旅游  |  攻略  |  美食  |  自驾  |  团购
您的位置: 青海省旅游网 / 规划 / 新闻动态 / 青海要闻


来源:康泰门户    发布时间:2019年11月20日 15:34:25    编辑:admin         

The Southern Song was a Han regime founded by Zhao Gou (known as Emperor Gaozong ),with its capital in Lin’an (present-day Hangzhou, Zhejiang).南宋是北宋灭亡后,由宋皇族在江南建立起来的、以汉族为主体的封建王朝,建都临安(今浙江杭州),开国皇帝为宋高宗赵构。The Southern Song was in a consistent menace of the Jin in the north and tried in vain in recovering its ruling of the northern part of China until it was destroyed by the Yuan Dynasty.南宋王朝自建立以来,一直在金国的威胁之下,直至被元消灭时,也未能恢复宋朝在中国北方的统治。The Southern Song had nine emperors who ruled for 153 years.南宋共历九帝,前后153年。Its territorial boundaries in the north extended from the Huaishui, through Tang(present-day Tanghe in Henan), Deng (east of present-day Deng County in Henan) to Dasanguan (southwest of Baoji, Shaanxi) in the Qinling Mountain, bordering the Jin and in the southeast and southwest line, it remained the same as those of the Northern Song.其疆域北以淮水,经唐(今河南唐河)、邓(今河南邓县东)二州至秦岭大散关(今陕西宝鸡西南)一线与金为界,东南、西南同北宋时期。The 1st year of Jingkang( 1126) saw the conquest of Kaifeng, the Northern Song capital, by the Jin army.北宋靖康元年(1126),金军攻占北宋都城开封。次年二月,废宋徽、钦二帝,北宋灭亡。In 1127, Emperors Huizong and Qinzong were deposed, ending up the Northern Song. In the same year, Zhao Gou, the Prince of Kang and former marshal in Hebei, ascended the throne in Nanjing (south of present-day Shangqiu in Henan) after the withdrawal of the Jin troops. Zhao Gou still called his regime the “Great Song”,which became known as the Southern Song, and chose the title of his reign Jianyan.同年,原任河北兵马大元帅的赵宋皇族康王赵构,在金军退走之后,于南京(今河南商丘南)即位,仍沿用大宋国号,史称南宋,年号建炎,是为宋高宗。Instead of appointing competent people, carrying out reforms and devising effective defensive strategies. Emperor Gaozong did the opposite by blocking his talented Chief Minister Li Gang and changed the dominant military strategy from one of active resistance to passive defense.南宋新立,当务之急是选贤任能,革新军政,制定积极进取的战略计划。然而,宋高宗昏聩无能,任用佞人,排斥贤相李纲,改积极抗战方针为消极防御。Consequently, Li Gang^ policies to develop the state could not be implemented, Zong Ze’s efforts to establish Kaifeng as a fighting base for the Jin troops were wasted and the anti-Jin activities in the Central Plains were discouraged.结果导致李纲建国十策难以完全落实,宗泽经营的开封基地前功尽弃,中原抗金义军的活动遭受打击。The Song fled to Lin,an,abandoning the Huai River valley and the Yangtze River.随后,宋庭采用弃淮守江的战略,放弃两淮,南逃临安。However, the Lin’an garrison mutinied and the Jin troops took advantage of the situation to march south. Emperor Gaozong fled to the East China Sea. The Southern Song was in dire straits.结果造成临安卫军政变,金军亦乘机南下,宋高宗航海走避,南宋险些亡国。As the Jin troops had failed to capture the Song emperor despite their hot pursuit, they started withdrawing to the north. But at Huangtiandang (slt; present-day Nanjing) the withdrawing Jin troops were held up and almost crushed by the Southern Song army led by General Han Shizhong.金军穷追宋高宗不获,由江南北撤,被南宋韩世忠部拦截在黄天荡,北撤金军险遭灭顶之灾。After that, the Jin forces dared not cross the Yangtze River and the Southern Song could stand on its own feet.此后,金军不敢轻易渡江,南宋朝庭得以立足江南。Then the Southern Song took some strategic defence measures which were quite successful.南宋在江南的统治稳固之后,实施了几项相对成功的战略举措。First of all, it strengthened its defensive forces in Sichuan and Shaanxi. Secondly, a complete system of defensive works was built to link the Yangtze River and the eastern bank of the Huai River midstream. Thirdly, it pursued a strategy of attacking the Central Plains with Jingxiang as its base to link up with He-shuo.一是加强川陕防御,阻挡金军入川之举;二是建立以长江中游地区为重点、连结淮东的江淮防御体系,以阻止金军进攻;三是实施以荆襄为基地,联络河朔,乘隙而进,直捣中原的战略方针。It also attached great importance to developing military hardware, reforming the military system and increasing the army,s manpower. As a result,the situation became more favourable.同时,南宋还重视发展军事技术,改革军事制度,加强军队建设,从而使国防力量有所增强,从屡战屡败到胜多败少,战略形势逐渐向有利于南宋方面转化,曾一度出现北进的较好形势。However, the Southern Song pursued a policy of suing for peace and had no plan to recover the Central Plains. Moreover, its policy of appointing civil officials to control and restrain military officers greatly discouraged its generals and hindered the development of military strength.但南宋以妥协求和,偏安自保为基本方针,贯彻以文制武的军事指挥原则,极大地抑制了领兵将帅才能的发挥,妨碍了军事的发展。The measures taken in the 11th year of Shaoxing( 1114) that depriving three great generals of their commanding power, killing the outstanding anti-Jin general Yue Fei, reduceing the number of the soldiers led to its self-destruction.尤其在绍兴十一年均为(1114)采取的解除三大将领兵权、杀害抗金名将岳飞、缩编军队等错误措施,无疑是自毁长城。Consequently, the Southern Song went into decline.After the emergence of the Mongols, the three powers in the north—the Mongols, the Western Xia and the Jin—constantly fought against each other. This should have been the best opportunity for the Southern Song to expand.结果,南宋在偏安中逐步走向衰弱。蒙古兴起之后,蒙古、西夏、金三国在北方激战,此时是南宋向外发展的最佳时机。But, its rulers, having adopted a self-defence strategy, took no action at all.但是,南宋统治者在消极防御的战略方针指导下,对北方三国撕杀作壁上观, 没有任何积极的行动。It was not until the Xi Xia vanished and the Jin, having lost most of its northern territories, turned to attack the Southern Song that it was forced to fight.待西夏灭亡,金北方尽失,战略转移,南攻宋地,南宋才被迫应战。Although the Southern Song troops held the southward marching Jin army at bay, they also suffered heavy losses. When the Mongolian forces entered at the northern bank of the Yellow River, the Southern Song no longer had any strength left to march north.南宋虽能阻止金军南下,但兵力受损,蒙古势力也进入黄河以北,南宋再无力北攻。Worse still, when the Jin was doomed, the Southern Song even made a decision to join with the Mongols to resist the Jin,not knowing that it would soon follow the Jin’s fate.金垂亡之际,南宋尚不知唇亡齿寒,大祸将至,竟作出联蒙灭金的决策,结果寸土未得,实力暴露,最终走向灭亡。In the 2nd year of Deyou (1276),the army of Yuan invaded Ling’an,the Empress Dowager Xie and the Emperor Gong surrendered.南宋德祐二年(1276),元军攻克临安,宋廷谢太后及恭帝投降。Some anti-Yuan ministers such as Wen Tianxiang, Lu Xiufu and Zhang Shijie etc. moved to the south in Fujian and Guangzhou and tried to revive the Southern Song by establishing a mini-Song court.In the first year of Xiangxing( 1278), Wen Tianxiang was captured by the Yuan army at Wulingpo( now north of Haifeng, Guang Dong) and was enjailed to Dadu, the capital of the Yuan.部分抗战派大臣南下福建、广东建立南宋行朝,文天祥、陆秀夫、张世杰等共撑危局,南宋祥兴元年(1278)十二月,文天祥在五坡岭(今广东海丰北)兵败被俘,元朝统治者将他囚禁在大都。Wen was no single idea of giving in facing the alternate coercion and intimidate of the Yuan. At last he died a martyr at the capital of Yuan.面对元朝的种种威逼利诱,文天祥始终坚贞不屈,于至元十九年(1282) 十二月就义于元大都。In the 2nd year of Xiangxing( 1279),The fleet of the,Yuan led by Zhang Hongfan assaulted Yashan, the last decisive battle with the remaining Southern Song.祥兴二年(1279)正月,元将张弘范率水军攻打崖山,与行朝进行最后决战。In February, the Southern Song’s troop was defeated and Lu Xiufu jumped into the sea, carrying the last emperor Zhaorui on his back. Soon Zhang Shijie pursued the same end.二月,宋军大败,陆秀夫身背末帝赵肩跳海而亡,之后张世杰堕海殉国。The Southern Song was ruined.南宋至此灭亡。The political system in the Southern Song generally followed its Northern Song counterparts. But the administrative organizations were streamlined and re-struc-tured to accommodate the new practice of autocratic centralization of power.南宋的政治制度基本上是沿袭北宋,但行政机构比北宋精简集中,适应于新形势下的专制主义中央集权。The three secretariats and six boards of the former Northern Song Dynasty were merged in order to reduce the number of official posts and administrative organizations.首先对中央最高行政机构三省六部进行了调整,除户部以事务繁多未减少外,其他五部通过兼领、合并而大量省并。But changes were not so drastic with respect to local governments. Reforms were also introduced into the military system.Early in the Southern Song, the former Northern Song,s Military Council was replaced with various bodies.地方府、州、军、监 级和县级机构,基本沿袭北宋制度。But at the end of the Jianyan reign (1131), the Military Council was restored to its position as the highest military body.建炎末(1131),恢复北宋枢密院管军旧制,枢密院又成为最高军事机构。At the same time, more military and paramilitary organizations were set up in regional areas to maintain order and to resist the Jin forces.南宋建立后,为了加强对地方的统治,先后设置一些军事统御机构,对维护地方治安和抗击金军起到一定的作用。After the Southern Song became more politically stable, the social economy began to develop.南宋在政局稳定之后,社会经济在某些方面比北宋发达。Two-fifths smaller than its predecessor, the Southern Song^ advanced agricultural techniques saw it reap rich harvests.尽管南宋国土比北宋减少2/5,但农业生产发达地区都在南宋境内。Hence the gross productive capacity was at the same level as that of the Northern Song.因此,南宋农业生产的总体水平并不亚于北宋。To meet its militar-y needs, the Southern Song paid great attention to weapon manufacturing, mining, metallurgy, and shipbuilding. As a result, the Southern Song surpassed the Northern Song in technique and scale of these industries.而军器制造、采矿冶炼、造船等手工业生产的技术、规模等方面都超过北宋。The Xiangyang, Hanzhong, Zhejiang and the area to the east part of the Yangtze River were the bases for food supply.南宋立国后,襄阳、汉中、两浙和江东地区渐成为粮食生产基地,农作物的栽培技术比以前也有进步。Meanwhile, more advanced agricultural implements were put to use and the irrigating systems were greatly improved.在农业工具方面出现了人工踏犁、竹龙等先进工具,水利灌溉系统也更为发达。In handicraft industry, sericiculture, baldachin, silk and textile were also bettered.手工业方面,养蚕织锦、丝织业、棉织业有较大发展。Techniques of publishing and painting were highly advanced and widely used which rendered mass production of books. The development of paper-making skills resulted in disparate papers which enhanced the culture development of the Southern Song.雕板印刷与活字印刷业非常发达,印制了大量书籍,造纸业也随之发达,可以造出各种用 途的纸张,促进了南宋时期文化事业的发展。Pottery industry grew quite rapidly, the famous blue and white porcelain wascreated. The most common porcelain was the type known as Celadon near the end of the Song Dynasty, and celadon, bearing with the subtle lines, was made in Longquan County of Zhejiang. The exporting of the pottery wares was increased in the Southern Song Dynasty.瓷器制造业也颇发达,著名的带有碎纹(称“百圾碎”)的青瓷——就是南宋浙江龙泉县烧造的,运销海外的瓷器比过去也增加了。Shipbuilding industry reached its height.南宋造船业十分发达。The trades and business in city were flourishing and the bazaar of vary kinds could be found anywhere in the city with various goods on display.城市工商业繁荣,各种市场遍布城中,出售的商品门类繁多。The paper money—kuaizi was first used in trade.首创在商业中使用纸币会子。Under the encouragement of the government, trades overseas was expanded to the Southeast Asia, Dashi (now Arab), Korea and even countries in the Eastern of Africa.政府鼓励海外贸易,当时与东南亚、大食(今阿拉伯)、朝鲜、乃至东非诸国都有贸易往来。One noticeable cultural development during the Southern Song was the flourishing of moral science, especially the Neo-Confucianism which came to be the official ideology of the day.南宋的文化事业非常发达,出现了理学家朱熹、陆九渊,文学家辛弃疾、陆游等人。其中影响最大的是理学逐步取得了官学地位。南宋时期,思想道德教育有了很大的发展,新儒家学派成为统治阶级倡导的思想信条。Zhu Xi was one of the people who helped develop Neo-Confucianism. While not the only person to write about Confucianism, he was the one who combined others works with his and best organized these beliefs. He selected ,from the ancient writings on Confucianism, the Four Books and also synthesized the writings of previous philosophers who had been active earlier during the Northern Song era.朱熹是新儒家思想的代表人,与其他的人不同,他将自己的观点与别人的观点结合起来,追古溯源,将古书《四书》有关孔子的学说与宋时活跃的哲学思想结合起来。Zhu Xi believed that “reason” in things existed before things themselves and all the changes in things were governed by it.朱熹认为,万事万物中的“理”是先于事物本身而存在的,万事万物的变化皆受制于“理”。As far as men were concerned, “reason” was nothing but men’s nature which was inherently good; all the feudal moral standards originated in it. Blinded by the desire for material gains, man could become evil and commit violations of the feudal moral standards.就人类来说,“理”就是人类的本质,而人类的本质本来就是善良的,国家的一切道德标准皆来自“理”,盲目的物质追求会使人的本质变坏,进而违反社会的道德标准。The purpose of these remarks, as far as Zhu Xi was concerned, was the justification of the feudal moral standards and the necessity for people to observe them.朱熹的目的在于说明封建伦理道德的合理性,从而促进人们自觉地去遵守。An important part of Neo-Confucianism is the attempt to “repossess the Way. ” Pursuiting of the Way through disciplined self-cultivation formed a person’s character.新儒家思想试图重新回到“道”上,强调修身齐家以治国和安定天下。This was important because it encouraged the nobles to live up to the Confucian ideals by being less selfish.这在当时是很重要的,因为它 要求人们遵循儒家思想不要只重一己之私利。While poetry and painting gained importance, some poets began using the vernacular styles in their writings.In the past it had been very unusual to use phrases from everyday life.南宋时期诗歌和绘画也有了重大的发展,诗人在写作中运用多种表现手法,与以前不同的是他们从日常生活中吸取了大量的词语。The well-known form of poem was ci.这一时期,最有名的是词的发展。Both Lu You and Xin Qiji were famous ci poets and both had participated in the anti-Jin struggle. Their works, therefore, reflected their concern for their country and their lofty sentiments and emotions.陆游和辛弃疾都是著名的词人,他们参加过南宋抗金的斗争,因此作品中多半表现出为国家命运担忧的主题。Li Qingzhao was a poetess who enjoyed a special position in Chinese literature.李清照是南宋著名的女词人。General Yue Fei, known for his military exploits, wrote impressive ci.抗金将领岳飞也擅长作词。In its simple form, drama or zaju made its appearance during the Northern Song Dynasty. Humorous and satirical, it consisted of recitations and dialogues; later, it was accompanied by songs and dances.杂剧这种艺术形式出现在北宋,它形式简单、幽默而具有讽刺意味,包括叙述和对话两种形式,后来又加人了说唱和舞蹈形式。The zaju of the Jin was not much different from that of the Southern Song. During the Southern Song Dynasty a most popular kind of2咖 was the “Wenzhou drama”or “southern drama” developed in Wenzhou and other coastal regions of Zhejiang Province.金时的杂剧和南宋时相似,南宋时最流行的杂剧形式是“温州剧”,也叫南剧,起源于浙江温州的其它沿海地区。Through the medium of songs, recitations, and dances, it told complicated stories with a variety of characters.通过说唱、叙事和舞蹈表达具有许多人物的复杂故事。In the Jin as well as in the Song, there were also dramatic ballads known as zhugongdiao orgongdiao . By songs and recitations, they told long stories.在金、宋时期,还有叙事民谣叫做诸宫调或宫调,通过说唱可以讲述很长的故事。In terms of vocal style, zhugongdiao absorbed the characteristics of major melodies, ci , and folk ballads of the Tang and Song dynasties.从旋律上讲,诸宫调吸收了宋词和唐宋时期民谣的主要特点。Both zaju and zhugongdiao had contributed to the development of the Yuan drama.诸宫调和杂剧对元朝时戏曲的发展做出了很大贡献。Hua ben or vernacular tales consisted of two kinds : the long ones and the short ones.话本也叫地方故事,有两种形式:长剧和短剧。The short ones, known as xiao shuo , or short stories, dealt with such topics as loves, ghosts and spirits and heroic adventures.短剧主要表现有关爱情、鬼神和惊险故事。The long ones, known as jiangshi or historical episodes, related historical events that occurred in a certain period. They described wars and the rise and fall of dynasties and portrayed heroes and their military exploits.长剧也叫讲史,主要是叙述一定时期的历史,它讲述战争、王朝的兴衰和军事征。Revealing the seamy side of society, they were literature of realism.它反映社会丑陋的一面,是文学中的现实主义。By the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, vernacular tales had made considerable progress. They advanced further during the Southern Song Dynasty and served as the forerunner of the novels of the Yuan and Ming dynasties.北宋末年,地方剧发展很快,在南宋时期又取得了进一步的发展,是后来元、明小说的前身。Painting reached new heights during this time. There were two main schools of painters. The first created decorative, yet realistic, paintings that show a great attention to details. The second tried to paint inner realities, as they viewed painting to be an intimate personal expression.南宋时的绘画也有了一定的发展,主要有两种绘画风格,一种是表现外在的现实,另一种 是内心的现实,后者认为绘画就是表现亲近的内在感受。While being one of the most technologically and culturally advanced people in the world at the time, the Song were not militarily powerful.尽管宋朝的科技和文化在当时都是领先的,但宋朝的军事却不强大。Part of the reason for this may be that Confucianism held military in very low regard. Confucianism did not recognize the military as being part of the four official classes of occupations.有可能是因为对儒家思想的信奉降低了军事的地位,儒家思想讲究仁政,并不把军事职位 列人统治者管理的职能类别。Therefore, the military positions consisted of the poor, uneducated peasants, mercenaries or allies. Diplomacy was the favored form of dealing with enemies. This pracice was prolonged the period of paying tribute to enemies. In addition being not meant to be militarily strong enough to defeat them, the Southern Song was left susceptible to be attacked from others.所以军事职位主要是由穷人、文化程度较低的农民和唯利是图的人担当,因而外交就成为对付敌人的主要手段,这就使宋代的历史有 很长的一段都是进贡,而不是将敌人彻底打败,这也使宋朝极易受到外敌的入侵。This weakness allowed for two non-Chinese kingdoms to exist to the north of the Song and finally the Southern Song was defea-ted by the later grown minority tribe, the Mongolian in the Yuan Dynasty lished by Kublai Khan.这种软弱使两个非汉族建立的王国得以在其北面存在,而宋本身也被日后成长起来的少数民族部落——蒙古人忽必烈汗建立的元朝所灭。 /201602/426211。

With the holiday season in full swing, Indians are flocking to the online marketplace in droves. But there#39;s one unusual item flying off the virtual shelves: Online retailers say cow dung patties are selling like hot cakes.随着假日季的到来, 印度人开始大量地网上购物。但网上出现了一样非常奇特的商品:牛粪饼。在线零售商说牛粪饼像热烤饼一样畅销。The patties -- cow poop mixed with hay and dried in the sun, made mainly by women in rural areas and used to fuel fires -- have long been available in India#39;s villages. But online retailers including Amazon and eBay are now reaching out to the country#39;s ever-increasing urban population.将牛粪与干草混合后,在阳光下晒干即可制成这种饼,它们大多是由农村妇女制作的,主要用来生火,长期以来在印度农村地区一直有售。但是包括亚马逊(Amazon)和易趣(eBay)在内的在线零售商如今面向的消费群体是印度不断增长的城市人口。Some retailers say they#39;re offering discounts for large orders. Some customers are asking for gift wrapping.一些零售商说他们对大订单都有优惠,有些顾客还会要求礼品包装。;Cow dung cakes have been listed by multiple sellers on our platform since October and we have received several customer orders; since then, said Madhavi Kochar, an Amazon India spokeswoman.亚马逊印度区女发言人麦德哈维·可切儿说:“自10月份以来,许多卖家开始销售牛粪饼,也接到了几个客户订单。”The orders come mostly from cities where it would be difficult to buy dung cakes, she said.她说大部分买家是城里人,因为城里的市面上很难买到牛粪饼。In India, where Hindus have long worshipped cows as sacred, cow dung cakes have been used for centuries for fires, whether for heating, cooking or Hindu rituals. Across rural India, piles of drying cow dung are ubiquitous.在印度,印度教徒长期以来都将牛视为圣物,在长达几个世纪的时间里,不论是取暖、做饭或是举行宗教仪式,都要用到牛粪饼。整个印度农村地区,干牛粪堆随处可见。Radhika Agarwal of ShopClues, a major online retailer in India, said demand for the cow dung cakes spiked during the recent Diwali season, a time when Hindus conduct prayer ceremonies at their homes, factories and offices. On a recent day, ShopClues#39; website showed that the patties had sold out.印度主要电商“店踪”(ShopClues)的拉迪卡·阿加瓦尔说,最近随着排灯节(Diwali)的到来,人们要在家中、工厂、或办公室里举行祈祷仪式,这使得牛粪饼的需求量激增。最近某一天,“店踪”网站显示那天的牛粪饼销售告罄。;Around Diwali, when people do a lot of pujas in their homes and workplaces, there is a lot of demand for cow dung cakes,; said Agarwal, referring to rituals performed during the popular festival.提到这个盛大节日的宗教仪式时,阿加瓦尔说:“排灯节期间,人们要在家中或工作地点做多次礼拜,对牛粪饼的需求量很大。”;Increasingly, in the cold weather, people are keeping themselves warm by lighting fires; using them, she said, adding that people who grew up in rural areas find the peaty smell of dung fires pleasant.“天变冷了,人们也要需要更多的牛粪饼来点火取暖。”她还说道农村长大的人更喜欢闻牛粪燃烧时那种泥煤似的味道。;It reminds them of the old days,; she said.“这让他们回想起以前的时光。”她说。The cakes are sold in packages that contain two to eight pieces weighing 200 grams (7 ounces) each. Prices range from 100 to 400 rupees (.50 to ) per package.牛粪饼以包装形式出售,每包装有两到八个重200克(7盎司)的粪块儿,价钱从100到400卢比(1.50到6美元)不等。Dung cakes are also used as organic manure, and some sellers are marketing them for use in kitchen gardens.牛粪饼还可以当有机化肥使用,有些商家把它作为厨房菜园用品营销。 /201512/418821。

Steps are being taken in Thailand to wean Buddhist monks off unhealthy food after a study suggested that almost half of them are overweight.泰国正在采取各种措施帮佛教僧侣们改掉不健康的饮食习惯,因为已有调查表明,近一半的泰国僧侣超重。Jongjit Angkatavanich, a health and nutrition expert at Bangkok#39;s Chulalongkorn University, says 48% of monks are obese, the Bangkok Post reports. Her warning that ;Obesity in our monks is a ticking time bomb; seems to have given the religious authorities cause for concern, with her figures showing that 42% have high cholesterol levels, 23% suffer from high blood pressure, and over 10% are diabetic. Dr Jongjit didn#39;t say how many monks were involved in a study, but she#39;s helping to roll out a national programme aimed at slimming down Thailand#39;s holy men.据《曼谷邮报》报道,曼谷朱拉隆功大学营养饮食专家宗集德提供的数据显示,泰国48%的僧侣过于肥胖,42%的僧侣体内胆固醇含量偏高,23%患有高血压,还有超过10%的僧侣患有糖尿病。宗集德认为,“僧侣肥胖问题是一颗定时炸弹”。宗教当局似乎也开始注意到这个问题了。宗集德教授并未透露此次研究中所涉及的僧侣人数。她本人正在协助推动一个全国性项目的展开,旨在帮泰国圣僧减肥。The government aly covers medical fees for monks, who play a prominent part in Thailand#39;s social and religious life, and spent more than 300m baht (£6m; .5m) on countering chronic obesity-related problems in 2012 alone, the paper says. Dr Jongjit singles out the sweet drinks and fatty foods that members of the public donate to the monks, and her Faculty of Allied Heath Sciences university is launching a campaign to promote leaner clerical living.该报道称,僧侣在泰国的社会和宗教生活中扮演着举足轻重的角色,政府已经为僧侣们下发了医疗拨款,仅2012年一年,政府在解决僧侣们因肥胖导致的各类慢性病上花费的金钱就超过了3亿铢。宗集德教授会在香客捐赠给僧侣的饮食中进行筛选,剔除含糖饮料和高脂食物。她所任教大学的联合健康科学系也推出了帮助僧侣日常瘦身的系列活动。A monastic college and four temples in Bangkok are pioneering nutritional cooking programmes heavy on fibre, protein and calcium, and encouraging the clerics to take more physical exercise. Dr Jongjit says the monks involved have aly lost an average of one kilogram (2.2lb) in weight over eight weeks, cut their waistlines by 1.4cm (half an inch), and seen drops in cholesterol levels. Some monks complain that they don#39;t know how much weight they#39;re putting on, which is why Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital has launched a special girdle that tightens around the waist as a gentle reminder.曼谷的一所僧侣学院和四座寺庙,都在力推高纤维、高蛋白和高钙质的僧侣营养餐项目,还鼓励僧侣们多运动。宗集德教授表示,参与这些项目的僧侣们在8周时间内平均瘦了1千克,腰围缩小了1.4厘米,体内胆固醇含量也明显下降了。一些僧侣抱怨无法从直观上判断自己到底长了多少肉,为此,朱拉隆功纪念医院推出了一款特制束腰带,可以在僧侣们长胖的时候给他们一点温馨提示。 /201603/432569。

IF YOU GO TO CUBA古巴的食住行Where to Eat餐厅推荐Café Laurent (Calle M No. 257, between 19 and 21, Vedado, Havana, cafelaurent.ueuo.com) is a stylish family-run paladar popular for its penthouse views and Spanish-themed . Expect to pay about 20 American dollars per person for dinner.Café Laurent(哈瓦那维达多区19街与21街之间,M街257号,cafelaurent.ueuo.com)是一家有格调的顶楼餐厅,家庭自营,因其顶楼的风景和西班牙菜而受到好评。晚餐人均大约20美元。Siá Kará Café (Calle Industria No. 502, www.siakaracafe.com) offers reasonably priced Cuban cuisine in the heart of Old Havana. It is also known for live music.Siá Kará Café(Industria街502号,www.siakaracafe.com)位于哈瓦那旧城,提供价格合理的古巴美食。现场音乐演奏也很不错。Nazdarovie (No. 25 Malecón, nazdarovie-havana.com) is a retro-styled Soviet restaurant and bar with live music; overlooks the sea.Nazdarovie(马雷贡25号,nazdarovie-havana.com)是一家复古风格的苏式餐厅及酒吧,有现场音乐演奏,可以看海景。Mamaine (Calle L No. 206, between 15 and 17, Havana) is an artsy, intimate cafe known for a breakfast that includes tortillas and fresh mango juice.Mamaine(哈瓦那15街与17街之间,L街206号)是一家充满艺术气息的私密咖啡馆,早餐很出名,有墨西哥玉米饼和鲜芒果汁。Where to Go值得一去的地方Alejandro Robaina Tobacco Plantation in the Vuelta Abajo region, southwest of the city of Pinar del Río. The farm offers daily tours, but it is best to have your hotel arrange a guide for this all-day trip into a rural area: 53-48-79-74-70.亚历杭德罗·罗瓦伊纳烟草种植园(Alejandro Robaina Tobacco Plantation),位于比那尔德里奥省(Pinar del Río)西南方的大阿瓦奥(Vuelta Abajo)区域。农场每天都开放一日游,但最好让你的酒店为这次乡村之旅安排一位导游:农场电话53-48-79-74-70。Old Partagás Factory and Cigar Shop (Calle Industria No. 520, Havana) is 170 years old and perhaps the island’s best-known factory. Its production recently moved to the El Rey del Mundo Factory nearby but the retail store is still open, and sells a variety of brands made at the factory, from Bolivar to La Gloria Cubana.老帕塔加斯雪茄工厂及雪茄商店(Old Partagás Factory and Cigar Shop)(哈瓦那Industria街520号)拥有170年历史,也许是古巴最著名的雪茄工厂。工厂的生产线最近搬到了附近的世界之王工厂(El Rey del Mundo Factory),但雪茄零售店仍在营业,这里出售由该工厂制造的多个品牌的雪茄,包括玻利瓦尔(Bolivar)和古巴荣耀(La Gloria Cubana)。La Casa del Habano (5ta Avenida y Calle 16, Miramar, Playa, Havana, lacasadelhabano.com) is among the premium cigar stores and lounges in Cuba and several other countries authorized to sell Habanos S.A. brands. The ed States is the only country to which Habanos S.A. does not sell cigars.哈瓦那雪茄之家连锁店(La Casa del Habano,哈瓦那普拉亚区[Playa],Miramar,5ta Avenida与16街交界,lacasadelhabano.com)是古巴最高档的雪茄商店及雪茄吧之一,经古巴烟草公司授权销售其旗下品牌的雪茄,在很多国家设有分店,但唯独不向美国出售雪茄。Where to Stay住宿Hotel Capri (Calle 21 between calle N and O, Vedado, nh-hotels.com/hotel/nh-capri-la-habana), a modern high-rise in the heart of central Havana, offers easy access to popular restaurants, nightclubs and cultural sights, including the famous Hotel Nacional, a block away. Single rooms run about 0.卡普里酒店(维达多区,N街与O街之间,与21街交界处,nh- hotels.com/hotel/nh-capri-la-habana),位于哈瓦那中心地带的现代化高层建筑,附近是深受欢迎的餐厅、夜总会及文化景点,距著名的古巴国际酒店仅一个街区。单人间每晚大约130美元。A Few Top Brands顶级雪茄品牌Some popular Cuban cigars, to each.一些受欢迎的古巴雪茄,每10美元到20美元Partagás Serie D No. 4 A full-bodied robusto with a woody and spicy aroma.帕塔加斯D4号(Partagás Serie D No. 4),浓郁型罗布图雪茄,带有木质及辛辣的香味。H. Upmann Royal Robusto Known for its full coffee bean flavor and oak finish.乌普曼皇家罗布图雪茄(H. Upmann Royal Robusto),以浓郁的咖啡豆香味及橡木的尾调而闻名。Montecristo No. 2 Medium to full with creamy and spicy notes.蒙特2号(Montecristo No. 2),中等-浓郁型雪茄,带有奶油及辛辣香调。Bolivar Royal Corona Richly complex with hints of chocolate and coffee.玻利瓦尔(Bolivar Royal Corona),浓郁型雪茄,混合了巧克力及咖啡香调。Cohiba Siglo III Vanilla, leathery flavored and best paired with sweet desserts.高斯巴世纪三号香草雪茄(Cohiba Siglo III),带有皮革味道,与甜食是最佳搭配。Vegas Robaina Don Alejandro Medium bodied with sweet and woody undertones.维加斯·罗瓦伊纳·唐·亚历杭德罗雪茄(Vegas Robaina Don Alejandro),中等浓郁型,带有甜味及木质基调。 /201601/419670。

How everybody reacts two minutes into solving a Rubik#39;s cube在两分钟内解决魔方的每个人的反应 /201512/416172。