably familiar with those airline route maps that show all the connections between hubs cities and destinations. So with the interrogative biology platform, the result of all that number crunching looks similar to a 3D version of those maps. But instead of those connections going between cities, they are going between genes and proteins. We then focus in on the big hubs and see what, if anything, is wrong. For example, in a system, if Dallas is in Oklahoma, obviously we know something is wrong, so the AI helps to push Dallas back into North Texas, and analyze what events happened in the biology to make that a normal process again. This is what we focus in on. The elements within the biology, the genes and proteins that made that a healthy process again.尼文·纳雷因:我知道你经常报道航空业,你可能很熟悉航空公司的路线图了,它们展示了各个枢纽城市和目的地之间的联系。在我们的疑问型生物平台上,所有这些数据分析的结果看起来就像3D版的航空路线图。但这些联系并不是城市与城市之间的,而是基因与蛋白质之间。然后我们把重点放在那些大的枢纽上,看看是否出了什么问题。比如如果达拉斯市是在俄克拉荷马州境内,我们都知道肯定有问题,这时人工智能就会把达拉斯推回北德克萨斯州,然后分析生物学中的哪些事件可以让人体重启正常的流程。这就是我们的研究重点,即生物的基本元素,以及能让健康流程重启的基因和蛋白质。Have you had any success using this platform in a real world situation?在真实世界中,你利用该平台取得过成功吗?NN: We are in clinical trials for a drug, BPM 31510, which we developed using the interrogative platform. The results we have seen so far have been very encouraging. The platform predicted that the more metabolic, the better the treatment will work. And that is exactly what we are seeing in patients for certain types of cancer. For example, we tested this on a patient who had bladder cancer. It was a very aggressive cancer, which failed to respond to all other therapies. We then put him on BPM 31510, which targeted the metabolism of the cancer cell, and by week 18, the tumor was completely gone.尼文·纳雷因:我们正在测试一款名叫BPM 31510的药物,它就是我们利用疑问型平台研发的。目前显示的结果非常令人鼓舞。该平台显示,新陈代谢越多,治疗就会越有效。根据我们对患有某些癌症的病人的观察,的确是这样。比如我们在一名患有膀胱癌的病人身上测试了这款药物,膀胱癌是一种非常凶险的癌症,几乎对所有疗法都没有反应。我们在他身上使用了BPM 31510,该药以癌细胞的新陈代谢为靶向,到了第18周,他的肿瘤已经完全消失了。Is this a patented process?这种疗法取得专利了吗?NN: We spent the lion#39;s share of the first six years building the platform, developing it into various areas of focus, getting our early drugs into clinical trials and diversifying the use of the technology. And we have filed over 500 patents around the world that govern this specific elevated biology. So we have patents on the biological process, on the mathematics, the informatics, on each individual candidate biomarker, and drug targets. It is a very robust IP portfolio.尼文·纳雷因:我们把前六年的大部分时间花在构建平台、研究各个重点领域、对早期药物进行临床实验和实现技术使用的多样化上。我们在全球已经注册了500多个专利。所以我们在生物学、数学、信息学上都有专利,对每个个体生物指标和药物靶标也都有专利。总之我们有着非常坚实的知识产权资产。Who are your competitors and where are you versus them in taking this process to the next level?你们的竞争对手是谁?与他们相比,你们在今后的发展中处于何种地位?NN: We get asked that fairly often. There are folks and entities that do pieces of what Berg does. They#39;re leading companies focused on proteins or analytics, but there isn#39;t one company we can identify or know of that has taken the biology, the omics, the clinical capability and put it all into an interrogative platform to really allow for a robust understanding of the biology to discover drugs in a different way. Also, we are allowing the data to generate hypotheses instead of hypotheses generating data, so it#39;s a really different approach. We are fairly unique in that respect - both from a technology, but also from a commercial standpoint.尼文·纳雷因:我们经常会被问到这个问题。也有一些人和机构在做我们正在做的事。他们是一些蛋白质和分析学上的顶尖公司,但我们目前还没有发现哪家公司把有关的生物学、组学研究和临床能力整合到一个疑问型平台上,来对人体产生坚实的理解,并以一种新的方式开发药物。另外,我们是用数据产生假设,而不是用假设产生数据,所以它是一种不同的方法。我们在这方面还是挺独特的--无论是在技术上还是商业上。Carl, for the last few years, you and Mitch Gray have been the only investors in Berg. How come?卡尔,过去几年里,你和米奇·格雷一直是伯格公司的唯一投资人,为什么会这样?CB: I#39;ve learned that if you get too many people in the early stages of these things, especially within something as risky as this was, basically you have failed because people get upset and they get worried when anything goes wrong. Through all the years that I have been doing this I can kind of roll with the punches. If something goes haywire it doesn#39;t upset me that much. I know that#39;s what you#39;re going to expect.卡尔·伯格:如果你在这些东西的早期阶段就让太多人进入,尤其是这个项目又有比较高的风险,那么你基本上肯定会失败,因为只要有什么事情出了差错,人们就会感到沮丧和担心。凭借多年的风投经历,我基本上已经处变不惊了。就算出了大乱子,我也不会那么沮丧。我知道那就是你需要预料到的。Are you y to open things up now?你们现在打算开放融资了吗?CB: We are definitely planning on doing some other things and bringing in other investors, but we thought we ought to get to a certain point before we did that. I think we are now very close to that point.卡尔·伯格:我们当然希望做些其他事情,并且引入新的投资人。但我们希望在此之前先达到某一个点。我认为我们离那个点已经非常近了。 /201506/378782。